Apples

Daniel Cooley, University of Massachusetts

Heather Faubert, University of Rhode Island

Apple Pest Chronology for Southern New England

Insects

Aphid: Apple aphid, spirea aphid

Aphis pomi, A. spiraecola

Overview

in the spring and early summer, both aphid species infest young trees, water sprouts, and vigorous terminals on apple, pear, and quince. Unlike rosy apple aphids, which spend part of their life cycle on plantain, both green apple aphid and spirea aphid remain on apple year-round.

Aphid nymphs and adults suck sap from apple leaves, favoring rapidly growing terminal and water sprout foliage. Leaf curling indicates aphid presence, but causes little or no damage. Aphids excrete large amounts of honeydew which may collect on fruit and foliage. Black sooty-mold fungus can develop on honeydew, discoloring fruit.

Biology

  • Apple aphid and spirea aphid overwinter as black, shiny eggs on the rough areas (leaf and pruning scars, terminals, and spurs) of the bark of the previous season's growth. Eggs hatch in spring and nymphs (all of which are females, called "stem mothers") mature while feeding on developing foliage.
  • Aphid adults are a uniform yellowish-green to green color with black cornicles at the end of the abdomen.
  • The "stem mothers" feed, mature, and produce another generation of live nymphs, all of which are females. This type of reproduction without mating is called parthenogenesis. Eventually, winged aphids ("alates") appear, and for the duration of the summer, the population consists of both winged and wingless parthenogenetic females that continue to produce live nymphs.
  • In late summer, the winged aphids disperse to different apple trees or other host plants and produce nymphs that develop into true sexual forms. After mating with males, females lay overwintering eggs that hatch the following spring. the cycle then repeats itself.
  • Apple aphids and spirea aphids are similar in appearance, but spirea aphids may remain active on apple trees later into the summer.
  • A different aphid, the apple grain aphid, can become very abundant on buds in early spring, but it causes no damage to apples and soon migrates to grain and grasses for the summer. Apple grain aphids are green with a dark stripe on its back.

Monitoring

  • Aphid monitoring should begin in June by checking at least 10 terminals and water sprouts per tree and 10 trees per block. Treatment threshold is 50% of vegetative terminals infested AND less than 20% of infested terminals with biocontrol agents present OR 10% of fruit with honeydew or aphids.

Management

  • Limit nitrogen fertilization to the level necessary for optimum tree growth.
  • Summer prune to remove water sprouts.
  • Two predators offer excellent potential for biological control and can often be found among aphid colonies. Syrphid fly larvae are small, legless, tan-green mottled maggots and Cecidomyiid fly larvae are small, orange maggots. Both are voracious feeders, capable of consuming dozens of aphids before completing development
  • If finding aphid populations above threshold, consider waiting one week and then check again for biocontrol agents. If treatment threshold is still exceeded, apply an insecticide.

Aphid: Rosy Apple Aphid

Dysaphis plantaginea
Written by: 
Jaime Pinero

Overview

Rosy apple aphid feeding results in stunting of new growth and may cause sooty mold to develop on fruit and leave. As they feed, rosy apple aphids inject a toxin with their saliva that causes the leaf to curl and the fruit to be distorted. Of the aphid species that can be found on apple trees, the rosy apple aphid causes the most severe damage and is the most difficult aphid species to control.

Biology

The aphid overwinters on apple trees as eggs laid on twigs, bud axils, or in bark crevices. The black eggs are 1/2 mm long and football-shaped. The overwintering eggs give rise to only female aphids which give birth to live young. Shortly after silver tip the eggs hatch. The nymphs' color changes from dark green to slightly purplish or dull pink with variable amounts of greyish-white wax bloom. The aphids continue to reproduce on apples until summer, then winged forms are produced which migrate to other hosts such as dock and narrow-leaved plantain to spend the summer. Recent evidence, however, shows that the biology of this pest has changed and populations in orchards may no longer need to go to the alternate host plantain but can breed continuously on apple. In the late fall, winged forms migrate back to apples and lay eggs in bark crevices and on twigs.

A cool, wet spring favors aphid development because it provides conditions unfavorable for parasites and predators of aphids.

Damage

These aphids cause a decrease in tree vigor because of foliage loss and damage to the fruit through dwarfing, misshaping, and staining. The rosy apple aphid injects a toxin with its saliva that causes the leaf to curl and the fruit to be distorted. A single stem mother located on the underside of a leaf near the midrib will cause the leaf to fold almost as tightly as the outer wrappings of a cigar. The presence of only a few stem mothers can cause severe curling of all leaves surrounding an opening flower bud; within such curls, ideal protection is afforded to the rapidly developing aphids.

‘Cortland', 'Ida Red', and 'Golden Delicious' are the varieties most frequently showing fruit injury. Fruit adjacent to rosy apple aphid colonies is stunted, puckered at the calyx end, and ridged like a pumpkin.

Monitoring

Monitoring for rosy apple aphid is possible after egg hatch begins since the eggs of apple grain aphid and apple aphid are identical to rosy apple aphid eggs. Starting at early pink, select 5 to 10 trees per block. Sensitive varieties such as ‘Cortland', 'Ida Red', and 'Golden Delicious' should be selected if present. For 3 minutes, on each tree, count the number of fruit spurs showing curled leaves. The presence of more than one aphid-infested cluster per tree justifies an insecticide treatment to prevent fruit injury. Samples should be taken from the upper parts of the canopy on the inside of the tree where rosy apple aphid colonies are most common.

Management

The green apple aphid, apple-grain aphid, and rosy apple aphid overwinter as eggs on twigs and bark crevices of apple trees. A delayed dormant oil application between green-tip and half-inch green controls newly hatched aphids.

Before leaf curling, an organophosphate insecticide or a 1 to 2 % application of insecticidal soap or summer horticultural oil can provide effective control of these aphids. Thorough coverage is essential. After petal fall, because the curled leaves protect the aphids, then the best control will be achieved with a systemic insecticide. Some insecticide options include Admire Pro and Movento (active ingredient: spirotetramat*, at a rate of 6 to 9 fl. Oz). 

*Spirotetramat is an insecticide derived from tetramic acid, a systemic material, for the control of sucking insects in their juvenile, immature stages, including aphids, scale insects, and whitefly. It produces growth inhibition of younger insects, reduces the ability of insects to reproduce, resulting in mortality. Spirotetramat is harmless to slightly harmful to beneficials such as hoverfly larvae, spiders, predatory bugs, wasp parasites, lady beetles and lacewings.

Aphid: Woolly apple aphid (WAA)

Eriosoma lanigerum

Overview

WAA is a reddish brown aphid covered with a white wax mass produced by specialized dermal glands. This wax mass gives the insect its characteristic woolly appearance. WAA have a complex life cycle that can involve overwintering either on apple or elm. Once on apple they move to feeding sites on roots or above ground. Root feeding produces knotty galls, and extensive feeding severly taxes the root system. Unfortunately, the above-ground WAA population is not a reliable indication of the root-feeding population. Above ground, crawlers settle in bark crevices, pruning cuts, wounds, leaf axils, and occasionally the stem or calyx of fruit. Black sooty mold fungus can develop on WAA honeydew.

Biology

  • WAA overwinter as eggs on elm trees. In early spring, wingless females remain feeding on elm for 2 generations. Winged females are then produced and migrate to apple trees late in June.
  • Once on apple, 'crawlers' are produced that spread throughout the tree. Several generations are produced on apples each summer. Large nymphs have a purplish body, concealed by tufts of "wool", which are actually fine wax strands.
  • In the fall, winged forms are again produced that migrate back to elm and deposit overwintering eggs.
  • Colonies can persist on apple roots throughout the year.

Monitoring

  • Monitor for WAA in mid-late summer when, if present, colonies of nymphs or adults become most visible.
  • Because of poor coorelation of above and below ground populations, there is only a tentative treatment threshold of 50% of pruning wounds.  Sample 10 possible infestation sites per tree on at least 10 trees per block.
  • Should WAA infestations appear on substantial numbers of leaf axils of terminals or fruiting spurs, treatment may be warranted to reduce possible injury to developing buds.

Management

  • WAA are resistant to many commonly used insecticides. Apply an effective insecticide in summer if warranted.
  • Best control is obtained when insecticide is applied in July when small WAA colonies appear on periphery of canopy, but this is before colonies are easily visible.
  • Some insecticides can be applied to soil to manage WAA infesting roots.

Apple maggot fly (AM)

Rhagoletis pomonella

Overview

Female AM deposit single eggs under the skin of apples and, once hatched, larvae tunnel through apple flesh leaving brown trails. Egg-laying punctures are difficult to find unless the fruit is heavily attacked, as are most apples in an abandoned orchard.

Biology

  • Adult AM is slightly smaller than the common house fly, with a bright white spot at the center of the dorsum (back), 4 black wing bands (3 of which look like letter F), and 3 or 4 white stripes on the abdomen. Mature larvae are 3/8 inch long, legless, white, peg-shaped, legless larvae.
  • Apple maggot flies overwinter in the soil as pupae, and emerge as adult flies in June - July. They migrate to apple trees from unsprayed or abandoned trees and are known to migrate for at least half a mile. Once adults emerge from the pupae in the soil, they feed and mate. About 10-14 days after adult emergence females start depositing their eggs. Larvae feed for 3-4 weeks before leaving fruit and entering the soil.
  • Activity usually ceases in late August or early September but can extend into October on late cultivars.
  • There is one generation per year.

Monitoring

  • AM adult flies can be monitored using sticky coated red spheres that mimic ripening apple fruits or with yellow sticky boards which act as a leaf mimic. The addition of an apple odor-based 5-component lure (commercially available at Trece, Inc.) increases AM trap captures.
  • Set out traps in late June at the rate of 1 trap per 3-5 acres, but not less than 3 traps per block. Place traps near the block periphery, 1 or 2 rows in from outermost row. Remove any leaves or fruit touching the traps.
  • Apple varieties most susceptible to maggot attack are Wealthy, Cortland, Gravenstein, Red and Golden Delicious, and early sweet or subacid varieties. However, AM will attack any variety.

Management

  • Recommended treatment threshold is an average of 2 AM per unbaited trap or 5 AM per baited trap.
  • Trap captures for a week following insecticide treatment are ignored. Subsequent sprays can be applied once the threshold is reached again.

 

Borers

Overview

Several species of borers attack apple trees in New England, especially young trees. Dogwood borers are probably most damaging, but roundheaded apple tree borers, apple bark borers, flat-headed apple tree borers, and leopard moths can also be found. Black stem borers, a tiny bark beetle, has recently been attacking stressed apple trees in New England.

Biology

  • Dogwood borers and apple bark borers are small wasp-like moths that lay eggs in bark crevices, primarily in burr knots and callus tissue around graft unions. Caterpillars grow up to 3/4 inch long, with an orange tinge. Caterpillars bore in bark, not wood, producing reddish frass on bark surface. Adults fly from mid-June through late August with peak flight in July. Trees with many burr knots (such as M9) are most heavily infested.
  • Roundheaded apple tree borers are striped long-horn beetles about 5/8" long that emerge during the month following Petal Fall. Most egglaying occurs from late June to early August, and usually within a couple of hundred yards of where the female emerged. Larvae tunnel through trunks until completing the 2-3 year life cycle.
  • Flat-headed apple tree borer is a dark/brown beetle belonging to the family Buprestidae. Adults are about 1/2" long with a metallic luster. They are primarily active in June and July on the sunny sides of trees. Eggs are deposited in bark crevices. Sinuous trails in the bark are visible without cutting into the tree. Eventually, the grubs bore into the wood, leaving tunnels that are oval in cross-section. Grubs are legless with a broad, flattened head end and a cylindrical body. Weakened, stressed or strongly leaning young trees are most frequently attacked.
  • Leopard moth (Zeuzera pyrina), lay eggs in bark crevices in July and early August. Larvae bore into the bark and quickly move into the wood. They are usually first noticed because of the moist, fibrous droppings that are pushed out of tunnels. Caterpillars are white or pink with a dark head, and up to 2" long. The life cycle spans 2-3 years.
  • Black stem borer is a very small – about 2 millimeters – ambrosia beetle (Xylosandrus germanus) that attacks stressed and apparently healthy trees, and in particular young trees, with trunk diameters of less than 2.5 inches. The insect is rarely seen outside of its galleries and only females emerge from the galleries they create to infest new trees. Signs of infestation include round entrance holes that are approximately 1 millimeter in diameter, toothpick-like strings of compacted boring dust and frass emerging from the holes, and sometimes weeping or oozing of plant sap from the holes.

Monitoring

  • Look for signs of black stem borer infestation within 1 meter of the ground and use a simple trap to capture females. Cut two to four windows in the body of a plastic 1- or 2-liter bottle that has a cap. Hang it in the orchard upside down at a height of 1.5 to 3 feet, near wooded areas or in low areas where trees are prone to cold injury and where there are trees with signs of infestation.

    Bait the trap with ethanol using one of the following three methods:
    1. Squirt about a quarter cup of ethanol-based hand sanitizer (unscented) into the cap end (bottom) of your trap.
    2. With the bottle capped, pour in a cup of cheap vodka through one of the holes made in the side of the trap.
    3. Purchase a ready-made ethanol lure to hang inside the trap and fill the bottom of the trap with soapy water.
    If using hand sanitizer, traps must be checked daily because the sanitizer will form a crust on the surface after 24 hours. If using vodka or a purchased lure, traps should be checked at least once per week. Beetles are very tiny and require the use of a microscope and training to identify them correctly to species.

  • Leopard moth adults can be monitored with pheromone traps.

Management

  • Refer to the spray table for Summer Sprays.  One course spray of Assail to trunk between pink and mid-June. If fresh borer activity found in early July, spray Assail before early August.
  • Dogwood borer management can be aided with mating disruption dispensers.
  • For black stem borer management, apply insecticide when adult beetles are first caught in traps. Once beetles are inside trees, insecticides are ineffective because larvae do not feed on plant material.

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB)

Halyomorpha halys
Written by: 
Jaime Pinero and Elizabeth Garofalo

Overview

BMSB is an invasive stink bug that feeds on a wide variety of host plants, including a variety of fruits (e.g., apples, stone fruits including peaches and apricots, figs, mulberries, citrus fruits and persimmons), vegetables (e.g., beans, corn, tomatoes and soybeans) and many ornamental plants and weeds. BMSB is currently distributed in 43 US states and 4 Canadian provinces.

BMSB is considered to be a landscape-level threat. This means that adults frequently switch between cropped land (agronomic crops, fruits, vegetables, ornamentals) and wooded habitats. BMSB nymphs and adults feed by inserting their piercing-sucking mouthparts into fruit, nuts, seed pods, buds, leaves, and stems and appear to prefer plants bearing reproductive structures. Their mouthparts can penetrate very hard and thick tissue, such as the hazelnut hull.

Biology

During the winter months, BMSB enters a type of hibernation called diapause. During this time adults do not feed and do not reproduce. Overwintering takes place in forested areas as well as inside houses and other buildings. In the spring, BMSB adults emerge from overwintering sites (houses, barns, storage buildings, and dead trees) and become active on nearby crops during warm sunny days. In the spring and throughout the summer, adults feed, mate, and lay eggs.

Monitoring

Commercially available traps and pheromone lures for BMSB monitoring provide valuable information on the presence/absence of BMSB and also help to decide if insecticide treatments are needed to manage this pest. Ag-Bio, Inc. (http://www.agbio-inc.com), Great Lakes IPM (http://www.greatlakesipm.com), Trece, Inc. (http://www.trece.com) and Sterling International are some of the companies that sell monitoring systems for BMSB. Monitoring for BMSB can start in late-May and needs to continue until early- or mid-October.

Monitoring devices.

  • Black pyramid traps. Stink bugs, including BMSB, are visually attracted to tree silhouettes. The trap recommended for monitoring is a black pyramidal trap, which represents trunk mimic, coupled with a capturing device.
  • Double-sided clear sticky cards. Researchers have found that double-sided clear sticky cards (6 x 12 inches), attached to a wooden pole, can be used for monitoring purposes. Cards are easier (and cheaper) to deploy than black pyramid traps.

Pheromone lures: Various companies are now marketing the male-produced aggregation pheromone of BMSB. Some pheromone lures incorporate the pheromone of multiple stink bug species, including BMSB. Therefore, efforts need to be made to correctly distinguish BMSB from other similarly-looking stink bugs.

Thresholds. Insecticide applications to apple orchards are recommended when a cumulative threshold of 10 BMSB/trap is reached. After the spray, the threshold is reset and subsequent trap accumulations reaching 10 adults per trap will trigger successive management sprays as the season progresses. This threshold is likely to work in peach orchards as well.

Management

Insecticide sprays is the most effective control method for BMSB. It is important to select effective insecticides given that adult BMSB are hard to kill. Whenever possible, target the nymph stage, as nymphs are more sensitive to insecticides than adults. Multiple applications may be needed with re-infestation.

The overwintering generation of BMSB tends to be more susceptible to insecticides than the summer generation. Therefore, products with the best effectiveness against this pest should be used later in the season.

Insecticides should be rotated among products in different classes with different modes of action to delay the onset of resistance to pesticides.

Codling moth (CM)

Cydia pomonella
Written by: 
Content adapted from MyIPM/Bugwood Apps

Overview

Larvae cause two types of fruit damage: deep entry, where larvae burrow down into the core of fruit, pushing frass out as they go; and shallow entry where feeding occurs, but no tunneling is present. Both forms of damage render fruit unmarketable. Second generation larvae cause the most damage. 

Biology

  • Codling moth overwinters as a full-grown larva. Pupation occurs during bloom. First adults emerge at 150 DD, base 50 ℉., when counting from January 1. Warmer spring temperatures can accelerate the growth of codling moth, leading to earlier developmental milestones (like egg-laying and hatching).
  • Newly hatched larvae are pale yellow with a black head, twice the width of its body. Mature larvae are pinkish-white with a brown head.
  • Adult codling moth is gray-brown with alternating lighter gray and white bands across wings. Wings are marked at the back end by a coppery area that helps distinguish codling moth from other similar moths.
  • Females can lay up to 100 eggs. Early season eggs are generally laid on leaves whereas later generations are usually laid on fruit.  There are usually 2 generations in New England.      

Monitoring

  • Pheromone traps should be hung by bloom, on the north side of the tree at eye level. Hang traps in orchard areas where moths are most likely to enter from alternate host sites. Check traps twice a week and begin accumulating degree-days (base 50) after sustained catches in pheromone traps (biofix).
  • First insecticide applications should be made ~ 250 DD (base 50) after biofix. First insecticide applications for the second generation should be made at about 1,400 DD to 1,600 DD, using the same biofix as previous spray timing.

Management

  • Remove abandoned apple and pear trees, where practicable. Trunk banding can be a useful method of reducing codling moth pressure. Cardboard wrapped around trunks before larvae move to cocooning sites will cause them to pupate on the cardboard, which is subsequently removed and destroyed prior to adult emergence. Hot water treatment of storage bins can destroy a number of overwintering larvae.
  • Mating disruption, set up before bloom, can be an effective way to reduce codling moth populations. Mating disruption is also needed in July for the second generation. Plan on supplementing mating disruption with insecticides. Using mating disruption in conjunction with insecticides is especially important for orchards with recent history of CM fruit injury or in the first year of a disruption program.
  • Many insecticides are effective against codling moth when applied against newly hatching larvae. Resistance to pyrethroids and organophosphates, however, has been found in many areas of the Northeast.

European apple sawfly (EAS)

Hoplocampa testudinea

Overview

EAS larvae feed under apple skin producing a heavily russetted, winding scar often seen on mature fruit at harvest.

Biology

  • EAS overwinter as mature larvae in the soil. Larvae pupate and adults emerge when apples buds are in Pink stage.
  • Adult EAS are clear winged, fly-like insects about 1/3 inch, dark brown above, and orange to yellow below.
  • After feeding on apple pollen, EAS females cut slit into calyx end of tiny, developing fruit and insert an egg.
  • Newly hatched larvae burrow just under apple skin leaving winding scar. (By harvest this scar is visible as a heavily russetted, winding scar.)
  • If not controlled, larvae migrate to a second fruit and tunnel to the core. Frass can usually be seen on the surface of these apples, which drop to the ground by July. Mature larvae are 1/2 inch long, yellowish-white, and posses a pair of legs on each body segment.
  • Full-grown larvae enter the soil where they remain until the following spring.

Monitoring

  • EAS damage occurs more frequently when bloom time is extended and petal fall insecticide applications are delayed.
  • White sticky traps placed before bloom can help determine the need for EAS insecticide at Petal Fall. Traps should be placed near blossoms at head height on the south side of at least one tree per 3 acres. Insecticide application may be warranted if more than an average of 6-9 EAS per trap are captured by Petal Fall in a block that received prebloom insecticide (or 4-5 in a block that did not receive prebloom insecticide).

Management

  • Generally insecticides applied at Petal Fall adequately control EAS. Insecticide application is directed at early, superficially-burrowing larvae. Since apple varieties enter Petal Fall at different times, separate Petal Fall treatments may be needed.
  • Prebloom insecticide for EAS is not needed except possibly for blocks where Petal Fall insecticide has historically not given satisfactory control.

Green pug moth (GPM)

Pasiphila rectangulata

Overview

Green pug moths have been found in New England since the 1990s. The yellow-green larvae are inchworms that bore into flower buds at bud break and feed, causes blossoms to abort. One larva can damage several flowers and, where numerous, can significantly reduce fruit set.

Biology

  • GPM overwinter as eggs on apple trees, hatch at bud break, and enter buds to feed. Young larvae are olive green with black heads and look like winter moth young larvae.
  • Larger GPM larvae are green and develop a dark red-brown stripe along the back.
  • Most larvae finish feeding by Petal Fall, pupate in folded leaves, and emerge as adult moths in June and July.

Monitoring

  • Examine flower buds for caterpillars at Tight Cluster to early Pink. Tentative treatment threshold is 6 or more GPM larvae per 100 fruit clusters.

Management

  • Apply insecticide at early Pink if exceed threshold.

Leafhoppers (LH)

Typhlocyba pomaria, Edwardsiana rosae, & Empoasca fabae

Overview

White apple leafhoppers (WALH) and rose leafhoppers (RLH) feed on the underside of leaves producing small, whitish spots on the upper leaf surface. This "stippling" may cover the entire leaves and appear silvery. Leafhopper feeding can reduce tree vigor, but of more concern is the accumulation of LH excrement on apple surface. The LH leave dark, "tar spots" and is difficult to remove.

Potato leafhoppers (PLH) do not overwinter in here, but migrate north with summer storms, usually reaching New England in mid June. PLH nymphs and adults feed primarily on immature leaves and actively growing shoots in the outer part of the canopy. Leaves injured by PLH feeding turn yellow on edges, cup upward, and later turn brown or scorched. On mature trees, PLH damage may not be significant, but feeding on young trees stunts shoot growth.

Biology

  • WALH overwinter as eggs beneath tree bark. Hatching begins just before Bloom and is completed in 10-14 days. Nymphs migrate to leaf underside and feed, advancing into adults by mid-late June. These adults deposit eggs on leaves in July which hatch in early August, producing adults in August and September.
  • RLH overwinter on rose species such as cultivated and multiflora rose. First-generation RLH adults migrate into orchards from nearby multiflora rose in early-mid June. Second-generation adults, present in July and August, deposit eggs mostly in orchards. In September, 3rd generation adults can cause extensive excrement spotting of fruit and be a nuisance to pickers before emigrating to rose bushes to deposit overwintering eggs.
  • WALH and RLH adults look similar, but large nymphs of the two species can be distinguished with a hand lens. RLH nymphs have rows of small dark spots on their backs. Timing can also be used to distinguish the 2 species. LH found during Petal Fall are most likely WALH.
  • PLH nymphs and adults are pale green. When disturbed, nymphs move rapidly in a sideways fashion.

Monitoring

  • To monitor WALH and RLH, check 10 interior fruit cluster leaves per tree on 10 trees per block. The tentative treatment threshold is 3 WALH or RLH nymphs per leaf in June. However, growers who have had troublesome LH populations at harvest may want to use a lower threshold of 25 nymphs per 100 leaves in June.
  • For PLH, sample the youngest shoot leaves in the outer canopy. Tentative threshold of one PLH per leaf.

Management

  • LH have developed resistance to several insecticides. Insecticides are most effective against young nymphs. Older nymphs and adults are usually less easily controlled.

Leafminers (LM)

Phyllonorycter crataegella, P. blancardella

Overview

Apple blotch leafminer and spotted tentiform leafminer hosts include apple, pear, cherry, plum and quince, favoring apple leaves.The first 3 larval instars feed on tissue between the two epidermal layers of the leaf causing a translucent, 'sap feeding' mine that is visible only from the underside of leaf surface. The last 2 instars feed more extensively on leaf tissues and their 'tissue feeding' mines are visible from both the top and underside of leaves. 'Tissue feeding' mine on upper leaf surface contains numerous white dots.

Biology

  • LM overwinter as pupae within mines on fallen leaves.
  • Adults emerge in late April to early May and deposit eggs singly on leaf underside. Adults are 3/16 inch long, light brown moths that appear shiny in flight, with white spots that look like transverse bands when wings are folded. ABLM is nearly indistinguishable from STLM, but has forewings that are usually smaller and less heavily marked with white scales than STLM.
  • Eggs hatch in 5-16 days and feed just below the lower leaf epidermis as 'sap feeders'. By late May larvae begin feeding just below the upper leaf epidermis, producing densely spotted mines visible on the upper leaf surface.
  • There are 3 generations per year.

Monitoring

  • Insecticide applications against 2nd generation mines normally not necessary unless mines exceed 1mine per fruit cluster leaf during 1st generation (by early June).
  • Spur and leaf sampling for 2nd generation sap feeding mines allows effective timing of spray applications. Best time for insecticide application is when earliest 2nd generation mines are visible from the upper leaf surface (less than 10% have advanced to tissue feeding stage).
  • Two parasitic wasps commonly attack LM larvae and can be found inside tissue feeding mines. Level of parasitism required for adequate LM biological control LM is unknown. Being aware of parasitoid development and behavior in orchards may aid in LM management.

Management

  • If needed, spray insecticide when 2nd generation mines begin to advance to the tissue feeding stage. Selective insecticides allow parasitoids to substantially reduce larval populations.
  • Second insecticide application may be needed.

Mites

Panonychus ulmi & Tetranychus urticae

Overview

European red mites (ERM) and Twospotted spider mites (TSM) are the two most common mite pests in New England orchards. Spider mites suck leaf fluids and chlorophyll, resulting in "bronzed" foliage. Slightly damaged leaves cause little or no adverse effect to crop. Extensive leaf bronzing results in decreased photosymthesis, often causing reduced fruit size, premature drop and reduction in fruit set the following year.

Biology

  • ERM overwinter as eggs on smaller branches, twigs, and roughened bark of apple trees. Egg hatch begins at Tight Cluster, is about half complete by Pink, and is complete by Petal Fall.
  • TSM overwinter as adult females primarily in orchard ground cover, where they feed on weeds and grasses. In mid-late summer, TSM migrate into fruit trees and feed on leaf undersides. There may be 10 generations per season.

Monitoring

  • Mite injury during the weeks following Petal Fall can damage fruit crop. Monitor mite populations by examining underside of fruit cluster leaves through May and June. Action threshold is 1-2 motile (not eggs) mites per leaf or 30% of leaves with one or more mites.
  • Starting in July, examine middle aged leaves for motile mites. Threshold for July is 5 mites per leaf. August 1-15 threshold is 7.5 mites per leaf.
  • Mites tend to build up during periods of hot, dry weather. Mite populations tend to build up in "hot spots" rather than uniformly throughout a block. Hot spots tend to form on trees adjacent to dusty, dirt roads and in certain cultivars such as Red Delicious and Empire.

Management

  • Oil is recommended at the 2-3 gal rate during the dormant period. Use 2 gal rate until Tight Cluster and reduce to 1 gal rate from Tight Cluster to Pink. Good coverage is essential (300 gal/A recommended).
  • Many beneficial insect and mite species prey on pest mites and provide some level of biological control. Minimizing the use of pesticides harmful to mite predators is critical for conserving natural enemies and enhancing biological control of mites. A predator/prey ratio of 1:10 may provide adequate biological control.
  • Several miticides are limited to 1 application per season to delay pesticide resistance developing.

Obliquebanded leafroller (OBLR)

Choristoneura rosaceana

Overview

OBLR attacks mainly apple and occasionally pear, peach, and cherry. Larvae feed on fruit skin, often close to the apple stem or where two apples are in contact. OBLR roll up leaves and hide in these shelters. Injuries occurring early in the season cause pronounced deformations of the fruit and are impossible to differentiate from the damage of green fruitworms. Late season fruit feeding causes small pits in the fruit surface that may go undetected until after long-term storage.

Biology

  • OBLR overwinter as small larvae in trees. Overwintering larvae become active when trees break dormancy, and they complete their development about 3 weeks after Bloom. Larvae are yellowish-green to olive green; head and thoracic shield vary from tan to brown or blackish.
  • Adults begin to emerge in late May or early June. Adult wings are beige, tinged with red. Forewings are crossed with oblique brown bands.
  • Females can lay up to 900 eggs during a 7- to 8-day oviposition period. Eggs are green and deposited in a mass on upper leaf surfaces.
  • Eggs hatch in about 10 to 12 days. Newly hatched first generation (summer) larvae move to and feed on tender growing terminals, watersprouts, or developing fruit. As these larvae reach the third instar, they display an increasing propensity to damage fruit. This generation takes almost two months to complete development.
  • Adult flight of the second generation occurs in August, and the subsequent larvae hatch in August and September. The second-generation larvae feed primarily on leaves until they enter diapause, although they may occasionally damage fruit. Young larvae construct hibernation sites on twigs or bark to spend the winter.

Monitoring

  • Scout for larval shelters during Bloom to Petal Fall. Examine 10 bud clusters per tree for  OBLR larvae and apply Bt insecticide if find more than 3% infested clusters.
  • Monitor OBLR adults with pheromone traps and use a degree-day developmental model to time insecticide sprays against hatching larvae.

Management

  • A Petal Fall insecticide spray should control overwintered larvae.
  • Using the date of first OBLR capture as a biofix, use degree-day model to determine when OBLR eggs are hatching and most susceptible to insecticide. Apply insecticide starting at 360 DD (base 43F) after 1st adult trap capture. May need 2-3 sprays 10-14 days apart.
  • Thinning of fruit and pruning water sprouts in midsummer is helpful in reducing fruit damage.
  • OBLR may be difficult to control with insecticides, even with selective insecticides (Bacillus thuringiensis and insect growth regulators). Selective pesticides will preserve important natural enemies. More than one spray may be needed during the summer because of this species' extended flight and egg-laying periods.

Oriental Fruit Moth (OFM)

Grapholita molesta
Written by: 
Jaime Pinero

Overview

Native to China, OFM is now found throughout much of the world. The adult OFM is approximately 1/4 inch (6.5mm) long and has a faint gray-brown salt-and-pepper pattern on its wings. Pupae are reddish-brown. Fully developed larvae are about 1/2 inch (12.5mm) long, pink to white in color. Eggs are about 1/32 inch (0.7mm) in diameter, yellow-white, and laid singly on leaves or twigs.

Biology

OFM overwinters as a fully-grown larva (caterpillar), on limbs or trunk. First-generation moths appear in May, and females lay their eggs on upper leaf surfaces, frequently on the terminal leaf of a young shoot. When the caterpillar hatches, it bores into the shoot primarily of stone fruits, causing the terminal to wilt or “flag”. Later generations attack the fruit of both stone fruit and apples. In the northeastern United States, the OFM usually has 3 generations (flights) per year, depending on weather conditions. As fruit develop the larvae will often enter near or through the stem end of stone fruit or calyx end of apple and bore directly into the interior of the fruit. OFM larvae do not feed on the seed; in contrast, codling moth larvae do feed on apple seeds.

Monitoring

Pheromone traps are available to monitor OFM activity and effectively time sprays. Traps are placed in the inside of the tree at eye level or higher. Follow manufacturers’ guidelines for proper trap and lure maintenance and replacement. One trap per ten acres is recommended for commercial orchards, with a minimum of two traps.

Place sex pheromone traps in early April and check at least three times a week until biofix (i.e., first sustained capture of two or more moths per trap) is established. Then, calculate and record degree days to determine the percent egg hatch for each generation and timing of insecticide sprays (see ‘management’ below). Continue to monitor traps weekly throughout the season. Pheromone-baited OFM traps will also catch lesser apple worm, so it will be important to know how to distinguish between the two.

Management

Several management options are available for OMF including insecticide sprays and mating disruption. Regardless of the type of OFM management method chosen, careful monitoring is critical to the success of IPM tools.

Chemical control of the OFM can be improved by using a degree-day model to establish optimum timing of insecticide sprays targeting newly hatched larvae since most insecticides are not effective at controlling adults. The most important spray against OFM on peaches is for the first generation. Keep in mind that there is a lag period for egg hatch after the moths fly. The first insecticide spray for OFM often coincides with petal fall, so sprays targeting plum curculio should also control the 1st generation of OFM.

Control measures for the second-generation egg hatch ought to occur at around 1,100 growing degree-days (base 45°F) after biofix.

With mating disruption, pheromone (sex attractant) dispensers are placed throughout the orchard. As the pheromone is released from the dispensers, male moths that normally use the pheromones to locate females become confused and fail to locate females. This interferes with the mating process. The densities of pheromone dispensers per acre depend on the formulation. Pheromone traps are used to evaluate the effectiveness of the mating disruption. If mating disruption is working, the pheromone traps should catch no moths. Mating disruption is only recommended for an orchard of 5 acres or larger in size.

If codling moth is also a problem in the same block, select a mating disruption material that releases pheromones of both species.

Plum curculio (PC)

Conotrachelus nenuphar

Overview

Plum curculio  (PC) is generally considered the single most destructive insect pest in orchards. The most recognizable type of wound caused by PC is the half-moon scar, produced by ovipositing females. Prior to depositing her egg, the female first uses her mouthparts to cut a small crescent-shaped flap in the fruit skin; then, she turns around to deposit an egg. When eggs hatch, larvae tunnel into fruitlets and begin to feed. Larvae complete four instars inside the fruit in about 16 days. PC-infested fruitlets generally drop to the ground prematurely. When an egg is not viable, or a female cuts into a fruit but does not deposit an egg, the scar remains and can be seen at harvest, often making the fruit unmarketable.

Biology

  • Plum curculio (PC) is a snout-nosed beetle, aka a weevil. The adult is small, about 1/4 inch, mottled black, grey and brown. When handled it will often drop and “play dead”.
  • The larva is a whitish, legless grub, and its feeding in fruitlets causes premature drop. Larvae then crawl out of fallen fruitlets into the soil and pupate. Adults emerge from the soil after ~16 days and feed within and outside of orchards until cold weather drives them into hibernating spots.
  • Generally, commercial orchards do not have overwintering populations within their borders. Some studies, however, have shown that PCs can overwinter inside orchard blocks that are weedy in the fall.  Wild hosts (abandoned orchards, crab apples, etc.) near orchards provide habitat which allows adult PC to migrate into orchards before and after bloom.

Monitoring

  • Fruitlets should be monitored beginning at about 5 mm diameter along orchard borders to determine if new injury is occuring. If fresh oviposition scars are observed, a first cover spray should be made to the entire block. Cool, wet weather will prolong PC activity. Continue to monitor for fresh scars. If more are found, a second cover spray targeting perimeter-row trees may be needed.
  • Because PC immigration and oviposition period is affected by weather patterns after Petal Fall, insecticide coverage should be maintained until 308 DD (base 50F) from Petal Fall.
  • A monitoring system that makes use of attractive lures, termed the ‘trap tree’ approach, has been developed. It involves baiting the branches of one perimeter-row tree with a synergistic two-component lure comprised of benzaldehyde, one synthetic component of flowers and developing fruit, in association with grandisoic acid, the synthetic PC pheromone. By examining the fruit solely on the odor-baited tree for signs of fresh PC injury this monitoring technique has proven effective at determining, on a timely manner, whether perimeter-row insecticide sprays are required against PC after the whole-block petal fall spray. Lures are commercially available and last for the entire PC oviposition period. For more information about the ‘trap-tree’ approach to PC monitoring, contact Jaime Pinero at jpinero@umass.edu.

Management

  • Management of PC relies heavily on petal fall, first and second cover insecticide applications. The first insecticide application should be made to the whole orchard in order to control PC that have migrated into the inner part of the orchard.
  • Additional insecticide applications may be necessary and can be limited to the outer two rows of trees.
  • Kaolin clay (Surround WP) is an OMRI-listed material that can also be complementary to conventional management strategies. Applied in suspension in water, kaolin clay produces a dry white film layer of interlocking microscopic particles on the surface of leaves, stems, and fruit after evaporation of the water. Kaolin acts as a physical barrier preventing insects from reaching vulnerable plant tissue. It acts as a repellent by creating an unsuitable surface for feeding or egg-laying.

    Surround applications begin at Petal Fall and get reapplied weekly to maintain coverage and deter egg-laying.  

  • Do not apply insecticides until bloom is completely finished to reduce unwanted pollinator exposure to insecticides.  For information on rainfast characteristics of some insecticides, see the following article in Fruit Gower’s News: http://fruitgrowersnews.com/news/rainfast-characteristics-insecticides-f...

San Jose scale (SJS)

Quadraspidiotus perniciosis

Overview

SJS infested bark has a grey, roughened appearance due to scale insects on limbs and trunk. Infested fruit develop a reddish-purple ring surrounding each spot where a scale settles.

Biology

  • Adult scales are round (females) or oval (males), about 1/16 inch in diameter, and greyish with a raised yellow nipple in the center. Immature SJS overwinter on twigs and branches under scale covering. Around Bloom, winged males emerge, seek out female scales, and mate.
  • Tiny, bright yellow nymphs or "crawlers" emerge in mid-late June. Each female produces several hundred living young which disperse over the tree in search of suitable feeding sites.
  • As crawlers mature they produce a whitish secretion that blackens with time and hardens into a waxy protective covering.
  • Second generation male flight and mating usually begin by mid-July, producing crawlers by mid-August.

Monitoring

  • Crawler emergence can be monitored using a band of black electricians' tape wrapped around an infested limb and coated with a thin layer of petroleum jelly. Tape should be inspected daily with a hand lens until active crawlers are found.
  • The decision to treat is usually based on finding infested fruit at previous year's harvest. Examine 50 fruits per tree on 2 trees per acre and treat if you find more than 0.1% fruit with SJS injury.

Management

  • Thorough, yearly pruning helps manage SJS.
  • Established, heavy SJS populations are difficult to manage and may require both semidormant oil application and insecticide application targeting crawlers.
  • For best results, apply 60-70 sec oil (3 gal/100 gal for heavy infestation, 2 gal/100 for others) around Half Inch Green.
  • Apply insecticide when crawlers become visible. Some insect growth regulator insecticides have been very effective at controlling crawlers.

Spongy Moth

Lymantria dispar

Overview

Spongy moth caterpillars damage fruit trees by feeding on leaves, flowers, and fruit. Generally spongy moths do not require management, but periodically, populations build up to very damaging levels.

Biology

  • Spongy moths overwinter as egg masses in woods surrounding orchards and hatch in late April to early May and feed on leaves through June. Spongy moths are seen every year, but usually do not cause problems in apple orchards unless spongy moth populations are very large.
  • Small caterpillars can blow into orchards from surrounding woods.
  • Large caterpillars can walk into orchards from surrounding woods.
  • Caterpillars pupate in early July and adult moths emerge mid - late July. Female moths deposit one egg mass containing 500-1000 eggs.

Monitoring

  • Before eggs hatch, scout surrounding woods for spongy moth egg masses.
  • From Tight Cluster through Bloom, scout leaves and buds for small, black spongy moth caterpillars. Young trees, in particular, should be monitored.
  • Through the end of June, scout apple trees next to spongy moth infested woods for caterpillars walking into orchard.

Management

  • Apply a Bt insecticide such as DiPel when caterpillars are 2nd instars, probably during Bloom.
  • If large caterpillars migrate into orchards, apply insecticide effective against mature caterpillars such as Delegate or Altacor.

Stink bugs

Overview

Several species of stink bugs feed on apples in New England, but the brown stink bug (Euschistus servus) may be the most common. Brown stink bugs look very similar to the invasive species, brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB). BMSB is already causing problems in some locations in New England. For more information on this pest, see the BMSB section of this guide. For updates, see https://www.stopbmsb.org.

 

Stink bugs' long piercing-sucking mouthparts make deep punctures that create corky flesh under the surface. The puncture is difficult to see, even with a hand lens. Each puncture may be surrounded by a small greenish area that is slightly sunken. This injury should not be confused with cork spot, which usually occurs around the calyx end

    Biology

    • In New England, stink bugs spend the winter as adults, hiding under stones, boards, ground cover, and weeds. In springtime, the adults become active. As the adults come out of their overwintering sites, they feed on the plants that are available.
    • Stink bug nymphs and adults can begin feeding on apple flowers and continue through harvest. Native stink bugs tend to be late summer pests, but can be found throughout the fruiting season.
    • Adult feeding during bloom can cause the fruit to abort, and feeding later in the summer can cause a deep cat-facing injury such as that caused by TPB, or depressed, dimpled, corky, or water-soaked areas on fruit skin.

    Monitoring

    • Examine developing fruit for stink bug damage and live insects.
    • BMSB can be monitored with baited, black pyramid traps.

    Management

    • Eliminating broadleaf weeds, especially legumes, will contribute to managing stink bugs.
    • Do not allow ground covers to grow under tree canopies.
    • Many insecticides are ineffective at controlling stink bug populations. Apply effective insecticide at first signs of infestation. BMSB is a very mobile pest and may reinfest treated areas quickly. If repeat applications are necessary, rotate active ingredients to avoid promoting resistance in local populations.

    Tarnished Plant Bug (TPB)

    Lygus lineolaris

    Overview

    TPB feeding up to tight cluster usually results in aborted fruit. Buds fed on from Tight Cluster through Bloom may be scarred. As apple develops, damage appears as deep, sunken areas, conical in shape, with associated light corky russetting. Damage is often confined to fruit calyx.

    Biology

    • TPB adults are 1/4 inch long, somewhat flattened and brown in color, with black, white, or yellow markings, including a clear-yellowish triangle on each wing tip.
    • Adults overwinter in protected areas within and around orchards. They are first active on warm early spring days and become abundant from green tip through petal fall. Adults feed by inserting their mouthparts into developing fruit buds. Orchards with an abundance of legumes or flowering plants in the ground cover often have high TPB populations.
    • TPB feeding up to Tight Cluster usually results in undeveloped buds that fail to set fruit. Buds damaged by feeding after tight cluster may survive but will be scarred. As the apple develops, damage often appears as deep, sunken areas, conical in shape, with associated light corky russetting, often confined to fruit calyx.

    Monitoring

    • TPB adults can be monitored using a visual, white sticky trap set at silver tip. Traps should be stapled to stakes or hung on low branches no higher than knee height near orchard perimeter. Use at least one trap per 3 acres and at least 3 traps per monitored block. Action threshold is cumulative average of 5 TPB per trap by Tight Cluster or 8 TPB by Pink.
    • Examine 10 terminals per block for bleeding buds. Action threshold is 2-3 bleeding sites per 10-terminal sample.
    • TPB activity is highly dependent on temperature, so that 2 or 3 days of warm (50-60 degrees), sunny weather triggers increased foraging and feeding behavior.

    Management

    • If needed, apply insecticide Tight Cluster to Pink bud stage. Use of synthetic pyrethroids may lead to outbreak of European red mites since these insecticides are harmful to beneficial mites.
    • Control may be enhanced by spraying insecticide on a warm, sunny, calm day when TPB are most active.
    • Destroying broad leaf weed hosts in and around the orchard in the fall may decrease overwintering TPB.
    • Avoid mowing or using herbicide between Pink and Petal Fall because disturbance of alternate hosts in the groundcover may cause TPB to move into apple trees.

     

    Winter Moth

    Operophtera brumata

    Overview

    Winter moth caterpillars damage apple fruit by entering flower buds at Green Tip and then feeding on developing flower buds, destroying the flowers. Caterpillars continue feeding on opened flower clusters and leaves until late May.

    Biology

    • Winter moth are currently a problem to apple and pear growers in eastern Connecticut and Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and coastal Maine.
    • Caterpillars hatch from overwintering eggs around McIntosh Green Tip. Caterpillars wriggle into buds without feeding.
    • Once inside buds caterpillars feed, destroying flower parts. 100% of apple crop can be destroyed by these inch worms.
    • Mature caterpillars (1 inch long) drop to the ground on silken threads in late May.
    • Caterpillars pupate in the soil and remain there until late November when moths emerge. Male moths are light brown and attracted to lights; female moths are flightless and not easily seen.

    Monitoring

    • Set up tree wraps before moths emerge in November. Tree wraps encourage females to deposit eggs on tree trunks below the wrap.
    • Check winter moth eggs for color change from orange to blue, indicating eggs will hatch in 1-3 days. Apply pesticide when eggs first begin to hatch. A Bt insecticide such as DiPel will not control hatching winter moth caterpillars.
    • Scout flower buds at tight cluster and pink bud stages and apply inseciticide if many caterpillars are found.
    • Winter moth caterpillars look identical to green pug moth caterpillars until caterpillars are half grown, then green pug moth caterpillars develop a burgundy-colored stripe. Green pug moths do not tend to build up to damaging levels.

    Management

    • In orchards with high populations of winter moths, apply insecticide when eggs begin to hatch, usually around McIntosh Green Tip. Bt insecticides, such as DiPel, not effective against newly hatched caterpillars.
    • If egg hatch is delayed by cold weather, additional spray may be needed.
    • Apply insecticide if finding many green inchworm caterpillars Tight Cluster - Pink.

    Diseases

    Apple Scab

    Venturia inaequalis

    Overview

    • Apple scab is caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis, which infects the leaves and fruit of apples. Scab is one of the most important diseases of apples in New England, and if left unmanaged, will cause significant damage.
    • Infections start in the early spring, caused by spores from leaves infected the previous growing season that overwinter on the orchard floor or close to the orchard border. If infections start, they will produce more spores which can rapidly spread the infection during wet weather in spring and early summer.
    • Management should involve both cultural and chemical control, with fungicide sprays guided by weather conditions and fungicide properties, preferably using disease forecast models and reliable weather data for the orchard site.
    • Sanitation targeting apple leaves in the orchard should be done in fall or early spring to decrease scab risk.
    • Resistance to fungicides is common in apple scab. Application strategies to reduce resistance risk, such as mixing different FRAC groups, including multi-site fungicides, and limiting amounts of any one FRAC group per season should be used.
    • Scab-resistant cultivars have been grown commercially on a limited basis and can eliminate the need for scab fungicides, though some fungicide applications will probably be needed for other diseases.

    Symptoms

    Apple scab can occur on any apple tissue, but is most commonly seen on leaves and fruit. Small, raised, fuzzy, olive-colored spots will first appear on fruit cluster leaves near bloom, or on early vegetative leaves and immature fruit after petal fall. On leaves, infections may be visible on the top or undersurface. These primary lesions expand if untreated, turning yellow and eventually black. With heavy infections, the entire leaf turns yellow and drops. Leaves that are completely covered with scab are said to have “sheet scab”. Secondary lesions, formed by spores produced in the first or primary lesions, are similar to the primary lesions. They develop on vegetative leaves or fruit through the growing season. Scab infections on fruit first appear as gray to black spots that develop cracks as fruit grows. Tissue becomes brown and corky around and in infections. Multiple infections deform the fruit. In storage, fruit infected at the end of the growing season may develop small, dark spots called “pinpoint scab”.

    Disease Cycle

    A key to scab management is preventing primary infections early in the growing season. If primary scab is controlled, then there is no need to continue scab fungicide applications during the rest of the growing season. Primary control greatly reduces the chance that resistance to fungicides will develop, and reduces the chance of scab in the next season.

    V. inaequalis overwinters in apple leaves infected the previous season that fell to the ground. Scab spores may also overwinter in bark cracks and in buds, and cause infection in the spring, but this is rare in New England. 

    Warming temperatures in the spring around bud-break stimulate the fungus to make mature ascospores in old, overwintered leaves. The first mature spores are generally available at the same time trees are first producing green tissue, green tip, though the relative amount of mature spores varies. The first type of scab spores, ascospores, can cause primary infections from green tip until all ascospores for the year have matured and been released, usually one to two weeks after petal fall, though again this timing varies depending on periods of dry weather. In orchards where there were very few or no scab infections the previous year, and where sanitation is done, the risk of infection at green tip is relatively low. The most intense spore release and highest scab risk usually occurs when trees are at pink through to petal fall.

    Daytime rains release mature ascospores into the air when they are mature. Those spores may land on emerging apple leaves or new fruit causing primary infections. For infection, apple tissue must be wet for a minimum number of hours, depending on temperature, so it is important to measure the length of wetting periods. Near freezing, the fungus needs two days of leaf wetness to infect, while at 61ºF to 75ºF it takes only 9 hours. After infection, it takes from 9 to 17 days from the time of infection for visible symptoms to show, again depending on temperature. See IApple Scab  Infection Periods.

    Primary infections produce conidia, spores that cause secondary infections. Several additional secondary infection cycles can occur during a growing season, depending on rain, though apple tissue becomes more resistant to scab as summer progresses. In the fall, leaves drop and a new generation of ascospores develops the next spring.

    Chemical Controls

    Most commercial apple cultivars are susceptible to apple scab, and commercial management requires fungicide applications at approximately weekly intervals from bud break to two weeks post-bloom. However, spraying according to the calendar rather the the risk of apple scab will use more fungicide sprays than are usually necessary, so chemicals should be applied according to risk forecasts, most easily obtained using decision support systems, such as Ag-Radar or NEWA.

    Detailed options for fungicide selection are given in the Apple Spray Table. The following is a general overview of chemical management of scab.

    Early season - silver tip through tight-cluster. A dormant to green tip application of a copper fungicide primarily targeting fire blight is recommended, and is a spray that will also give 5 to 7 days of protection against scab. A combination of captan (3 lb. of Captan 50W or equivalent) plus an EBDC fungicide (3 lb of Dithane M45 or equivalent), a so-called “captozeb” mix, is effective in most orchards at this time. In blocks where scab pressure is high or during extended wet weather, applications should include Syllit, Vangard or Scala. Do not apply more than two applications of these materials in a season.

    Tight cluster through pink. If scab pressure is low, the captan/EBDC mix is sufficient. Keep in mind, this is the time when primary scab risk is highest so do not take risks. For moderate to high risk situations, combine a multi-site fungicide, captan or EBDC, with a site-specific fungicide:

    • strobilurine / QoI - Flint or Sovran;
    • SDHI - Fontelis or Aprovia;
    • SDHI plus QoI pre-mix - Luna Sensation, Merivon or Luna Tranquility.

    Petal fall through first cover. Again, where and when scab pressure is low a captan/EBDC mix is sufficient. In higher risk situations, combine a multi-site fungicide, captan or EBDC, with a site-specific fungicide:

    • DMI fungicide with high efficacy against scab - Inspire Super, Indar, Topguard, or Rally
    • strobilurine / QoI - Flint or Sovran
    • SDHI - Fontelis or Aprovia
    • SDHI plus QoI pre-mix - Luna Sensation, Merivon or Luna Tranquility. 

    There are serious problems with resistance to scab fungicides. See Resistance management: apple fungicides for details.

     

    Damage from Scab Fungicides

    Mixing captan with oil, other pesticides that contain petroleum-based carriers, or with spreader/sticker/penetrant chemicals may cause damage to fruit and foliage. For tank-mixes that contain several pesticides, thinners or nutrients, avoid using captan. Minimize or avoid use of captan from petal fall through first cover to decrease the risk of fruit damage.

    Sanitation

    Sanitation targets overwintered inoculum, reducing it and subsequent risk of infection and the magnitude of epidemics that may occur. Leaves on the orchard floor are swept and ground up using mowers or flail choppers in the spring before bud break. In addition, as an alternative, 5% urea may be sprayed on trees just before leaf drop in the fall, or to the orchard floor after leaves drop in fall or spring. Both chopping and a urea spray may be used for more effective control.

    Resistant Varieties

    Apple varieties vary in their susceptibility to apple scab, and some cultivars are resistant to scab. Cultivars such as McIntosh, Cortland, and Empire are susceptible, while Golden Delicious and related cultivars are less susceptible. Honeycrisp is somewhat resistant to apple scab. Several cultivars have single-gene resistance, for example, Liberty, Modi, Topaz, Pristine, and Ariane, though some scab strains that can infect these varieties have developed in specific areas. Using a few fungicide applications to manage other apple diseases reduces the risk that this resistance will be develop.

    Biological Controls

    There are an increasing number of biopesticide products that have been labelled for controlling apple scab. However, while they may work reasonably well under low inoculum conditions, they are limited in their ability to manage apple scab under high disease pressure.

    Apple scab infection periods

    Identifying Apple Scab Infection Periods

    The key to managing scab is preventing primary infections. By successfully preventing or limiting the development of primary lesions, the threat of continued infection by conidia is reduced. Since scab infections are invisible for at least 9 to 17 days after infection, is important to understand the conditions that cause a scab infection period to know whether preventative action is needed, or post-infection treatment required. 

    Use the Scab Infection Table and measure the length of wetting periods to determine infection periods during the primary scab season.

    • When rain begins during the day (between 8:00 a.m. and 7:00 p.m. in New England under Daylight Savings Time), count the hours of leaf wetness from the first hour rain is recorded until the leaves are dry.
    • Scab ascospores are not released when it is dark, so when rain begins at night (between 7:00 p.m. and 8:00 a.m., DST), count the hours of leaf wetness from 8:00 in the morning until the leaves are dry.
    • The average temperature during leaf wetness should be calculated using hourly temperatures.
    • NEWA Infection Hours are the minimum hours of leaf wetness used by NEWA, as modified in 1989 by MacHardy and Gadoury, from the Jones version of Mills original table. They are adjusted to account for night wetting, and are the most conservative intervals.
    • Low is the minimum hours of wetness required for any infection determined by Jones and Sutton (Diseases of Tree Fruits, North Central Reg. Ext. Pub. 45, 1984).
    • Moderate and High indicate the hours of wetness that will generate significant increases in the amount of infection.
    • Additionional days may be required if conditions are unfavorable for lesion development such as a prolonged period above 80 F or very dry weather.

    The process of determining the risk of scab infection can be greatly simplified by using a web-based decision support system, such as Ag Radar or NEWA. For details, contact coordinators through the DSS web sites.

    Ag Radar

    NEWA

    Scab Infection Table

    Average

    TempErature
    oF

    newa

    Infection
    HOURS

    Low
    infection
    hours

    Moderate

    Infection
    HOURS

    High

    Infection
    HOURS

    Days

    to First 

    Symptoms

    78

    10

    13

    17

    26

     

    77

     8

    11

    14

    21

     

    76

    6.5

    9

    12

    19

     

    61 - 75

    6

    9

    12

    18

    9 - 10

    60

    6.5

    9

    13

    20

    11

    57 - 59

    7

    10

    14

    22

    12 - 13

    55 - 56

    8

    11

    15

    23

    13 - 14

    54

    8.5

    11

    16

    24

    14

    52 - 53

    9

    12

    17

    25

    15

    51

    10

    13

    18

    27

    16

    50

    11

    14

    19

    29

    16

    49

    11.5

    14

    20

    30

    17

    48

    12

    15

    20

    30

    17

    47

    14

    15

    23

    35

    17

    46

    14

    16

    24

    37

    17

    45

    14

    17

    26

    40

    17

    44

    15

    19

    28

    43

    17

    43

    18

    21

    30

    47

    17

    42

    20

    23

    33

    50

    17

    41

    21

    26

    37

    53

    ?

    40

    21

    29

    41

    56

    ?

    39

    28

    33

    45

    60

    ?

    38

    29

    37

    50

    64

    ?

    37

    30

    41

    55

    68

    ?

    36

    33

    48

    72

    96

    ?

    35

    35

    48

    72

    96

    ?

    34

    40

    48

    72

    96

    ?

    Fire Blight

    Erwinia amylovora

    Overview

    • Fire bight is caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora. Outbreaks in New England are sporadic, but have become more common in recent years.
    • Infection of blossoms occurs during warm weather in conjunction with wetting events. Bacteria then migrate through the vascular tissue to the growing shoots and rootstocks killing tissue and whole trees.
    • Fire bight management is a combination of tactics applied every year.
    • Sanitation is accomplished by removing blighted shoots and whole trees.
    • Chemical control begins with a copper spray at silver tip to green tip. Monitor weather data and use a forecast model to determine the need for antibiotics and biopesticides at bloom.  Applications of Apogee or Kudos for shoot blight may be made during active shoot growth.

    Symptoms

    Fire blight symptoms can show on blossoms, fruit, leaves, shoots, branches and limbs, and rootstocks, and generally are readily recognized. 

    Blossoms are often the first tissue to show fire blight symptoms. Infected flowers first have a water-soaked appearance that quickly turns black or brown. Bacteria may spread quickly, first wilting the entire blossom cluster which then turns brown or black, then spreading to adjacent leaves and shoots. Temperature drives symptom development. The warmer the temperature, the sooner symptoms appear and the faster infections spread. After wilting, the tissue may show a sticky white to yellowish ooze produced by the bacteria.

    One or more weeks after petal fall, shoot blight can develop. This wilting and browning or blackening of young, vegetative shoots is a classic fire blight symptom, with the young shoot tips bending over into a hook, like the curved end of a cane. Again, if the weather is warm and humid, bacterial ooze droplets may form at the base of the shoot. Shoot blight can expand into older wood, causing dark, sunken cankers. Once in the main trunk of smaller young trees, the whole tree may rapidly wilt, turning brown or black, as if scorched. 

    Fire blight cankers are a site where E. amylovora overwinter. As weather warms in the spring, the margins around cankers become less defined as bacteria move into surrounding tissue. Nearby shoots can be infected, producing a symptom called canker blight, where shoots have a characteristic yellow-orange color in the wilting tips in the early weeks after petal fall.

    Rootstocks may be more susceptible to fire blight than scions. The pathogen may not cause visible damage to the scion before traveling to the rootstock, where senstive rootstocks will rapidly collapse, killing the tree. Alternatively, rootstocks may be more directly infected if root suckers are present and develop blight.

    Disease Cycle

    E. amylovora infects many plants in addition to apples and pears, including hawthorn, quince, mountain ash and cotoneaster. All of these plants may be a source of inoculum. The bacteria overwinter in bark and wood at the edges of cankers formed in previous growing seasons. With warm weather, around 65 F, the bacteria multiply and come to the canker surface as sticky ooze droplets. From there, they can be carried to other plants by wind-driven rain or insects.

    Insects play a critical role in flower infection, when apples are most likely to become infected with fire blight. Insects deposit bacteria on stigmas in flowers, where they can multiply but typically do not cause infection unless washed to the nectary openings at the base of the flower by rain or heavy dew. Blossoms wilt and die within one to two weeks of infection, producing bacterial ooze that can infect new shoots. Insects and rain move bacteria to shoots, and they infect through microscopic wounds caused by  wind-whipping or possibly insect feeding, or large wounds caused by hail. More bacterial ooze on these shoots, inoculum that can cause new infections as long as shoots keep growing. 

    E. amylovora can move systemically in plants, without producing symptoms. The bacteria are also present on non-symptomatic plant surfaces. Their growth on and in plants is driven primarily by temperature. Below 60 F there is little bacterial growth, and low populations of bacteria don't present a fire blight risk. However, at warmer temperatures in the range of 70 to 80 F, especially with high humidity, bacterial populations explode, and soon reach levels that can cause blight. When trees are in bloom, the combination of a high population of bacteria and rain or heavy dew generally lead to infection.

    Management

    While fire blight is a sporadic disease, when it does show up it can be devastating. Fire blight management involves several tactics at different times in the year, and should be done on an annual basis. Here is a list of tactics to use through the year.

    Early Season Copper

    Growers should use a dormant, or better, a silver tip/bud swell copper spray every year. Basically, copper is toxic to bacteria on the plant surface, and copper residue will reduce the population of E. amylovora in an orchard. Copper residue is largely depleted after two to three weeks, depending on rain, so does not protect flowers. There are many copper formulations. Apply a minimum of 2 lb. of metallic copper per acre.If in doubt about how much metallic copper a product contains, use the high label rate recommended at silver to green tip. Copper may be used with oil (1 qt./100 gal.), which can act as a spreader/sticker for the copper. Because copper sprays are meant to suppress the population of E. amylovora in an entire orchard, spray the whole orchard, not just the most susceptible cultivars or places where fire blight has occurred in the past.

    Monitor for Fire Blight Risk at Bloom

    The overwhelming majority of fire blight epidemics start at bloom, and shock waves from these primary infections will reverberate in an orchard through the summer and beyond, so it is essential that blossom blight be stopped. To do this, use a fire blight forecasting model.  There are two basic models, MaryBlyt and CougarBlight, which may be accessed and used independently, but which have also been incorporated into decision support systems linked to weather data on the web. Growers will need either an electronic weather station or a subscription to virtual weather to use these systems, but it makes monitoring much easier. Contact NEWA or Ag-Radar for details.

    Spray Antibiotics at Bloom is Needed

    If the fire blight forecasting system says that fire blight risk is high, then an antibiotic spray should be applied in bloom. 

    Powdery Mildew

    Podosphaera leucotricha

    Overview

    • Powdery mildew is caused by the fungus Podosphaera leucotricha, which infects the terminal leaves and developing buds of new shoots.
    • Infection begins with overwintering fungus in apple terminal buds. In the spring, infected shoots with shriveled leaves emerge from these buds covered with white, powdery spores, which can cause new infections.
    • Cultural control is best achieved by avoiding cultivars that are highly susceptible to powdery mildew, such as Cortland, Idared, Gingergold, and Jonathan. 
    • Chemical control targeting powdery mildew should be used only in blocks with a history of the disease. Use fungicides that also control apple scab, making sprays at weekly intervals from tight cluster to terminal bud set.

    Symptoms and Signs

    Primary infections show as poorly growing shoots with whitish, shriveled leaves that are covered with powdery spores. Spores from these shoots cause new infections on terminal leaves.  These first appear as pale yellow infected areas that then produce new spores. Infected leaves curl up, and become covered with a grayish to white fungal growth. These new spores cause additional infections on developing fruit. Fruit infections lead to a webbed russeting, making fruit much less valuable in the market.

    Disease Cycle

    Unlike most fungal diseases, powdery mildew is worse in warm, dry weather. Regions with cool, wet summers rarely have significant apple powdery mildew problems.

    Podosphaera leucotricha overwinters in terminal buds of shoots infected the previous year. These  infections become visible around tight cluster. Spores produced on infected shoots cause secondary infections on leaves and buds, and eventually on developing flowers and fruit. Secondary infections generally appear near petal fall. Infected flowers do not develop normally and produce no fruit. If mildew isn't treated and allowed to grow, it will cover shoots and leaves, and grow into terminal buds where it overwinters. Once growth stops in mid-summer, new infections stop. If powdery mildew inoculum is in an orchard when the fruit cuticle is developing, fruit finish can be damaged showing as a webbed russett on fruit by harvest.

    Winter temperatures below 10°F kill some of the over-wintering mildew in buds, and temperatures of –10°F will eliminate 95% of over-wintering mildew. Therefore, powdery mildew is often worse following mild winters, particularly when weather between bloom and petal fall is dry and warm. 

    Chemical Control

    In New England, spray applications specifically targetting powdery mildew usually are not generally necessary, though warm, dry springs can lead to increased infection of susceptible varieties. For those varieties, in blocks with a history of powdery mildew, scab managment fungicides used from pink through second cover should also have activity against powdery mildew. During extended dry, warm weather during this period, specific applications for mildew may be needed, even when scab fungicide sprays are not.

    The most common multi-site fungicides, captan and mancozeb, are ineffective against powdery mildew. DMI fungicides vary in effectiveness. Unfortunately, the DMIs most effective against powdery mildew, Rhyme, Rally, Rubigan and Procure, are least effective against scab, and vice-versa. QoI fungicides, Flint, Flint Extra and Sovran (and pre-mixes with Group 11 ingredients) have good efficacy against powdery mildew. SDHI fungicides, Aprovia, Fontelis and Sercadis (and pre-mixes with Group 7 ingredients) are somewhat less effective, but still provide good control.

    Low rates of sulfur are effective in low disease pressure environments, such as New England, but the risk of sulfur injury increases as temperatures go over 85°F. In organic production systems, sulfur applied at weekly intervals, and bicarbonate and peroxide-based fungicides applied on 3-5 days intervals are the best options.

    Cultivar Resistance

    Apple cultivars differ how susceptible they are to powdery mildew. Cortland, Gala, Ginger Gold,  Idared, Jonathan, Mutsu (Crispin), Paulared, and Rome are all highly susceptible, while Empire, and Fuji are much more resistant.  McIntosh and Golden Delicious can develop significant mildew when they are next to highly-susceptible cultivars that have significant infection.

    Cedar-Apple Rusts

    Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae and other species
    Written by: 
    Heather Faubert

    Overview

    Cedar-apple rust is a fungal disease that requires both a Rosaceaous host (such as apple) and a cedar host (such as Eastern red cedar). On apples, bright orange-yellow lesions are first visible after bloom. These lesions develop from spores released from galls on cedars earlier in the spring. Some species of cedar-apple rusts also produce lesions on fruit.

    Disease cycle

    During prolonged wet periods in the spring, typically from late April to late May in southern New England, galls on cedar/junipers secrete orange-brown gelatinous tendrils (known as telial “horns”) which produce spores. Spores blow from galls and those that land on apple leaves can cause infections if leaves remains wet for 4–6 hours.

    Lesions on apple leaves become visible soon after bloom, but continue to enlarge and become more striking in July and August. In late summer, spores are produced on the underside of apple leaves and spread the disease back to cedars.

    Management

    Fungicides are needed to protect leaves and fruit of susceptible varieties during periods of extended wet weather from pink through 2nd cover. At this time there are no effective organic fungicides that adequately manage cedar-apple rust.

    Apple cultivars with resistance to cedar-apple rust include: Baldwin, Delicious (red), Empire, Enterprise, Gala Suprene, Jerseymac, Keepsake, Liberty, McIntosh, Milton, Niagara, Paulared, Redfree, Regent, Sansa, Spartan, Sundance, Viking, and Zestar!.

    Apple cultivars that are very susceptible to cedar-apple rust include: Ambrosia, Braeburn, Cameo, Chinook, Crimson Crisp, Fuji, Gala, Ginger Gold, Golden Delicious, Jonathan, Lodi, Prima, Rome Beauty, Shizuka, Spigold, Twenty Ounce, Wealthy, Winter Banana, and York Imperial.

     

    Sooty Blotch and Flyspeck

    Many different fungi

    Overview

    • Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) are, for practical and management purposes, one disease that blemishes the surface of apple fruit, though several fungi may cause the disease.
    • Initial infections start from spores produced primarily from wild plants along orchard borders, particularly trees and shrubs.
    • Disease activity. The disease is most active from one to two weeks after petal fall through to harvest.
    • Cultural controls such as pruning, mowing and removing plants on orchard borders or planting as far as is practical from woodland and other sources of inoculum decrease SBFS risk.
    • Fungicides are the primary control for SBFS. The initial fungicide application each season can be timed using accumulated leaf wetness hours from petal fall. Later fungicide applications should be timed according the amount of rain or the time that has elapsed since the previous application.

     

    Symptoms and Signs

    Sooty blotch appears as dark, irregularly shaped areas, like charcoal smudges on fruit. Flyspeck develops distinct black, pinhead-sized spots, generally clustered in groups of 10 to 50. These signs are fungal growth on the surface of apples, not technically symptoms. They often appear together on fruit, but one or the other may occur alone. Details concerning the signs, such as speck size or blotch margins may vary significantly, as many different fungi can cause SBFS. Other than causing cosmetic damage, and rarely some dehydration to fruit in storage, SBFS is not technically a disease, as it does no real harm to apples. However, significant blemishing causes fruit to be downgraded.

     

    Disease Cycle

    The different life cycles for the many fungi that may contribute to the SBFS disease complex are not well understood. Different species of fungi predominate in different apple production regions, but all have life cycles that are similar enough that symptom development can be reasonably well predicted and a single management approach used. Infection by SBFS fungi occurs soon after fruit set, though symptoms may take several weeks to show, depending on weather. Disease development is dependent on high levels of humidity in the tree canopy. Extended wet weather or periods of high humidity enable SBFS fungi to colonize apples and grow, but they grow slowly if at all during dry periods. New infections can occur throughout the summer to harvest. The fungi may remain invisible for several weeks, first appearing in late summer or early fall. Some SBFS fungi apparently have secondary spore production and infection cycles related to rain and high humidity, with higher rates of disease occurring in years with heavy or frequent rain. These fungi appear to overwinter on plants adjacent to apple orchards.

     

    Chemical Control

    Fungicides applied approximately every two to three weeks, starting with second cover, will generally control SBFS. Accumulated leaf wetness hours from fruit set (170 to 220 h) can be used to more accurately time the first SBFS fungicide application. After that, timing should be based on the amount of rain and the time from the previous fungicide application. The most effective fungicides against SBFS include the strobilurins, Flint, Sovran, Pristine, and thiophanate-methyl, Topsin, T-Methyl. Captan is not as effective, but provides good control, and is a useful multi-site fungicide to mix with the more effective single-site materials for resistance management. Inspire Super and other pre-mixes that contain a QoI (Luna Sensation, Merivon) also provide good control.

    Fungicides should be re-applied when they are depleted, either by rain or breakdown over time. Use the following depletion rules, applying whichever comes first.

    • Pristine (14.5 oz/A) – 2.5 inches rain or 21 days
    • Flint (2.5 oz/A), Sovran (6.4 oz/A), or thiophanate methyl (0.8 lb/A or 20 fl. oz/A) PLUS captan ( 2.5 lb/A Captan 80 or equivalent rate for other formulations) – 2.0 inches of rain or 21 days
    • Captan (4 lb/A Captan 80 or equivalent rate for other formulations) – 1.5 inches of rain or 14 days 

      

    Alternative Chemicals. Sulfur, liquid lime sulfur and phosphorous acid compounds (for example Prophyte, Phostrol) also suppress SBFS, though less is known about their depletion rates. With liquid lime sulfur there is risk of russeting on fruit and foliar stress.

    SBFS blemishes may be removed or significantly reduced using postharvest fruit dip treatments in low-concentration chlorine bleach solutions (500 to 800 ppm chlorine) followed by brushing on a commercial grading line. 

    Non-Chemical Controls

    Cultural Control

    Anything that slows drying in apple tree canopies encourages SBFS development. So larger trees that are poorly pruned develop more disease. Similarly, trees in areas where air circulation is poor develop more disease. The source of many of the SBFS fungi is wild plant hosts in woods or hedgerows adjacent to orchards. Cutting back these border plants, particularly well-known hosts such as wild blackberries, reduces disease pressure. Keep grass in the orchard mowed to reduce humidity in tree canopies.

    Resistant Varieties

    Apple cultivars vary in the amount of SBFS at harvest, but this is primarily related to harvest date rather than resistance pathogen colonization. Later harvested cultivars have the highest SBFS incidence. Lower SBFS incidence on the earlier maturing cultivars apparently results from disease avoidance, as these apples are exposed to fewer hours of wetting and high relative humidity, environmental factors favorable for growth of SBFS fungi.

     

     

    White Rot and Black Rot

    Botryosphaeria species
    Written by: 
    Adapted from Penn State fact sheets

    Overview

    The white rot fungus, Botryosphaeria dothidea, often referred to as “Bot rot” or Botryosphaeria rot, can be a distinct canker on twigs, limbs, and trunks. The fungus produces two types of fruit rot, but leaf infections do not occur. Drought stress and winter injury have been associated with an increase in infection and canker expansion. This is a relatively weak fungal pathogen and is only problematic when a tree is stressed, such as due to drought, winter injury, insect damage, or fire blight.

    The black rot and frogeye leaf spot fungus, Botryosphaeria obtusa, attacks fruit, leaves, and bark of apple trees and other pomaceous plants.

    Symptoms of white rot

    New infections on twigs and limbs start to become evident by early summer, appearing as small circular spots or blisters. As the lesions expand, the area becomes slightly depressed.

    Cankers stop enlarging in late fall and can be indistinguishable from black rot canker, making isolation of the pathogen necessary for correct identification of the causal organism. By spring small, black pycnidia (the spore-containing structures of the fungus), appear on the smooth surface of new cankers. On older cankers, these may be present throughout the year. Cankers exhibit a scaly, papery outer bark that is often orange and that can easily be peeled off of the tree. Tissues beneath the canker surfaces are watery or slimy and brown. Most cankers are not deep, extending at most to the wood.

    Fruit rot infection results in two types of symptoms, depending on the developmental stage of the fruit. One type originates from external infections and the other appears to start internally. External rot is first visible as small, slightly sunken, brown spots that may be surrounded by a red halo. As the decayed area expands, the core becomes rotten and eventually the entire fruit. Red-skinned apple varieties may bleach during the decay process and become a light brown. Because of this characteristic, the disease may be referred to as "white rot."

    Symptoms of black rot

    The first signs of black rot are small, purple spots appearing on the upper surfaces of leaves and enlarging into circles 1∕8 to ¼ inch in diameter. Leaf margins remain purple, while the centers turn brown, tan, or yellowish brown, giving the lesions a "frogeye" appearance. Small, black pycnidia (pimplelike fruiting bodies of the fungus) may appear in lesion centers.

    Infected areas of branches and limbs are reddish brown and are sunken slightly below the level of surrounding healthy bark. These cankers may expand each year, a few eventually reaching several feet in length. The margins of older cankers are slightly raised and lobed, and the bark within their centers usually turns light-colored, loosens, and scales off raggedly. This characteristic is not confined to black rot cankers, so it is not a good diagnostic symptom. Pycnidia form on dead wood of the cankered areas.

    Fruit rot usually appears at the calyx end of the fruit. It can originate at any wound that penetrates the epidermis, including insect injuries. There is usually one spot per fruit, a characteristic that distinguishes black rot from bitter rot. Initially, the infected area becomes brown and may not change in color as it increases in size, or it may turn black. As the rotted area increases, often a series of concentric bands form, darker bands of mahogany brown to black alternating with brown bands. The flesh of the decayed area remains firm and leathery. Eventually, the apple completely decays, dries, and shrivels into a mummy. Pycnidia containing spores of the black rot fungus appear on the surface of rotted tissue.

    Disease Cycle for white rot

    White rot overwinters in fruiting bodies on dead, woody tissue. During spring and summer rains, spores ooze from these structures and are splashed to other parts of the tree. Dead wood and fire-blighted twigs and branches are especially susceptible to invasion, but living twigs, branches, and trunks may also be attacked. Fruit infections can occur at any time from the bloom period to harvest. Infections in young apples usually are not evident until the apples are nearly mature. External rot lesions are found most commonly on the sides of fruit exposed to high temperatures. Drought, heat stress, mechanical wounding, and winter injury favor disease development. The fungus grows best under warm conditions, with the optimum temperature for infection about 86°F.

    Disease Cycle for black rot

    Black rot can infect from petal fall through harvest. The fungus overwinters in fruiting bodies (pycnidia and perithecia) on dead bark, dead twigs, and mummified fruit. It can invade almost any dead, woody tissue and is frequently found in tissue killed by fire blight. Early leaf infections often are visible as a cone-shaped area on the tree, with a dead twig or mummified fruit at the apex.

    In the spring, black pycnidia and perithecia release conidia and ascospores, respectively. Conidia may continue to be produced during wet periods throughout the summer and may remain viable for long periods. When wet, the pycnidium produces a gelatinous coil containing thousands of spores. Disseminated by splashing rains, wind, and insects these spores can infect leaves, the calyxes of blossoms, tiny fruit, and wounds in twigs and limbs. Leaf infection develops during petal fall, at which time conidia attach, germinate in a film of moisture within 5 to 6 hours, and penetrate through stomata or wounds. The optimum temperature for infection is about 68°F. Infections of fruit and wood may not become visible for several weeks.

    Initial fruit infections occur during the bloom period but are not usually apparent until midsummer as the apple approaches maturity. Throughout the growing season, infections occur through wounds. Harvest injuries may become infected and the fruit may decay during or after storage, especially if the fruit was harvested during a wet period. Dead fruit spurs or twigs, particularly those killed by fire blight, pruning wounds, winter injuries, and sun scald, are commonly invaded by the black rot fungus.

    Management for both diseases

    Since stress predisposes apple trees to white rot and black rot, take measures to minimize stressors, such as water stress, winter injury, disease, and insect damage.

    Management programs based on sanitation to reduce inoculum levels in the orchard are the primary means of control. Prune out cankers, dead branches, twigs, etc. which serve as inoculum sources and dispose of dead wood. This should be an important component of both current-season and long-range management. Prune and remove cankers at least 15 inches below the basal end; properly dispose of prunings by burial or burning.

    Remove mummified fruit of black rot if practical. Cortland apples are especially prone to forming black rot mummies.

    Captan + Topsin M and fungicides containing a strobilurin (FRAC Group 11 Fungicides) as an active ingredient are effective at managing white rot and black rot on fruit. Merivon provides excellent control of summer diseases such as white rot, black rot, bitter rot, fly speck and sooty blotch. Note: sterol inhibitor fungicides, such as Indar, Rally, Topguard, have no activity against black rot.

     

    Bitter Rot

    Colletrotrichum gloeosporioides and C. acutatum.

    Overview

    • Bitter rot of apple is more common in the warm, humid climate of the southeatern U.S., and occurs sporadically in the Northeast. Extensive damage can develop rapidly in New England orchards during periods of prolonged hot, wet weather if inoculum sources are present.
    • Bitter rot caused by fungi in the same genus, Colletotrichum, with many different species shown to infect apple fruit. 
    • Colletotrichum spp. infect during extended warm rainy periods after fruit set, continuing through the summer. Infection risk increases as fruit matures.
    • Bitter rot is more common on light or bicolored fruit such as Empire, Honeycrisp, Mclntosh, Sunrise, Paulared and Jonagold.

    Symptoms

    Typically apples first show bitter rot symptoms in July and August, and fruit susceptibility increases as it matures. Humidity, and the presence of sources of inoculumare also factors that determine when the disease first appears. Bitter rot spots usually appear on the side of the apple directly exposed to the sun. Early fruit lesions are brown, slightly sunken spots. If the apple is cut open, the rotted area beneath the lesion is V-shaped in cross-section. Bitter rot lesions expand most rapidly at a temperature of 86oF. As lesions expand they remain light to dark brown and flattened, developing concentric, target-like rings of spores, colored pink, slight orange to light tan. Severely infected fruit become shriveled and persist on the tree as mummies, a source of inoculum.

    Disease Cycle

    The disease cycle of the bitter rot fungi related to apple fruit infection is only partially understood. Bitter rot fungi overwinter in dead wood or mummified fruit in apple trees, and may live on other plants, including trees surrounding orchards or broad-leaf weeds in orchards. The fungi produce spores in spring and summer, which are released by rain and dispersed throughout trees. The optimum temperature for spore germination is 79 to 80 F, when it takes only 5 hours to infect. Infections commonly start during prolonged warm, wet weather. As soon as infected fruit produce spores, these can cause new infections. Another source of inoculum is shoots killed by fire blight which become colonized by bitter rot fungi in the same year. 

    Chemical Control

    Fungicide applications targeting bitter rot should start at fruit set if weather and previous disease history favor infection at that time. For the rest of the summer in orchards with a history of the disease, fungicides to manage bitter rot should be applied when prolonged warm, wet weather is predicted, particularly as fruit matures.  Among the most effective fungicides against bitter rot are the EBDCs. Unfortunately they have a 77 day pre-harvest limit. Captan and Ziram are also effective, as are Pristine and Merivon, group 7 + 11 pre-mixed fungicides. For resistance management and improved efficacy, Pristine or Merivon should be tank-mixed with captan at one half the full rate. No more than 4 applications of Pristine or Merivon should be made per year. Note: Topsin M has no effect on bitter rot.

    Cultural Control

    The most important cultural control is to remove sources of inoculum: dead wood, branches and shoots with cankers and fruit mummies. Following fire blight outbreaks, dead shoots should be removed as soon as practical as these can become infected with bitter rot and become inoculum sources. While yet unproven, a few other cultural methods may help control bitter rot. It may also be useful to avoid or minimize stress, particularly drought and heat stress. Some tree species close to orchards may support Colletotrichum spp., making it worthwhile to establish open buffer spaces between trees and orchard borders. Removing leaves, dead twigs and fruit mummies on the ground may reduce inoculum. Finally, removing broad-leaf weeds in the orchard may remove another source of inoculum.

    Chemical Fruit Thinning and Other Plant Growth Regulator Uses

    Apple Fruit Thinning

    Written by: 
    Duane Greene, University of Massachusetts Amherst
    Revised by Renae Moran, Univ. of Maine

    Fruit thinning is an essential practice for producing commercial quality fruit and for getting consistent yield from year to year.  It increases the overall value of fruit because the reduction in crop load increases the size of fruit that remain.  For some varieties, there is an improvement in red color, as well. 

     Apple trees are prone to biennial bearing or the condition in which trees produce abundantly one year and poorly the next.  Chemical thinning in one season will increase the amount of bloom in the following season (return or repeat bloom).  Hand thinning is not as effective as chemical thinning for promoting return bloom.

    The chemicals and concentrations a grower chooses, the timing of their application, and the environmental factors encountered before, during, and after application all influence the ultimate thinning response. This section of the Guide will discuss the chemicals most frequently used, the circumstances when they are used and the precautions associated with their use. Also discussed will be the timing of the applications and the environmental factors one must be mindful of when applying chemical thinners.

    Thinning Chemicals

    Blossom thinners

    12 mm is equivalent to ½ inch

    Some of the first attempts to thin involve using caustic chemicals to prevent pollination, pollen germination or pollen tube growth. Many of these caustic chemicals can cause phytotoxicity to the leaves and russeting of the fruit. If poor pollination occurs during bloom, thinning should be postponed until early fruit set. 

    Lime sulfur, lime sulfur plus oil or ammonium thoiosulfate are mild blossom thinners.  Although none of these have label approval for thinning they may be applied legally on apples for other reasons. 

    While less frequently used, hormone sprays can thin when applied at bloom. A bloom spray of NAA and NAAm can reduce fruit set, but are generally not applied commercially during bloom because of grower uncertainty about the extent of initial set and the desire to assess initial set before attempting to adjust crop load. Further, the most effective time to apply NAA as a chemical thinner is when fruit diameter is 7 to 12 mm.

    Ethephon may also thin when applied at bloom or even several days earlier, at the balloon stage or red stage. The response appears to be quite cultivar and temperature sensitive. The use of ethephon as a blossom thinner has not been widely adopted except in locations where chemical thinning with other compounds is difficult and satisfactory results using other thinners is generally inadequate.

    Postbloom thinners

    The majority of chemical thinning is done with postbloom thinners. There is a comfort level for growers to delay thinner application until they know the extent of bee activity and pollination.

    Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). It is probably the most potent of the general-use thinners on the market today, and it is the preferred material for cultivars that are difficult to thin. Its thinning effectiveness is concentration dependent. Lower concentration may cause only modest thinning while higher concentrations may overthin and reduce fruit size or not increase fruit size even though the crop load is substantially reduced. Over application of NAA may also lead to pygmy fruit formation and severe leaf epinasty on some varieties. Therefore, NAA is often combined with another thinner, especially carbaryl, and used at lower and “safer” rates. The thinning action of NAA is sometimes not immediately apparent since fruit abscission following NAA application if often delayed by as much as one or two weeks relative to untreated trees.

    Naphthaleneacetamide (NAAm, NAD). NAD is a useful thinner that is frequently applied as a petal-fall spray. It is considered safer to use than NAA and it does not cause as severe leaf epinasty following application that is often experienced with NAA. NAD should be avoided on 'Delicious' since it may result in a high percentage of pygmy fruit that persist to harvest. NAD can be combined with carbaryl in situations were more aggressive thinning is desired.

    Carbaryl.  Carbaryl is the most versatile thinner in general use. It is a mild thinner, and since the thinning is not rate responsive, overthinning is rarely observed. It can be used effectively over a wide range of developmental stages from petal fall until fruit grow to 18 mm in diameter. It is very toxic to bees so practically speaking the earliest time of application is at petal fall after the bees have been removed from the orchard. The Sevin XLR Plus formulation may be less of a problem near bloom since the particle size is less like pollen thus it is less likely to be transported by bees back to the hive. One of the most important characteristics of carbaryl is that it can break up fruit clusters. Carbaryl is an insecticide rather than a hormone so it is applied at higher concentrations than other postbloom thinners. 

    Benzyladenine (BA). BA is a mild thinner when used by itself, but when combined with carbaryl it is a potent thinner combination that can overthin. The combination of BA with NAA for use on 'Delicious' and 'Fuji' is not recommended since pygmy fruit may form in some circumstances. Unlike other thinners, BA can increase fruit size beyond that attributed to a reduction in crop load.

    Protone® (S-Abscisic Acid, ABA). ABA is a naturally occurring compound that plays a critical role in regulation of several physiological processes in a plant, especially those related to stress. If a plant is stressed or if it is sprayed with ABA stomata close, resulting in a significant reduction in photosynthesis. This in turn results in a carbon deficit in the plant. In the case with pome fruit, this happens for a long enough period during the time when developing fruit are competing for photosynthate (7-15 mm) fruit abscission will be initiated. Special attention should be paid to the weather conditions that occur especially the three days following application. If the weather is cloudy and or the temperatures are warm to hot, thinning will be favored because these conditions will increase the carbon deficit within the tree. Protone® is OMRI organic certified.

    • Apples. Label recommendations for the use of Protone® on apples include using 1 to 2 applications from 5-12 mm fruit size. Starting out I would recommend using mid- concentration rates at the 10-12 mm stage.  A good nonionic surfactant is recommended for use with this product. In the past we used Regulaid with ABA with good success. This may be used with MaxCel (not NAA) for added thinning.  Protone® may cause some leaf yellowing and leaf abscission. The severity of this is  cultivar dependent. A small amount of 6-BA (MaxCel) may help reduce leaf yellowing and abscission.
    • Pears. Protone® is cleared for use on pears for thinning. Pears are more sensitive to ABA than are apples. Everything being equal, a greater thinning response may be expected when used on pears. Some leaf abscission and leaf yellowing when used on pear can be seen. Based upon experience with Bartlett pears, 6-BA (MaxCel) was unable to reverse this yellowing and leaf abscission effect when used in conjunction with Protone®.
       

    Ethephon.  Ethephon can be used as a postbloom thinner in situations where other chemical thinners are less effective or have undesirable side effects. Ethephon has a reputation for being an erratic thinner. Part of this can be attributed to a dramatic increase in thinning response with increasing temperature following application. Also, bloom and fruit susceptibility to ethephon varies depending upon the stage of development. Ethepon is an effective blossom thinner but application made just 7 days later appears to be much less effective. Fruit redevelop thinning sensitivity to ethephon at diameters between 16 and 22 mm. Since larger fruit are sensitive to ethephon, unlike most other chemical thinners, ethephon may have a place in a normal chemical thinning program as a "last chance" thinner where other thinners do not work or where a grower made a miscalculation early in the season, and failed to apply a thinner at the normal time.   

    Timing Thinner Application

    The weather following thinner application is probably the single most important factor influencing thinner efficacy. The weather can not be regulated, and an accurate forecast of the weather may not extend beyond 2 or 3 days. Increasingly, growers in the eastern part of the United States make two or more thinner applications over the thinning period. This is a good strategy since it spreads thinning out over time, and increases the possibility that thinner application will coincide with favorable thinning weather. It also tends to be safer since less aggressive thinning treatments are generally used, and the chance of overthinning is reduced.

    Before application. Cool, cloudy, wet periods preceding thinner application generally mean that thinning will be easier. Part of this is attributed to altered epicuticular wax and cuticle development on leaves which predisposes leaves to absorb more thinning chemical.  These conditions during and immediately after bloom may also lead to less vigorous fruit set, characterized by fruit that are not growing vigorously and have few seeds, increased seed abortion, and reduced carbohydrate reserves. Regardless of thinner absorption, these fruit will be easier to thin. Frost injury to spur leaves also will make fruit easier to thin. NAA penetration is greater into frost injured leaves and the markedly distorted spur leaves undoubtedly have a reduced photosynthetic capacity.

    The two most important environmental factors that influence foliar penetration of a chemical thinner are temperature and drying time. Warm temperatures enhance uptake of NAA by apple leaves. The longer the drying time of a thinning spray the greater the penetration into the leaf. In foliar penetration studies it has been reported that the penetration of NAD increased steadily over time as long as the spray droplet was prevented from drying. During the drying process uptake into the leaf was accelerated, presumably due to the concentration effect caused by the drying. Once the droplet dried, little additional penetration occurred. Therefore, the longer the time before droplet drying, the greater chemical uptake by foliage and fruit.

    Temperature following thinner application is the dominant factor influencing the response to a chemical thinner.  Elevated temperatures provides the stress required for thinners to work. Warm temperatures intensify competition among competing sinks at a time when metabolic demand is highest in the tree. If cool weather follows thinner application, thinning results are frequently disappointing. It is often better to wait 2 or 3 days until warm temperatures are forecast to occur after application than to apply a thinner when cool conditions (< 65 °F) prevail immediately after application. However, temperatures above 85 °F can lead to excessive thinning. 

    Several days of cloudy weather during the bloom period where incoming solar radiation is reduced to 10% to 15% of full sun can  can intensify fruit abscission.  Applying chemical thinning sprays at the beginning of a cloudy period probably will enhance thinning. Therefore, it may be advisable to delay thinner application under circumstances where trees may be exposed to several days of cloudy, warm weather to avoid overthinning. One or two days of sun following shading partially reversed the abscission-promoting effect of shading.

    Orchardists generally try to apply thinners well in advance of rain, but occasionally this cannot be avoided.  A good rule-of-thumb is if a chemical thinner dries on the leaf prior to the onset of rain, one can anticipate getting at least 80% of the thinning effect.

    Chemicals for Apple Thinning

    Timing Chemical Trade Name Rate per 100 gal
    dilute TRV
    REI (HOURS)
    Bloom Naphthaleneacetic acid-sodium Fruitone-L, PoMaxa, Refine 3.5 WSG, Refine 3.5L 2-4 oz 48
      ATS (ammonium thiosulfate)*   2 to 4 gal.  
      Lime sulfur (calcium polysulfide)* Lime Sulfur Solution

    4 to 10 gal (alone)

    2 gal )with oil)

    48
    Petal fall Naphthaleneacedtamide Amid-Thin W 4-8 oz  48
      Naphthaleneacetic acid-sodium Fruitone-L, PoMaxa, Refine 3.5 WSG, Refine 3.5L 2-4 oz 48
      Carbaryl Sevin XLR Plus, Sevin 4F 0.5 to 1.5 pt 12
      6-Benzyl Adenine (6-BA) Maxcel, RiteWay 48-200 oz 12
     

    6-Benzyl Adenine (6-BA)

    Exilis 9.5SC

    Exilis Plus

    9.6 to 25.6 fl oz

    see label

    12
    8-13 mm Fruit Size Naphthaleneacetic acid-sodium Fruitone-L, Pomaxa, Refine 3.5 WSG, Refine 3.5L 2-6 oz 48
      Carbaryl Sevin XLR Plus, Sevin 4F 0.5 to 1.5 pt 12
      6-Benzyl Adenine (6-BA) Maxcel, RiteWay 48-200 oz 12
      6-Benzyl Adenine (6-BA) Exilis plus, Exilis 9.5SC 6.4 to 25.6 fl oz 12
      S-Abscisic Acid (ABA) Protone® 6.6 to 33.1 oz 4
    15-20 mm Fruit Size Ethephon Ethrel 1 to 1.5 pt 48
      Carbaryl Sevin XLR Plus, Sevin 4F 0.5 to 1.5 pt 12
      S-Abscisic Acid (ABA) Protone® 6.6 to 33.1 oz 4
    VT and CT only ACC Accede® (apple and peach only) 23 to 46 fl oz 12

    * not registered for chemical thinning in New England

    Specific apple variety thinning recommendations

    ALL RATES ARE AMOUNT PER 100 GALLONS WATER DILUTE TREE ROW VOLUME (TRV)

    Variety 30-80%
    full bloom
    Petal fall 5-6 mm
    (1 week after bloom)
    8-14 mm fruit size
    (2-3 weeks after bloom)

    Cortland

      1 to 2 pt carbaryl 1 to 2 pt carbaryl

    Delicious (spur type)

    2 gal ATS 2 oz NAA plus 1 pt carbaryl 64 oz 6-BA plus 1 pt carbaryl plus 1 qt ultrafine spray oil

    Delicious (non-spur type)

      1 pt carbaryl 48 oz 6-BA + 1 pt Sevin OR 2 oz Fruitone + 1 pt Sevin
    Empire   2 oz NAA + 1 pt carbaryl 64 oz 6-BA + 1 pt carbaryl OR 3 oz NAA + 1 pt carbaryl
    Fuji 2 gal ATS 64 oz 6-BA + 1 pt carbaryl 64 oz. 6-BA + 1 pt carbaryl
    Gala 2 gal ATS 3 oz NAA + 1 pt carbaryl 64 oz. 6-BA + 1 pt carbaryl
    Gingergold     2 oz NAA + 1 pt carbaryl
    Golden Delicious (no Provide)   3 oz NAA + 1 pt carbaryl 64 oz. 6-BA + 1 pt carbaryl OR 6 oz NAA + 1 pt carbaryl
    Golden Delicious (with Provide)   3 oz NAA + 1 pt carbaryl 48 oz. 6-BA + 1 pt carbaryl OR 4 oz NAA + 1 pt carbaryl
    Granny Smith     3 oz NAA + 1 pt carbaryl
    Honeycrisp 2 gal ATS 4 oz NAA + 1 pt carbaryl 3 oz NAA + 1 pt carbaryl
    Jonagold     3 oz NAA + 1 pt carbaryl
    Lady Apple   3 oz NAA + 1 pt carbaryl 4 oz NAA + 1 pt carbaryl
    Liberty   3 oz NAA + 1 pt carbaryl 64 oz. 6-BA + 1 pt carbaryl OR 3 oz NAA + 1 pt carbaryl
    Macoun 2 gal ATS 3 oz NAA + 1 pt carbaryl 64 oz. 6-BA + 1 pt carbaryl OR 4 oz NAA + 1 pt carbaryl
    McIntosh (non-spur type)     2 oz NAA + 1 pt carbaryl OR 36 oz 6-BA + 1 pt carbaryl
    McIntosh (spur-type)     3 oz NAA + 1 pt carbaryl OR 48 oz 6-BA + 1 pt carbaryl
    Mutsu (Crispin)     2 oz NAA + 1 pt carbaryl
    Northern Spy   3 oz NAA + 1 pt carbaryl 2 oz NAA + 1 pt carbaryl
    Paulared   3 oz NAA + 1 pt carbaryl 3 oz NAA + 1 pt carbaryl

    Also see: Variety Thinning Recommendations for mature trees - 8 to 12mm fruit size at Cornell Cooperative Extension, Eastern New York Commercial Horticulture

     

    Branching young trees

     

    Branching young trees

    Timing product concentration rate comments
    BEFORE buds break in spring on 1-year old wood Maxcel, Promalin; exilis plus, exilis 9.5 SC 5,000 ppm see label If dormant buds are present on one-year-old wood only. DO NOT apply after bud break. See product labels for more details and instructions.
    AFTER bud break in spring on 1-year old wood Maxcel, Promalin; exilis plus, exilis 9.5 SC 400 to 500 ppm see label If buds have broken, and the leaf tissue is showing on one-year-old wood. Apply by spraying with a back-pack sprayer. Works best when temperatures are warm and there is enough tissue to absorb the PGR. Note: Never add surfactant to a solution of MaxCel as it is already included in the formulated product. Promalin should be combined with a NIS following the label instructions.
    2-year old wood, coinciding with bud break Maxcel 1,500 ppm 9.2 fl oz per gal water Make a notch with a hacksaw blade (narrow, fine-toothed saw, usually used for cutting metal) just above the existing bud scar on the leader. Then, on nonbearing trees, immediately spray the cut with a 1500 PPM solution.

    For more information on branching youg trees, see the UMass Fact Sheet F-140 Branching Young Apple Trees with Plant Growth Regulators

    Minor PGR uses on apples

    Always look at the label before making application of any PGR’s as there are further use directions and warnings on the label which may not be included here.

    ReTain® (Valent USA) - For increasing fruit set of apple, cherry, European pear. APPLE: Apply one pouch of ReTain per acre, as a single application from pink stage to full bloom. Applications made prior to pink stage or after full bloom will significantly reduce efficacy of the treatment. Do not apply after petal fall. CHERRY: Apply one to two pouches of ReTain per acre during bloom. Retain may be applied as a single application of up to two pouches, or as sequential applications of one pouch per application. Applications between popcorn stage (balloon stage) to first bloom are more effective than earlier or later applications. Do not apply after petal fall. EUROPEAN PEAR: Apply one pouch of ReTain per acre, as a single application from white bud stage to full bloom. Applications made prior to white bud stage or after full bloom will significantly reduce efficacy of the treatment. Do not apply after petal fall. Can also be applied to European pear at 10 mm fruit size at a rate of one pouch of ReTain at 10 mm fruit size to increase fruit set.

    Promalin® (Valent USA) and Perlan® (Fine Americas) to increase fruit set in APPLE following frost by stimulating the development of parthenocarpic fruit. Make a single application at a rate of 1-2 pints in 50-200 gallons of water per acre prior to or within 24 hours following a frost or freeze event, when the majority of the crop is between early bloom and full bloom. Do not apply to frozen foliage, blossoms or developing fruit, allow trees to completely thaw prior to application. Do not use a surfactant. Do not apply more than 2 times for this use.

    Promalin® or  Maxcel ® (Valent USA) and Perlan® or Exilis 9.5SC (Fine Americas), latex paint application FOR INCREASING BRANCHING AND FEATHERING OF NON-BEARING APPLE, PEAR AND CHERRY TREES. Such an application improves tree structure by improving branch angles and increasing bud break and shoot growth in nursery stock and young trees. At the location where branching is desired, apply a uniform application in latex paint mix at a rate of 5,000-7,500 ppm (0.8-1.2 fl. oz./pint of latex paint). The latex paint mix should be applied using a brush or sponge to achieve thorough coverage of the bark surface. Application should only be made to one year old wood in the spring once terminal buds begin to swell but before shoots emerge. Applications made following shoot emergence may result in injury to the young shoots. DO NOT apply latex paint mix after bud break. Doing so may cause injury to shoot tips and reduce the effectiveness of the application for shoot growth. One-year pre-harvest interval. See F-140 Branching Young Apple Trees with Plant Growth Regulators

    Protone® is registered as a defoliant to stimulate leaf drop in the fall. It may be used on nursery trees or on trees in the orchard carrying green leaves into the fall. A good nonionic surfactant should be used with this and at a rate between 250 and 1000 ppm. (16.5 - 66.1 ounces per acre.) Application on trees in the orchard is meant to speed leaf abscission and speed the development of dormancy. (May be particularly handy on non-cropping younger trees still actively growing later into the fall.)

    Pre-harvest drop control of apples

    Written by: 
    Revised by Renae Moran, Univ. of Maine

    There are three options for using plant growth regulators for pre-harvest drop control. One is NAA, sold as several different products, another is AVG, sold as ReTain (Valent USA Agricultural Products), and the third is 1-methylcylopropene sold as HarvistaTM (Agrofresh). The three differ in mode of action and timing of application. NAA is typically applied just once before the onset of fruit drop and lasts for about one week before its effect is gone. ReTain is typically applied 2-3 weeks before anticipated harvest, has long lasting drop control if applied under favorable conditions, and repeat applications can be made to extend the period of time apples will remain on the tree. Harvista can be applied 3 to 21 days before harvest and requires specialized equipment (contact Agrofresh).  Both ReTain and Harvista will slow fruit ripening.  For an excellent summary/discussion of uisng apple PGR's for drop control, see this Penn State University article: Apple PGRs - Prevention of Preharvest Drop in Apple Orchards.


    Application details for NAA (Fruitone-L, Refine 3.5 WSG, Refine 3.5L)

    • rates of 10 ppm are usually effective, however, up to 20 ppm can be used
    • good coverage at dilute application is preferred
    • apply just as apples starts to loosen; apply too early and drop control will be limited; apply too late, and drop will have already started
    • drop control can last for 7-10 days; sometimes two applications (at 5-7 days apart) can extend that to 14 days
    • NAA application can result in accelerated fruit maturity and fruit softening

    For more information: Getting the most out of that "old" stop drop: NAA (http://healthyfruit.info/hf090517ved818.html#h)


    Application details for ReTain

    !Note that the ReTain label gives very specific instructions depending on intended use -- read it!

    General use guidelines for ReTain include:

    • apply 21 to 7 days before anticipated harvest (7 day PHI)
    • use one pouch (or less) per application; two applications/two pouches are allowed
    • on Honeycrisp and Gala, consider using reduced rates -- early application of ReTain can inhibit color development on these varieties
    • use an organosilicone surfactant at a concentration of 0.05 to 0.1% (6.4 to 12.8 oz surfactant per 100 gallons water) with ReTain, do not apply when temperature exceeds 85 degrees F.
    • dilute applications are recommended, up to 2 X concentration
    • avoid application when rain is expected within 12 hours
    • do not apply to stressed trees

    For more information: Double Applications of ReTain® to provide longer fruit drop control compared to the standard single application ReTain 


    Application details for HarvistaTM

    • applied at a rate of 48 to 242 fl. oz.
    • Do not add any water to the container 
    • Do not allow product to contact any copper
    • drop control can last for 7-10 days
    •  

    Return Bloom Enhancement

    Varieties with a strong tendency for biennial bearing may have insufficient bloom in the 'off' year and consequent low yield.  Ethephon and NAA products can be applied at lose doses in summer for a modest increase in return bloom.  Apply these in the 'on' year in four weekly (or every two weeks) applications beginning six to eight weeks after petal fall.  These compounds can hasten ripening in summer apples. 

     

    Chemical Product Rate / 100 gal. TRV Rate / Acre REI (hours) PHI (days
    NAA

    Fruitone L

    PoMaxa

    Refine 3.5 L

    3 fl oz 2 to 8 fl oz 48 2
      Refine 3.5 WSC 1 to 2 oz see label 48 2
    Ethephon Ethrel 0.5 fl oz 0.5 to 3 pts 48 7
               

     

     

    Vegetative growth control

    Vegetative growth control can be achieved by application(s) of Apogee or Kudos 27.5 WDG, both containing the active ingredient prohexadione-calcium. In addition to providing growth control, early application can suppress fire blight of shoots. 

    Application details for Apogee or Kudos 27.5 WDG on apples

    • Apply beginning at late bloom to early petal fall; earlier applications seem to give better results (Ed. note: in 2019, Kudos was approved for use beginning at pink bud stage @ 6 oz. per acre. This application in particular may help suppress fire blight and result in improved growth control, although follow-up applications may still be necessary. Only the Kudos formulation of prohexadione-calcium has the specific pink timing recommendation. The Apogee label still says application beginning at 1-3 inches of shoot growth.)
    • Apply at rates of 3 to 12 oz. per 100 gallons of dilute spray water depending on the amount of growth control desired and number of anticipated applications
    • Repeat applications at 1 to 4 week intervals may be necessary for season-long growth control
    • Do not apply more than 48 oz per acre within any 21-day interval, and there is a maximum of 99 oz per acre per season 
    • Always use a water conditioner such as ammonium sulfate, Choice, or Quest.
    • Do not tank mix with sprays containing calcium
    • Chemical thinning efficacy may be decreased when using prohexadione-calcium
    • Direct spray to top of trees if only vigor control is desired in the top of the tree
    • Not recommended for use on Empire, may cause russetting

    Spray Table

    1 - Dormant to Silver Tip (apple)

    DISEASE FRAC Product

    Rate/

    Acre

    REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
    Fire blight M1 Badge SC 0.5 to 1.5 pt. 48 0   This and the following copper products will also provide 5 to 7 days of protection from apple scab.
      M1 Badge X2 3.5 to 7 lb. 48 0    
      M1 Champ Dry Prill 5.5 to 10.5 lb. 48 0    
      M1  Champ Formula 2 Flowable 5.3 to 10.5 pt. 48 0    
      M1 C-O-C-S WDG 8 to 11.7 lb. 24 0    
      M1 Cuprofix Ultra 40 Disperss 5 to 7.5 lb 48 0    
      M1 Kocide 3000 3.5 to 7 lb. 48 0    
      M1 Kocide 3000-O 3.5 to 7 lb. 48 0   Approved for organic use. 
    Apple scab none urea 44 lb. 0 0   Spray apple leaves on trees after harvest or on the ground in fall or spring. Mix 44 lb. of food grade urea (46-0-0) in 100 gal. of water.
    INSECT IRAC PRODUCT RATE/
    ACRE
    REI-hours PHI-DAYS EFFICACY COMMENTS
    European red
    mite
    None Horticultural oil 2 to 3 gal. per
    100 gal. water.
    Varies by product, 4 or 12 hours. 0 High Many brand name products, check label to confirm REI & PHI.   Phytotoxicity more likely if  sprays concentration is more than 3x. Use 3 gal. oil per 100 gal. water until Green Tip, 2 gal. from Green Tip until Tight Cluster.  Do not use within 24 to 48 hours before freezing temperatures, or if temperature is below 35F following a freeze. Do not apply within 10 to 14 days of sprays containing captan or sulfur.
    Winter moth or European fruit
    lecanium
    None

    Horticultural oil

    2 to 3 gal per
    100 gal water.
    Varies by product, 4 or 12 hours. 0 Rating not available.  Thorugh coverage will suppress overwintered eggs. Winter moth pressure higher near Atlantic coast, less pressure inland.  European fruit lecanium is rarely found.  See comments above about oil dose and cautions.

     

    2 - Green Tip (apple)

    DISEASE FRAC Product

    Rate/

    Acre 

    REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
    Apple scab M1 Badge SC 0.5 to 1.5 pt. 48 0 Moderate This and the other copper products below provide 5 to 7 days of apple scab protection. DO NOT use after green tip.
      M1 Badge X2 3.5 to 7 lb. 48 0 Moderate  
      M1 Champ Dry Prill 5.5 to 10.5 lb. 48 0 Moderate  
      M1  Champ Formula 2 Flowable 5.3 to 10.5 pt. 48 0 Moderate  
      M1 C-O-C-S WDG 8 to 11.7 lb. 24 0 Moderate  
      M1 Cuprofix Ultra 40 Disperss 5 to 7.5 lb 48 0 Moderate  
      M1 Kocide 3000 3.5 to 7 lb. 48 0 Moderate  
      M1 Kocide 3000-O 3.5 to 7 lb. 48 0 Moderate OMRI-listed
        Cueva 0.5 to 2.0 gals. 12 0   ONRI-listed.  See label for restrictions.
      M3 Manzate Pro-Stick 6 lb. 24 Bloom High DO NOT apply more than 24 lb./A/year or apply this rate after bloom
      M3 Penncozeb 75 DF 6.4 lb. 24 Bloom High DO NOT apply more than 24 lb./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
      M3 Dithane F-45 Rainshield 4.8 qt 24 Bloom High DO NOT apply more than 19.2 qt./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
      M3 Polyram 80 DF 6 lb. 24 Bloom High DO NOT apply more than 24 lb./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
      M3 Manzate Pro-Stick 3 lb. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 21 lb/A per year.
      M3 Penncozeb 75 DF 3.2 lb. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 22.4 lb/A per year.
      M3 Dithane F-45 Rainshield 2.4 qt. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 16.8 qt/A per year.
      M3 Polyram 80 DF 3 lb. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 21 lb/A per year
      M3 Ziram 76DF 6 lb. 48 14 Low DO NOT apply more than 42.4 lb./A or more than 7 applications per year.
      M4 Captan 80WWDG 2.5 to 5 lb.  48 0 High DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 40 lb./A of Captan 80 per year.
      M4 Captan 50 WP 8 lb. 24 0 High DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 64 lb./A of Captan 50WP per year.
      M4 Captan 4L 3 to 4 qt. 24 0 High DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 32 qt./A of Captan 4L per year.
     

    M4

     

     

    M3

    Captan 80WDG 

    +
    Manzate Pro-Stick

    2.5 lb.

     

    3 lb.

    24 77 High Captan plus mancozeb provides good protection in blocks with low scab inoculum. Adjust rates of other formulations appropriately.
     

    U12

     

    M3

    Syllit FL

    +
    Manzate Pro-Stick (or equivalent)

    1.5 pt.

     

    3 lb.

    48 not after pink High To improve efficacy and for resistance management, apply with Manzate Pro-Stick at 3 lb/A rate, or equivalent EBDC. Apply before infection. DO NOT apply more than 2 applications per year. DO NOT apply after pink. 
      7 Excalia 3-4 fl oz 12 not after petal fall   Use only between green tip and petal fall. No more than 2 applications. Do not apply with oil.
      9 Scala SC 7 to 10 fl. oz. 12 72 Moderate *RM Effectiveness is rate dependent. Avoid use above 70º F. DO NOT apply more than 40 fl oz/A per year OR more than 4 applications per yr.
      9 Vangard WG 5 oz. 12 0 Moderate *RM Effectiveness is rate dependent. Avoid use above 70º F. DO NOT apply more than 30 fl oz/A per year OR more than 4 applications per yr.
    *RM. Fungicide with a high risk of developing pathogen resistance. Follow resistance management recommendations here.https://netreefruit.org/apples/resistance-management-apple-fungicides
    Insect irac Product

    Rate/

    Acre 

    REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
    European
    red mite ERM
    None Horticultural oil 1 to 2 gal. oil per
    100 gal. water
    Varies by product, 4 or 12 hours. 0 High with thorough coverage. Many brand name products, check label to confirm REI & PHI.   Phytotoxicity more likely if spray concentration is  more than 3x. Use 2 gal. oil per 100 gal. tankmix until Tight Cluster.  Do not use oil within 24 to 48 hours before freezing temperatures, or if temperature is below 35F following a freeze. Do not apply within 10 to 14 days of sprays containing captan or sulfur.
    Rosy apple aphid RAA Timing is critical for RAA effective RAA suppression.  RAA colonies may be present at Green Tip, but usually not noticeable until Half-inch Green.  Application must be made before RAA feeding causes leaves to curl, typically at the Pink stage.  Postbloom control of RAA is much less effective.
      1B *Diazinon 50WP 2 to 4 lbs. (1 lb. per 100 gal. dilute) 96 21 High Minimum interval is 14 days. RAA may not be on label.  Multiple alternate diazinon products.
      3A & 4A *Leverage 360 (L) 2.4 to 2.8 fl. oz. 12 7 High Minimum interval 14 days.
      3A & 28 *Besiege (SC) 6 to 12 fl. oz. 24 21 High Minimum interval 10 days.
      4A Actara  4.5 oz.  12 35 High

    Minimum interval 10 days. PHI varies with application rate.

      4A *Admire Pro (L) 2.8 fl. oz. 12 7 High Minimum interval 10 days.
      4A Assail 30SG 2.5 to 4 oz. 12 7 High Minimum interval 12 days.
      4A Assail 70WP 1,1 to 1,7 oz. 12 7 High Minimum interval 12 days.
      4A & 6

    *Agri-Flex (L)
     

    5.5 to 8.5 fl. oz. 12 35 High Must be mixed with nonionic spreading, wetting, or penetrating adjuvant (such as horticultural oil at 1 gal/A).  Do not combine with sticker adjuvant.
      4A & 28 *Voliam Flexi (WDG) 6 to 7 oz. 12 35 High Minimum interval of 10 days.
      6 & 28 *Minecto Pro (L) 10 to 12 fl. oz. 12 28 High Minimum interval 21 days.
      7C Esteem 35WP 3 to 5 oz. 12 45 High Minimum interval 14 days.
      9A PQZ 2.4 to 3.2 fl oz 12 14 ?  
      9D Versys 1.5 fl oz/A 12 7 ? Unique mode of action. No pollinator restrictions.
      28 *Exirel (SC) 13.5 to 20.5 fl. oz. 12 3 High Minimum interval 7 days.  For best efficacy combine with spreader or other effective adjuvant.
                   
    Winter moth - Application at beginning of egg hatch with insecticides that work on contact and do not require feeding can provide some control before larvae begin feeding inside buds.  Bt products and Intrepid are not effective on Winter moth at Green Tip as the larvae do not feed until they are inside buds.  Winter moth is not listed as a target pest on most labels.  Rates are based on dose for other spring caterpillars.
      1B *Imidan 70W 2.1 to 5.75 lb. 96 7 (14 for U-pick) High  
      3A *Asana, *Baythroid, *Danitol, *Warrior etc., or mixture prodcuts that contain a pyrethroid insecticide. Check label Varies by product, see label. Varies by product, see label. High or Moderate  
      5 Delegate 25WG 4.5 to 7 oz. 4 7 High Minimum interval 21 days.
      5 Entrust 2 to 3 oz. 4 7 High Minimum interval 10 days.
      5 SpinTor 6 to 10 fl. oz. 4 7 High No minimum interval.
      28 *Altacor 35WDG 2.5 to 4.5 oz. 4 5 High Minimum interval 10 days. 
      28 *Exirel 8.5 to 17 fl. oz. 12 3 High Minimum interval 7 days.  For best efficacy combine with spreader or other effective adjuvant.
      NA Spear-LEP 1 to 2 pt 4 0 ? max rate per season 6 pt

    * Restricted Use Pesticide

    3 - Half-Inch Green (apple)

    DISEASE FRAC Product

    Rate/

    Acre 

    REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
    Apple scab M3 Manzate Pro-Stick 6 lb. 24 

    Bloom

    High DO NOT apply more than 24 lb./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
      M3 Penncozeb 75 DF 6.4 lb. 24 Bloom High DO NOT apply more than 24 lb./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
      M3 Dithane F-45 Rainshield 4.8 qt 24 Bloom High DO NOT apply more than 19.2 qt./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
      M3 Polyram 80 DF 6 lb. 24 Bloom High DO NOT apply more than 24 lb./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
      M3 Manzate Pro-Stick 3 lb. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 21 lb/A per year.
      M3 Penncozeb 75 DF 3.2 lb. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 22.4 lb/A per year.
      M3 Dithane F-45 Rainshield 2.4 qt. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 16.8 qt/A per year.
      M3 Polyram 80 DF 3 lb. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 21 lb/A per year
      M3 Ziram 76DF 6 lb. 48 14 Low DO NOT apply more than 42.4 lb./A or more than 7 applications per year.
      M4 Captan 80WDG 5 lb. 24 0 High DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 40 lb./A of Captan 80 per year.
      M4 Captan 50 WP 8 lb.

    24

    0 High DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 64 lb./A of Captan 50WP per year.
      M4 Captan 4L 3 to 4 qt. 24 0 High DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 32 qt./A of Captan 4L per year.
     

    M4

     

     

    M3

    Captan 80WDG 

    +
    Manzate Pro-Stick (or equivalent)

    2.5 lb.

    +

    3 lb.

    24 77 High Captan plus mancozeb provides good protection in blocks with low scab inoculum. Adjust rates of other formulations appropriately.
      7 Excalia 3 to 4 fl. oz. 12 not after petal fall   Use only between green tip and petal fall. No more than 2 applications. Do not apply with oil.
      7 Fontelis 16 to 20 fl. oz. 12 28 High *RM DO NOT tank mix with captan or thinning agents. DO NOT apply more than 61 fl. oz./A per year.
      7 Aprovia 5.5 to 7 fl. oz. 12 30 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 27.6 fl oz/A per season. 
      7 Sercadis 3.5 to 4.5 fl. oz. 12 0 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 18 fl. oz./A per season.
      7 Miravis 3.4 fl oz 12 30 High *RM Do not apply more than 13.6 fl oz per year
      9 Vangard 75 WG 7 to 10 fl. oz. 12 72 Moderate *RM DO NOT apply more than 40 fl. oz./A per year. Avoid use above 70º F.
      9 Scala SC 5 oz. 12 0 Moderate *RM DO NOT apply more than 30 oz./A per year. Avoid use above 70º F.
      7 + 9 Luna Tranquility 11.2 to 16 fl. oz. 12 72  High

    *RM Less effective above 70º F. 

      3+9 Inspire Super 12 fl oz 12 14    
      7 + 11 Luna Sensation 4 to 5.8 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 21 fl. oz. per year.
      7 + 11 Merivon 4 to 5.5 fl. oz. 12 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 22 fl. oz./A per year. 
     

    U12

     

    M3

    Syllit FL 

     +
    Manzate Pro-Stick (or equivalent)

    1.5 pt.
     

    3 lb.

    24 not after pink High To improve efficacy and for resistance management, apply with Manzate Pro-Stick at 3 lb/A rate, or equivalent EBDC. Apply before infection. DO NOT apply more than 2 applications per year. DO NOT apply after pink. 
        Cueva 0.5 to 1.0 gal. 12 0   Do not reapply within 5 days. OMRI-listed.
    Fire
    Blight
    F6 LifeGard 4.5 oz./100 gal 4 0 Good Begin applications when green tissue is present, prior to infection period. For Organic production.
        pHorcepHite 2-4 qt. 4 0 Suppression
    only
    Begin foliar application after trees are established and once leaves have flushed. Apply at 2-4 week intervals except when disease pressure is high, and then apply at 1-3 week intervals. Do not spray more than 4 times per year. OMRI listed, but with restrictions.
    *RM. Fungicide with a high risk of developing pathogen resistance. Follow resistance management recommendations here.
    Insect irac Product

    Rate/

    Acre 

    REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS

    American plum borer,

    Dogwood borer. Roundheaded apple tree borer, other trunk boring insects.

    The EPA has ruled that no amount of chlorpyrophos (Lorsban) residue is safe in foods.  Therefore, Lorsban is no longer an option for trunk borer management.   
    3a, 4A *Endigo ZC 5 to 6 fl oz 24 35    
    3, 28 *Besiege 6 to 12  fl oz 24 21    
    European
    red mite
    None Horticultural oil 1 to 2 gal. per
    100 gal.
    Check label.  Usually 4 or 12 hours. 0 High with thorough coverage. Many brand names.  Phytotoxicity more likely if applied in sprays concentrated more than 3x. Use 2 gal. oil per 100 gal. for application between Green Tip and Tight Cluster.  Do not use within 24 to 48 hours before freezing temperatures, or if temperature is below 35F following a freeze.
    Redbanded leafroller - Control not normally needed at Half-inch Green, and RBLR is usually suppressed by insecticides applied later for other pests.  If treatment needed at HIG, see Insecticide Activity Ratings table for numerous options with High efficacy.
    Rosy apple aphid - See Green Tip.
    San Jose scale None Horticultural oil 2 gal, per 100 gal. water     High Prebloom sprays are more effective if applied dilute, at higher volume. For severe infestations, combine oil with Esteem or Lorsban.
      7C Esteem 35WP 4 to 5 oz. 12 45 High In combination with horticultrual oil.
      16

    *Centaur 0.7
    WDG

    34.5 oz. 12 14 High Same comment as for oil.
    White prunicola scale (WPS) - Similar to White peach scale but WPS crawlers are two weeks earlier.  Both species can occur on apple.  See European red mite for oil rate and cautions.  Recommended threshold is 3 to 6 encrusted areas per tree.
    Winter moth - See Green Tip.  As winter moth larvae begin feeding on exposed tissue, Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (B.t.k.) products and Intrepid growth regulator that require ingestion for activity become effective options in addition to the materials listed at Green Tip. 
     

     

    11A

     

     

    B.t.k. product: Agree 3.8WS, Biobit HP (WP), Deliver 18WG, Dipel 10.3F, Javelin 7.5WDG, or Xen Tari 54DF.

    See label 4 0

    High with proper timing.

     

    Effective against small larvae.  Residual effect lasts for 3 to 5 days.
      18A *Intrepid 2F 8 to 16 fl. oz. 4 14 High with proper timing. Insect growth regulator that is most effective if applied when young larvae are feeding.
      NA Spear-LEP 1 to 2 pt 4 0   max rate 6 pt per season

    * = Restricted Use Pesticide

    4 - Tight Cluster (apple)

    Jump to INSECT

    DISEASE FRAC Product

    Rate/

    Acre 

    REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
    Apple scab M3 Manzate Pro-Stick 6 lb. 24  Not after bloom High DO NOT apply more than 24 lb./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
      M3 Penncozeb 75 DF 6.4 lb. 24 Not after bloom High DO NOT apply more than 24 lb./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
      M3 Dithane F-45 Rainshield 4.8 qt 24 Not after bloom High DO NOT apply more than 19.2 qt./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
      M3 Polyram 80 DF 6 lb. 24 Not after bloom High DO NOT apply more than 24 lb./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
      M3 Manzate Pro-Stick 3 lb. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 21 lb/A per year.
      M3 Penncozeb 75 DF 3.2 lb. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 22.4 lb/A per year.
      M3 Dithane F-45 Rainshield 2.4 qt. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 16.8 qt/A per year.
      M3 Polyram 80 DF 3 lb. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 21 lb/A per year
      M3 Ziram 76DF 6 lb. 48 14 Low DO NOT apply more than 42.4 lb./A or more than 7 applications per year.
      M4 Captan 80WDG 5 lb. 24 0 High DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 40 lb./A of Captan 80 per year.
      M4 Captan 50 WP 8 lb. 24 0 High DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 64 lb./A of Captan 50 per year.
      M4 Captan 4L 4 qt. 24 0 High DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 32 qt. /A of Captan 4L per year.
     

    M4

     

     

    M3

    Captan 80WDG +

    Manzate Pro-Stick

    2.5 lb. +

    3 lb.

    24 77 High Captan plus mancozeb for use in blocks with low scab inoculum. Other formulations - adjust rates. See limitations under individual materials.
      3 Cevya 3-5 oz. 12 0 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 15 oz./acre per year
      3 Indar 2F 8 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 32 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year. 
      3 Rally 40WSP 8 oz. 24 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 5 lb./A per year.
      3 Rhyme 6.5 fl. oz. 12 14  High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 26 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year.
      7 Aprovia 7 fl. oz. 12 30 High *RM DO NOT apple more than 26.7 fl. oz. per year. 
      7 Excalia 3 to 4 fl. oz. 12 not after petal fall   Use only between green tip and petal fall. No more than 2 applications. Do not apply with oil.
      7 Fontelis 20 fl. oz. 12 28 High *RM DO NOT mix with captan. DO NOT apply more than 61 fl oz/A per year.
      7 Sercadis 4.5 fl. oz. 12 0 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 18 fl oz/A per season.
      7 Miravis 3.4 fl oz 12 30 High *RM Do not apply more than 13.6 fl oz per year
      9 Scala SC  10 fl. oz. 12 72 Moderate

    *RM  DO NOT apply more than 40 fl oz/A per year.  Avoid use above 70º F. RR.

      9 Vangard 75 WG 5 oz. 12 0 Moderate *RM  DO NOT apply more than 30 oz/A per year. Avoid use above 70º F.
      11 Flint Extra 2.9 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 10.5 fl. oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      11 Flint 2.5 oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 11 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year. RR.
      11 Sovran 6.4 oz. 12 30 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 25.6 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      3 + 9 Inspire Super 12 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 60 fl. oz./A per year.
      7 + 9 Luna Tranquility 16 fl. oz. 12 72  High

    *RM Less effective above 70º F. DO NOT apply more than 54.7 fl. oz./A per year.

      7 + 11 Luna Sensation 5.8 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 21 fl. oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      7 + 11 Merivon 5.5 fl. oz. 12 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 22 fl. oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.  
      7 + 11 Pristine 18.5 oz 12 0 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 74 oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year. 
     

    U12

     

    M4

     

    M3

    Syllit FL 

    Captan 80WDG 
    OR
    Manzate Pro-Stick

    1.5 pt

    2.5 lb

    3 lb

    Not after pink 24 High For resistance management, tank mix with 2.5 lb/A Captan 80WDG OR 3 lb/A Penncozeb or equivalent. DO NOT make more than 2 applications per year. DO NOT apply after pink. DO NOT apply less than 7 days from previous application.
        Cueva 0.5 to 1.0 gals.   12 0 ONMR-listed. May cause russetting. 
    Fire
    Blight
    F6 LifeGard 4.5 oz/100 gal. 4 0 Good Begin applications when green tissue is present, prior to infection period.
    For Organic production
      none pHorcepHite 2-4 qt. 4 0 Suppression only Begin foliar application after trees are established and once leaves have flushed. Apply at 2-4 week intervals except when disease pressure is high, and then apply at 1-3 week intervals. Do not spray more than 4 times per year. OMRI listed, but with restrictions.
    Powdery
    ​Mildew
      Cevya 3-5 oz. 12 0 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 15 oz./acre per year
      3 Indar 2F 8 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 32 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year.
      3 Rally 40WSP 10 oz. 24 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 5 lb./A per year. 
      3 Rhyme 6.5 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 26 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year.
      3 Procure 480SC 16 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 56 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year.
      11 Flint Extra 2.9 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 10.5 fl. oz./A per year, , or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      11 Flint 2.5 oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 11 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      11 Sovran 6.4 oz 12 30 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 25.6 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      7 Aprovia 7 fl. oz. 12 30 Moderate *RM  DO NOT apple more than 26.7 fl oz per year. 
      7 Excalia 3 to 4 fl. oz. 12 Not after petal fall   Use only between green tip and petal fall. No more than 2 applications. Do not apply with oil.
      7 Fontelis 20 oz. 12 28 Moderate *RM DO NOT apply more than 61 fl. oz./A per year.
      7 Sercadis 4.5 fl. oz. 12 0 Moderate *RM DO NOT apply more than 18 fl. oz./A per season.
      7 Miravis 3.4 fl 12 30 Moderate *RM Do not apply more than 13.6 fl oz per year
      3 + 9 Inspire Super 12 fl. oz. 12 14 Moderate *RM  DO NOT apply more than 60 fl. oz./A per year.
      7 + 9 Luna Tranquility 16 fl. oz. 12 72 Moderate *RM Less effective above 70º F. DO NOT apply more than 54.7 fl. oz./A per year.
      7 + 11 Luna Sensation 5.8 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 21 fl. oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      7 + 11 Merivon 5.5 fl. oz. 12 0 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 22 fl. oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.  
      7 + 11 Pristine 18.5 oz. 12 0 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 74 oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year. 
      M2 SulfoMEX 3-6 qt. 24 -   Begin at tight cluster and continue spraying every 7-10 days until terminal shoots cease vegetative growth. Use on sulfur tolerant varieties only. Macintosh, Golden Delicious, Jonathan and certain other varieties may be injured by sulfur under certain climatic conditions.
      none SuffOil-X 1-2% 4 0   For Organic production
      M2 Sulfur DF 10 to 20 lb 24 - Moderate DO NOT apply sulfur within 14 days of an oil application.  DO NOT use captan in combination with or closely following sulfur products.  There are many sulfur formulations - follow the label.
      NC JMS Stylet oil 1 to 2 gal 4 0 Moderate DO NOT apply sulfur within 14 days of an oil application.  DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of an oil application. DO NOT use oil with spreader-stickers
      NA Sil-MATRIX 1 to 4 qt per 100 gallons 4 0 ? Suppression; also suppresses aphids, mites; OMRI
                   
    Rusts M3 Manzate Pro-Stick 6 lb. 24  Not after bloom High DO NOT apply more than 24 lb./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
      M3 Penncozeb 75 DF 6.4 lb. 24 Not after bloom High DO NOT apply more than 24 lb./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
      M3 Dithane F-45 Rainshield 4.8 qt 24 Not after bloom High DO NOT apply more than 19.2 qt./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
      M3 Polyram 80 DF 6 lb. 24 Not after bloom High DO NOT apply more than 24 lb./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
      M3 Manzate Pro-Stick 3 lb. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 21 lb/A per year.
      M3 Penncozeb 75 DF 3.2 lb. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 22.4 lb/A per year.
      M3 Dithane F-45 Rainshield 2.4 qt. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 16.8 qt/A per year.
      M3 Polyram 80 DF 3 lb. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 21 lb/A per year
      M3 Ziram 76DF 6 lb. 48 14 Moderate DO NOT apply more than 42.4 lb./A or more than 7 applications per year.
      3 Cevya 3-5 oz. 12 0 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 15 oz./acre per year
      3 Indar 2F 8 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 32 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year.
      3 Rally 40 WSP 10 oz. 24 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 5 lb./A per year.
      3 Rhyme 12 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 26 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year.
      7 Aprovia 7 fl. oz. 12 30 Moderate R*RM DO NOT apple more than 26.7 fl. oz. per year.
      7 Excalia 3 to 4 fl. oz. 12 not after petal fall   Use only between green tip and petal fall. No more than 2 applications. Do not apply with oil.
      7 Fontelis 20 oz. 12 28 Moderate *RM DO NOT tank mix with captan or thinning agents. DO NOT apply more than 61 fl. oz./A per year.
      7 Sercadis 4.5 fl. oz. 12 0 Moderate *RM DO NOT apply more than 4 applications or 18 fl oz/A per season.
      7 Miravis 3.4 fl oz 12 30   *RM Do not apply more than 13.6 fl oz / year
      11 Flint Extra 2.9 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 10.5 fl. oz./A per year, , or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      11 Flint 2.5 oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 11 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      NA EcoSwing 1.5 to 2 pt 4 0   OMRI
    *RM. Fungicide with a high risk of developing pathogen resistance. Follow resistance management recommendations here.

    IRAC Product

    Rate per

    Acre

     REI - hours

    PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS

    American plum borer, Dogwood borer, Roundheaded apple tree borer, and other trunk boring insects.  Also, see summer sprays.  Lorsban is no longer an option for trunk borer management. 

    3, 28 *Beseige 6 to 12 fl oz 24 21    
    3A, 4A
    *Endigo ZC
    5 to 6 fl oz 24 35    
    European red mite eggs - Oil is most effective before egg hatch begins around Pink.  Apollo, Onager, and Zeal are primarily ovicides that work best when applied as late as possible before Bloom.
    None Horticultural oil 1 to 2 gal. per
    100 gal. water.
    Varies by product, 4 or 12 hours. 0 High with thorough coverage. Many brand name products, check label to confirm REI & PHI.   Phytotoxicity more likely if spray concentration is more than 3x. Use 2 gal. rate until Tight Cluster, 1 gal. rate from late Tight Cluster to Pink. Do not use oil within 24 to 48 hours before freezing temperatures, or if temperature is below 35F following a freeze. Do not apply within 10 to 14 days of sprays containing captan or sulfur.
    10A Apollo 4SC 4 to 8 fl. oz. 12 45 High Tank mixing with oil improves control. Primarily an ovicide.
    10A Onager Optek 12 to 24 fl. oz. 12 28 High

    Best efficacy when applied as late as possible before bloom. One application per season.

    10B Zeal 72WS 2 to 3 oz. 12 14 High One application per season. Primarily an ovicide.
    25 Nealta 13.7 fl. oz. 12 7 High Apply at the first sign of mites, and before the population increases. Do not make more than 1 application before switching to another miticide with a different mode of action. RR.
    Rosy apple aphid - See Green Tip.
    San Jose scale (SJS) - See Half-inch Green.  Prebloom SJS treatment more effective if applied in high volume spray.  Severe SJS infestation may require insecticide spray against crawlers in summer.
    Tarnished plant bug (TPB) - Suggested action threshold: 2 to 3 TPB damaged buds per 10-branch sample, or average of 5 to 8 TPB per white sticky trap between Green Tip and Pink.
    3A

    *Asana XL

    4.8 to 14.5 fl. oz. 12 21 High Will also control Rosy apple aphid and reduce Spotted tentiform leafminer.
    3A *Baythroid XL 2 to 2.4 fl. oz. 12 7 High Same comments as Asana.
    3A *Danitol 2.4EC 10.7 to 16 fl. oz. 24 14 High Same comments as Asana.
    3A *Pounce 25WP 6.4 to 16 oz. 12 Petal Fall High Same comments as Asana.
    3A *Warrior II (L) 1.3 to 2.5 fl. oz. 24 21 High Same comments as Asana.
    3A

    *Brigade 2Ec

    2.6 to 12.8 fl oz 12 14   Supplemental label. Do not make more than 3 applications per year.
    Minimum re-treatment interval is 30 days.
    3A *Brigade WSB 6.4 to 32 oz 12 14   Supplemental label. Do not make more than 3 applications per year.
    Minimum re-treatment interval is 30 days.
    3A + 6 *Gladiator 14 to 19 fl. oz. 12 28 High Same comments as Asana.
    3A + 28 *Besiege 6 to 12 fl. oz. 21 24 High  
    3A + 4A *Leverage 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 High Note "Protection of Pollinator" label application instructions
    4C Transform WG 1.5 to 2.75 oz 24 7    
    9C

    Beleaf 50SG

    2 to 2.8 oz. 12 21 High  
    22 Avaunt eVo 5 to 6 oz. 12 14 Moderate  Will also reduce Mullein plant bug and Spotted tentiform leafminer.
    Winter moth.  See options listed at Green Tip and Half-Inch.  To prevent damage from high populations of winter moth, apply treatment at Green Tip or Half-inch Green.

    * Restricted Use Pesticide

    5 - Pink (apple)

    Jump to INSECT

    DISEASE FRAC Product

    Rate/

    Acre

    REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
    Apple scab M3 Manzate Pro-Stick 6 lb. 24  Not after bloom High DO NOT apply more than 24 lb./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
      M3 Penncozeb 75 DF 6.4 lb. 24 Not after bloom High DO NOT apply more than 24 lb./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
      M3 Dithane F-45 Rainshield 4.8 qt 24 Not after bloom High DO NOT apply more than 19.2 qt./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
      M3 Polyram 80 DF 6 lb. 24 Not after bloom High DO NOT apply more than 24 lb./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
      M3 Manzate Pro-Stick 3 lb. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 21 lb/A per year.
      M3 Penncozeb 75 DF 3.2 lb. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 22.4 lb/A per year.
      M3 Dithane F-45 Rainshield 2.4 qt. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 16.8 qt/A per year.
      M3 Polyram 80 DF 3 lb. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 21 lb/A per year
      M3 Ziram 76DF 6 lb. 48  14  Low DO NOT apply more than 42.4 lb./A or more than 7 applications per year.
      M4 Captan 80WDG 5 lb. 24 0 High DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 40 lb./A of Captan 80 per year.
      M4 Captan 50WP 8 lb. 24 0 High DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 64 lb./A of Captan 50WP per year.
      M4 Captan 4L 4 qt. 24 0 High DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 32 qt./A of Captan 4L per year.
     

    M4

    M3

    Captan 80WDG 
    Manzate Pro-Stick

    2.5 lb.

    3 lb.

    24 77 High Captan plus mancozeb for use in blocks with low scab inoculum. Other formulations - adjust rates.
      3 Indar 2F 8 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 32 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year.
      3 Rally 40WSP 8 oz. 24 14 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 5 lb./A per year.
      3 Rhyme 6.5 fl. oz. 12 14  High *RM DO NOT apply more than 26 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year.
      3 Cevya 3 - 5 fl. ox. 12 0   *RM DO NOT apply more than 15 fl. oz./A per year.
      7 Aprovia 7 fl. oz. 12 30 High *RM DO NOT apple more than 26.7 fl. oz. per year. 
      7 Excalia 3 to 4 fl. oz. 12 not after petal fall   Use only between green tip and petal fall. No more than 2 applications. Do not apply with oil.
      7 Miravis 3.4 fl oz 12 30 High *RM Do not apply more than 13.6 fl oz per year
      7 Fontelis 20 fl. oz. 12 28 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 61 fl. oz./A per year.
      7 Sercadis 4.5 fl. oz. 12 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 18 fl. oz./A per season.
      11 Flint Extra 2.9 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 10.5 fl. oz./A per year.
      11 Flint 2.5 oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 11 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      11 Sovran 6.4 oz. 12 30 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 25.6 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      3 + 9 Inspire Super 12 fl. oz. 12 14 High

    *RM  DO NOT apply more than 60 fl. oz./A per year.

      7 + 11 Luna Sensation 5.8 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 21 fl. oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      7 + 11 Merivon 5.5 fl. oz. 12 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 22 fl. oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.  
      7 + 11 Pristine 18.5 oz. 12 0 High

    *RM  DO NOT apply more than 74 oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year. 

     

    U12

     

    M4

     

    M3

    Syllit FL 

    Captan 80WDG 
    OR
    Manzate Pro-Stick

    1.5 pt.

    2.5 lb.

    3 lb.

    Not after pink 24 High RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT: tank mix with 2.5 lb/A Captan 80WDG OR 3 lb/A Penncozeb or equivalent. DO NOT make more than 2 applications per year. DO NOT apply after pink. DO NOT apply less than 7 days from previous application.
                   
    Powdery
    ​Mildew
    3 Rally 40WSP 10 oz. 24 14 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 5 lb./A per year. 
      3 Rhyme 6.5 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 26 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year.
      3 Procure 480SC 16 fl. oz. 12 14  High *RM DO NOT apply more than 56 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year.
      3 Indar 2F 8 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 32 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year. 
      11 Flint Extra 2.9 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 10.5 fl. oz./A per year, , or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      11 Flint 2.5 oz 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 11 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      11 Sovran 6.4 oz. 12 30 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 25.6 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      7 Aprovia 5.5 to 7 fl oz 12 30 Moderate *RM DO NOT apple more than 26.7 fl oz per year. 
      7 Excalia 3 to 4 fl. oz. 12 not after petal fall   Use only between green tip and petal fall. No more than 2 applications. Do not apply with oil.
      7 Fontelis 16 to 20 oz 12 28 Moderate *RM DO NOT tank mix with captan or thinning agents. DO NOT apply more than 61 fl. oz./A per year.
      7 Sercadis 4.5 fl. oz. 12 0 Moderate *RM DO NOT apply more than 18 fl. oz./A per season.
      7 Miravis 3.4 fl oz 12 30 Moderate *RM Do not apply more than 13.6 fl oz per year
      3 + 9 Inspire Super 12 fl. oz. 12 14 Moderate *RM  DO NOT apply more than 60 fl. oz./A per year.
      7 + 11 Luna Sensation 5.8 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 22 fl. oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year. 
      7 + 11 Merivon 5.5 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 22 fl. oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      7 + 11 Pristine 18.5 oz. 12 0 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 74 oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year. 
      none SuffOil-X 1-2% 4 0   For Organic production
      M2 SulfoMEX 3-6 qt. 24 -   Begin at tight cluster and continue spraying every 7-10 days until terminal shoots cease vegetative growth. Use on sulfur tolerant varieties only. Macintosh, Golden Delicious, Jonathan and certain other varieties may be injured by sulfur under certain climatic conditions.
      M2 Sulfur DF 10 to 20 lb 24 - Moderate DO NOT apply sulfur within 14 days of an oil application.  DO NOT use captan in combination with or closely following sulfur products.  There are many sulfur formulations - follow the label.
      NC JMS Stylet Oil 1 to 2 gal 4 0 Moderate DO NOT apply sulfur within 14 days of an oil application.  DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of an oil application. DO NOT use oil with spreader-stickers.
      NA Sil-MATRIX 1 to 4 qt/100GA 4 0 ?

    Suppression; also suppresses aphids, mites; OMRI

                   
    Rusts M3 Manzate Pro-Stick 6 lb. 24  Not after bloom Moderate DO NOT apply more than 24 lb./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
      M3 Penncozeb 75 DF 6.4 lb. 24 Not after bloom Moderate DO NOT apply more than 24 lb./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
      M3 Dithane F-45 Rainshield 4.8 qt 24 Not after bloom Moderate DO NOT apply more than 19.2 qt./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
      M3 Polyram 80 DF 6 lb. 24 Not after bloom Moderate DO NOT apply more than 24 lb./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
      M3 Ziram 76DF 6 lb.  48 14 Moderate DO NOT apply more than 42.4 lb./A or more than 7 applications per year.
      M3 Manzate Pro-Stick 3 lb. 24 77 Moderate DO NOT apply more than 21 lb./A per year.
      M3 Penncozeb 75 DF 3.2 lb. 24 77 Moderate DO NOT apply more than 22.4 lb./A per year.
      M3 Dithane F-45 Rainshield 2.4 qt. 24 77 Moderate DO NOT apply more than 16.8 qt./A per year.
      M3 Polyram 3 lb. 24 77 Moderate DO NOT apply more than 21 lb/A per year
      3 Rally 40 WSP 10 oz. 24 14 high *RM DO NOT apply more than 5 lb./A per year.
      3 Rhyme 6.5 fl. oz. 12 14 high *RM DO NOT apply more than 26 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year.
      3 Indar 2F 8 fl. oz. 12 14 high *RM DO NOT apply more than 32 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year. 
      Procure 480SC

    16 fl. oz.

    12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 56 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year.
      3 Cevya 3-5 fl. oz. 12 0   *RM DO NO apply more than 15 fl. oz./A per year.
      7 Aprovia 7 fl. oz. 12 30 Moderate *RM DO NOT apple more than 26.7 fl oz per year. 
      7 Excalia 3 to 4 fl. oz. 12 not after petal fall   Use only between green tip and petal fall. No more than 2 applications. Do not apply with oil.
      7 Fontelis 20 oz. 12 28 Moderate *RM DO NOT apply more than 61 fl oz/A per year.
      7 Sercadis 4.5 fl. oz. 12 0   *RM DO NOT apply more than 18 fl. oz./A per season.
      7 Miravis 3.4 fl oz 12 30   *RM Do not apply more than 13.6 fl oz per year
      3 + 9 Inspire Super 12 fl. oz. 12 14  High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 60 fl. oz./A per year.
      7 + 11 Merivon 5.5 fl. oz. 12 14 Low *RM  DO NOT apply more than 22 fl. oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year. 
      NA EcoSwing 1.5 to 2 pt 4 0   OMRI
                   

    Black Rot

    White Rot

    Bitter Rot

    M3 Manzate Pro-Stick 6 lb. 24 Not after bloom Moderate DO NOT apply more than 24 lb./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
    M3 Penncozeb 75 DF 6.4 lb. 24 Not after bloom Moderate DO NOT apply more than 24 lb./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
      M3 Dithane F-45 Rainshield 4.8 qt 24 Not after bloom Moderate DO NOT apply more than 19.2 qt./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
      M3 Manzate Pro-Stick 3 lb. 24 77 Moderate DO NOT apply more than 21 lb./A per year.
      M3 Penncozeb 75 DF 3.2 lb. 24 77 Moderate DO NOT apply more than 22.4 lb./A per year.
      M3 Dithane F-45 Rainshield 2.4 qt. 24 77 Moderate DO NOT apply more than 16.8 qt./A per year.
      M3 Ziram 76DF 6 lb. 48 14

    Moderate;

    Low Bitter Rot 

    DO NOT apply more than 42.4 lb./A or more than 7 applications per year.
      M4 Captan 80WDG 5 lb. 24 0 High; Moderate Bitter Rot DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 40 lb./A of Captan 80 per year.
      M4 Captan 50WP 8 lb. 24 0 High; Moderate Bitter Rot DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 64 lb./A of Captan 50WP per year.
      M4 Captan 4L 4 qt. 24 0 High; Moderate Bitter Rot DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 32 qt./A of Captan 4L per year.
      11 Flint Extra 2.9 fl. oz. 12 14 Moderate *RM  DO NOT apply more than 10.5 fl. oz./A per year, , or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      11 Flint 2.5 oz 12 14 Moderate *RM  DO NOT apply more than 11 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      11 Sovran 6.4 oz 12 30 Moderate *RM  DO NOT apply more than 25.6 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      7 + 11 Luna Sensation 5.8 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 21 fl. oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      7 + 11 Merivon 5.5 fl. oz. 12 0 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 22 fl. oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year. 
      7 + 11 Pristine 18.5 oz. 12 0 High

    *RM  DO NOT apply more than 74 oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year. 

      29 Omega 500 13.8 fl oz 12 28   Not labeled for other tree fruits
    *RM. Fungicide with a high risk of developing pathogen resistance. Follow resistance management recommendations here.
    Insect irac Product

    Rate/

    Acre 

    REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
    Codling moth none Checkmate CM-F 2.4-4.8 fl oz 4 0 moderate Not registerd in all states. Supplement pheromone with insecticides especially during 1st year of disruption program.
      none Isomate CM/OFM TT 200 ties 0 0 moderate OMRI listed. Not registered in all states. Supplement pheromone with insecticides especially during 1st year of disruption program.
    Dogwood borer 4A Assail 30SG 8 oz. 12 7 moderate One course spray to trunk between pink and mid-June. If fresh borer activity found in early July, spray Assail before early August.
    Borers 3, 28 *Beseige 6 to 12 fl oz 24 21    
    3A, 4A *Endigo ZC 5 to 6 fl oz 24 35    
    European
    red mite
    none oil 1 to 2 gal/
    100 gal
        High Phytotoxicity more likely if sprays concentrated more than 3x. Use 2 gal rate until tight cluster.
      6 *Agri-Mek 2.3 to 4.3 fl oz 12 28    
      6, 4A *Agri-Flex 1.5 to 2 oz 12 35   Must be used with NIS, COC, VOC, MSO wetting/spreading agent to avoid illegal residues.
      10A Apollo 4SC 4 to 8 fl. oz. 12 45 High Best efficacy when applied as late as possible before bloom. Tank mixing with oil improves control. Primarily an ovicide.
      10A Onager Optek 12 to 24 fl. oz. 12 28 High Best efficacy when applied as late as possible before bloom. One application per season. Primarily an ovicide.
      10B Zeal 72WS 2 to 3 oz. 12 14 High Best efficacy when applied as late as possible before bloom. One application per season. 
      25 Nealta 13.7 fl. oz. 12 7   Apply at the first sign of mites, and before the population increases. Do not make more than 1application before using an effective miticide with a different mode of action.
      NA Sil-MATRIX 1 to 4 1t/100GA 4 0 ?

    Suppression; also suppresses aphids, powdery mildew (OMRI)

      29 Omega 500 13.8 fl oz 12 28   Not labeled for other tree fruits
    Mullein plant bug 3A *Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 oz 24 21 High Will also control leafminer.
      3A *Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl. oz. 12 21 High Will also control leafminer.
      3A + 28 *Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl. oz. 24 21 High Reserve pre-mixes for multiple pest species control.
      4A Actara 4.5 oz. 12 35 High Highly toxic to bees. Will also control spotted tentiform leafminer, rosy apple aphid, and tarnished plant bug when applied at pink.  PHI varies with rate.
      4A Assail 30SG 4 to 8 oz. 12 7 High Will also control rosy apple aphid and leafminers.
      4C Transform 1.5 to 2.75 oz 24 7    
    Oriental fruit moth none Checkmate OFM-F 24.6S 1.3 to 2.9 fl. oz. 0   High Not labeled in all states. Better control when pheromone distruption begins with 1st generation. Shold be applied before 1st flight of target generation. Insecticide or double rate of pheromones may be needed in border rows adjacent to sources of OFM.
      none Isomate CM/OFM TT 200 ties 0   High OMRI listed. Sames comments as for Checkmate.
    Rosy apple aphid 1A *Lannate LV 1.5 to 3 pt. 72 14 High Difficult to control after pink bud. Suggested action threshold: 1 colony/100 fruit clusters.
      4A Actara 4.5 oz. 12 35 High Will also control spotted tentiform leafminer, mullein plant bug and tarnished plant bug when applied at pink bud.
      4A Assail 2.5 to 4 oz. 12 7 High Difficult to control after pink bud. Will also control mullein plant bug, spotted tentiform leafminer, 1st generation Oriental fruit moth, and suppress San Jose scale.
      4C Transform WG 0.75 to 1.5 oz 24 7    
      9C Beleaf 50SG 2 to 2.8 oz. 12 21 moderate Apply no later than pink bud.
      9A PQZ 2.4 to 3.2 fl oz 12 14 ?  
      7C Esteem 35WP 3 to 5 oz. 12 45 High Difficult to control after pink bud.
      28 Exirel 13.5 to 20.5 fl. oz. 12 3 High Do not apply while bees are foraging. For best results use with effective adjuvant.
      9D Versys 1.5 fl. oz. 12 7   Suppresses woolly apple aphid.
      3A+28 *Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl. oz. 24 21 High Reserve pre-mixes for multiple pest species control.
      3, 28 *Beseige 6 to 12 fl oz 24 21    
      NA Sil-MATRIX 1 to 4 qt/100 GA 4 0 ?

    Suppression; also suppresses aphids, powdery mildew; OMRI

    Spotted tentiform leafminer 3 *Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl. oz. 24 21 High  
      3A *Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl. oz. 12 21 High  
      3A *Baythroid XL 2 to 2.4 fl. oz. 12 7 High  
      3A *Danitol 2.4EC 10.6 to 16 fl. oz. 24 14 High  
      3A *Brigade formulations see label 12 14   Supplemental label. Do not make more than 3 applications per year. Minimum re-treatment interval is 30 days.
      4A Actara  4.5 oz. 12 35 High PHI varies with rate. 
      4A Assail 30SG 2.5 oz. 12 7 High  
      5 Delegate 25WG 4.5 to 7 oz. 4 7 High Adjuvant addition may improve efficacy.
      6 *Proclaim 5SG 3.2 to 4.8 oz. 12 14 High  
      6 *Agri-Mek 2.3 to 4.3 fl oz 12 28    
      22 Avaunt 30WDG 5 to 6 oz. 12 14 moderate  
      28 Altacor 35WDG 2.5 to 4 oz. 4 5 High  
      28 Belt 4SC 3 to 5 fl. oz. 12 14 High  
      3, 28 Beseige 6 to 12 fl oz 24 28    
      none Aza-Direct 11.5 to 42 fl. oz. 4 0 High  
      none Azatin XL 10 to 16 fl. oz. 4 0 High  
    Tarnished plant bug 3 *Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl. oz. 24 21 High  
      3A *Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl. oz. 12 21 High  
      3A *Baythroid XL 2 to 2.4 fl. oz. 12 7 High  
      3A *Danitol 2.4EC 10.7 to 16 fl. oz. 24 14 High  
      3A *Pounce 25WP 6.4 to 16 oz. 12 petal fall High  
      3A *Brigade formulations see label 12 14   Supplemental label. Do not make more than 3 applications per year. Minimum re-treatment interval is 30 days.
      9C Beleaf 50SG 2 to 2.8 oz. 12 21 High  
      22 Avaunt eVo 5 to 6 oz. 12 14 moderate  
      4C Transform WG 1.5 to 2.75 oz 24 7    
      3, 28 *Beseige 6 to 12 fl oz 24 21    
    Winter moth 5 Delegate 25WG 4.5 to 7 oz. 4 7 High High populations need control starting at green tip.
      1B Imidan 70W 2 to 5 lb. 4 days 7 High High populations need control starting at green tip.
      NA Spear-LEP 1 to 2 pt 4 0 ? max rate 6 pt per acre per season

    * Restricted Use Pesticide

    6 - Bloom (apple)

    Jump to INSECT

    DISEASE FRAC Product

    Rate/

    Acre 

    REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
    Apple scab M3 Manzate Pro-Stick 6 lb. 24  Not after bloom High DO NOT apply more than 24 lb./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
      M3 Penncozeb 75 DF 6.4 lb. 24 Not after bloom High DO NOT apply more than 24 lb./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
      M3 Dithane F-45 Rainshield 4.8 qt 24 Not after bloom High DO NOT apply more than 19.2 qt./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
      M3 Polyram 80 DF 6 lb. 24 Not after bloom High DO NOT apply more than 24 lb./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
      M3 Manzate Pro-Stick 3 lb. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 21 lb/A per year.
      M3 Penncozeb 75 DF 3.2 lb. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 22.4 lb/A per year.
      M3 Dithane F-45 Rainshield 2.4 qt. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 16.8 qt/A per year.
      M3 Polyram 80 DF 3 lb. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 21 lb/A per year
      M3 Ziram 76DF 6 lb. 48 14 Low DO NOT apply more than 42.4 lb./A or more than 7 applications per year.
      M4  Captan 80WDG 5 lb. 24 0 High DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 40 lb./A of Captan 80WDG per year.
      M4 Captan 50WP 8 lb. 24 0 High DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 64 lb./A of Captan 50WP per year.
      M4 Captan 4L 4 qt. 24  High DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 32 qt./A of Captan 4L per year.
     

    M4

    M3

    Captan 80WDG 
    Manzate Pro-Stick

    2.5 lb.

    3 lb.

    24 77 High Captan plus mancozeb for use in blocks with low scab inoculum. Other formulations - adjust rates.
      3 Indar 2F 8 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 32 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year. 
      3 Rally 40WSP 8 oz. 24 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 5 lb./A per year.
      3 Rhyme 6.5 fl. oz. 12 14  High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 26 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year.
      3 Cevya 3-5 fl.oz. 12 0   *RM DO NOT apply more than 15 fl. oz./A per year.
      7 Excalia 3 to 4 fl. oz. 12 not after petal fall   Use only between green tip and petal fall. No more than 2 applications. Do not apply with oil.
      7 Fontelis 20 fl. oz. 12 28 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 61 fl. oz./A per year.
      7 Aprovia 7 fl. oz. 12 30 High *RM DO NOT apple more than 26.7 fl. oz. per year. 
      7 Sercadis 4.5 fl. oz. 12 0 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 18 fl oz/A per season.
      7 Miravis 3.4 fl oz 12 30 High *RM Do not apply more than 13.6 fl oz per year
      11 Flint Extra 2.9 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 10.5 fl. oz./A per year, , or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      11 Flint 2.5 oz 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 11 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      11 Sovran 6.4 oz 12 30 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 25.6 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      3 + 9 Inspire Super 12 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 60 fl. oz./A per year.
      7 + 11 Luna Sensation 5.8 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 21 fl. oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      7 + 11 Merivon 5.5 fl. oz. 12 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 22 fl. oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year. 
      7 + 11 Pristine 18.5 oz 12 0 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 74 oz./A per season,or more than 4 application
                   
    Fire Blight 25

    Agri-Mycin 17

    + Regulaid

    24 to 48 oz

    12 50 High Apply when fire blight disease models forecast a risk of fire blight. Regulaid should be included at 1 pint per 100 gallons finished spray (do not concentrate). Streptomycin will be effective for 48 hr. If a second application is required because risk remains high, Serenade Optimum or Double Nickel LC, effective for an additional 48 hr. If a third application is needed, reapply streptomycin. DO NOT apply streptomycin after petal fall except to control fire blight after hail or damaging wind. 
      25

    Agri-Mycin 50

    + Regulaid

    24 to 48 oz 12 50 High See comments for Agri-Mycin 17 above.
      25

    Firewall 50 WP

    + Regulaid

    8 to 16 oz

    12 50 High See comments for Agri-Mycin 17 above.
      25

    Harbour 

    + Regulaid

    24 to 48 oz.

    12 50 High See comments for Agri-Mycin 17 above.
      F6 Serenade Optimum 14 to 20 oz. 4 0 Fair to Moderate Serenade should only be used in rotation with streptomycin. Streptomycin should be applied first, followed by Serenade if risk continues.
      F6 DoubleNickel LC 1 to 2 qt. 4 0 Fair to Moderate DoubleNickel should only be used in rotation with streptomycin. Streptomycin should be applied first, followed by DoubleNickel if risk continues.
      41 FireLine 17 WP 16 oz per 100 gallons dilute TRV 12 60 Moderate Do not apply more than 1.5 lb per acre per application
      F6 LifeGard 4.5 oz/100 gal. 4 0 Moderate If no pre-bloom applications made, then combine applications with other standard bloom sprays targeting fire blight.
      P01 Actigard 50WP 1 to 2 oz 12 60   Supression only. 
    Powdery
    ​Mildew
    3 Rally 40 WSP 10 oz 24 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 5 lb./A per year. 
      3 Rhyme 6.5 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 26 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year.
      3 Procure 480SC 16 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 56 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year.
      3 Indar 2F 8 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 32 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year.
      11  Flint Extra 2.9 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 10.5 fl. oz./A per year, , or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      11 Flint 2.5 oz 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 11 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      11 Sovran 6.4 oz 12 30 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 25.6 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      7 Aprovia 7 fl. oz. 12 30 Moderate *RM DO NOT apple more than 26.7 fl. oz./A per year. 
      7 Excalia 3 to 4 fl. oz. 12 not after petal fall   Use only between green tip and petal fall. No more than 2 applications. Do not apply with oil.
      7 Fontelis 20 oz 12 28 Moderate *RM DO NOT apply more than 61 fl. oz./A per year.
      7 Sercadis 4.5 fl. oz. 12 0 Moderate *RM  DO NOT apply more than 18 fl oz/A per season.
      7 Miravis 3.4 fl oz 12 30 Moderate *RM Do not apply more than 13.6 fl oz per year
      3 + 9 Inspire Super 12 fl. oz. 12 14 Moderate *RM  DO NOT apply more than 60 fl. oz./A per year.
      7 + 11 Luna Sensation 5.8 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 22 fl. oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year. 
      7 + 11 Merivon 5.5 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 22 fl. oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      7 + 11 Pristine 18.5 oz. 12 0 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 74 oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year. 
      M2 SulfoMEX 3 to 6 qt 24 -   Begin at tight cluster and continue spraying every 7-10 days until terminal shoots cease vegetative growth. Use on sulfur tolerant varieties only. Macintosh, Golden Delicious, Jonathan and certain other varieties may be injured by sulfur under certain climatic conditions.
      M2 Sulfur DF 10 to 20 lb 24 - Moderate DO NOT apply sulfur within 14 days of an oil application.  DO NOT use captan in combination with or closely following sulfur products.  There are many sulfur formulations - follow the label.
      NC JMS Stylet Oil 1 to 2 gal 4 0 Moderate DO NOT apply sulfur within 14 days of an oil application.  DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of an oil application. DO NOT use oil with spreader-stickers.
      NC SuffOil-X 1-2% 4 0   OMRI listed.
    Rusts M3 Manzate Pro-Stick 6 lb. 24  Not after bloom Moderate DO NOT apply more than 24 lb./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
      M3 Penncozeb 75 DF 6.4 lb. 24 Not after bloom Moderate DO NOT apply more than 24 lb./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
      M3 Dithane F-45 Rainshield 4.8 qt 24 Not after bloom Moderate DO NOT apply more than 19.2 qt./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
      M3 Polyram 80 DF 6 lb. 24 Not after bloom Moderate DO NOT apply more than 24 lb./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
      M3 Manzate Pro-Stick 3 lb. 24 77 Moderate DO NOT apply more than 21 lb/A per year.
      M3 Penncozeb 75 DF 3.2 lb. 24 77 Moderate DO NOT apply more than 22.4 lb/A per year.
      M3 Dithane F-45 Rainshield 2.4 qt. 24 77 Moderate DO NOT apply more than 16.8 qt/A per year.
      M3 Polyram 80 DF 3 lb. 24 77 Moderate DO NOT apply more than 21 lb/A per year
      3 Rally 40 WSP 10 oz 24 14 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 5 lb./A per year. 
      3 Rhyme 6.5 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 26 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year.
      3 Indar 2F 8 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 32 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year. 
      3 Procure 480SC 16 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 56 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year.
      3 Cevya 3-5 fl. oz. 12 0   *RM DO NOT apply more than 15 fl. oz./A per year.
                   
      7 Aprovia 7 fl. oz. 12 30 Moderate *RM  DO NOT apple more than 26.7 fl. oz. per year. 
      7 Excalia 3 to 4 fl. oz. 12 not after petal fall   Use only between green tip and petal fall. No more than 2 applications. Do not apply with oil.
      7 Fontelis 20 oz 12 28 Moderate *RM DO NOT apply more than 61 fl. oz./A per year.
      7 Sercadis 4.5 fl. oz. 12 0   *RM DO NOT apply more than 18 fl. oz./A per year.
      7 Miravis 3.4 fl oz 12 30   *RM Do not apply more than 13.6 fl oz per year
      3 + 9 Inspire Super 12 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 60 fl. oz./A per year.
      7 + 11 Merivon 5.5 fl. oz. 12 14 Low *RM  DO NOT apply more than 22 fl. oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year. 
      NA EcoSwing 1.5 to 2 pt 4 0   OMRI
                   

    Black Rot White Rot

    Bitter

    Rot

    M3 Manzate Pro-Stick 6 lb. 24 Not after bloom Moderate DO NOT apply more than 24 lb./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
    M3 Penncozeb 75DF 6.4 lb. 24 Not after bloom Moderate DO NOT apply more than 24 lb./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
    M3 Dithane F-45 Rainshield 4.8 qt. 24 Not after bloom Moderate DO NOT apply more than 19.2 qt./A/year or apply this rate after bloom.
      M3 Manzate Pro-Stick 3 lb. 24 77 Moderate DO NOT apply more than 21 lb./A per year.
      M3 Penncozeb 75DF 3.2 lb. 24 77 Moderate DO NOT apply more than 22.4 lb./A per year.
      M3 Dithane F-45 Rainshield 2.4 qt. 24 77 Moderate DO NOT apply more than 16.8 qt./A per year.
      M3 Ziram 76DF 6 lb. 48 14 Moderate; Low Bitter Rot DO NOT apply more than 42.4 lb./A or more than 7 applications per year.
      M4 Captan 80WDG 5 lb. 24 0 High; Moderate Bitter Rot DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 40 lb./A of Captan 80WDG per year.
      M4 Captan 50WP 8 lb. 24 0 High; Moderate Bitter Rot DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 64 lb./A of Captan 50WP per year.
      M4 Captan 4L 3 to 4 qt 24 0 High; Moderate Bitter Rot DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 32 qt./A of Captan 4L per year.
      11 Flint Extra 2.9 fl. oz. 12 14 Moderate *RM  DO NOT apply more than 10.5 fl. oz./A per year, , or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      11 Flint 2 to 2.5 oz 12 14 Moderate *RM  DO NOT apply more than 11 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      11 Sovran 6.4 oz. 12 30 Moderate *RM  DO NOT apply more than 25.6 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      7 + 11 Luna Sensation 5.8 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 21 fl. oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      7 + 11 Merivon 5.5 fl. oz. 12 0 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 22 fl. oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year. 
      7 + 11 Pristine 18.5 oz. 12 0 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 74 oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year. 
      29 Omega 13.8 fl oz 12 30   Not labeled for other tree fruits
    *RM Fungicide with a high risk of developing pathogen resistance. Follow resistance management recommendations here.

    INSECT IRAC Product

    Rate/

    Acre 

    REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
    Codling moth &
    Oriental fruit moth
    none Checkmate CM-F 2.4 to 4.8 fl. oz. 4 0 moderate Not registered in all states.
      none Isomate CM/OFT TT 200 ties 0 0 High OMRI listed. Not registered in all states.
      none Madex HP .5 to 3 fl. oz. 4 0 moderate Not registered in all states.
    Gypsy moth 11A DiPel DF .5 to 2 lb. 4 0 High OMRI listed.
      11A Agree WG 1 to 2 lb. 4 0 High OMRI listed. Not registered in all states
      18 Intrepid 2F 4 to 8 fl. oz. 4 14    
    Lesser appleworm none Checkmate CM-F 2.4 to 4.8 fl. oz. 4 0 High Not registered in all states.
      none Isomate CM/OFT TT 200 ties 0 0 High OMRI listed. Not registered in all states.
    Obliquebanded
    leafroller
    11A Agree WG 1 to 2 lb. 4 0 moderate OMRI listed. Not registered in all states.
      11A Dipel DF .5 to 2 lb. 4 0 High OMRI listed.
      18 Intrepid 2F 8 to 16 fl. oz. 4 14 High  

     

    7 - Petal Fall (apple)

    Jump to INSECT

    DISEASE FRAC Product

    Rate/

    Acre

    REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
    Apple scab M3 Manzate Pro-Stick 3 lb. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 21 lb/A per year. 
      M3 Penncozeb 75 DF 3.2 lb. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 22.4 lb/A per year.
      M3 Dithane F-45 Rainshield 2.4 qt. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 16.8 qt/A per year.
      M3 Polyram 80 DF 3 lb. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 21 lb/A per year
      M3 Ziram 76DF 6 lb. 48 14  Low DO NOT apply more than 42.4 lb./A or more than 7 applications per year.
      M4 Captan 80WDG 5 lb. 24 0 High To minimize risk of fruit russet or other fruit damage avoid captan from petal fall through fruit set. DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 40 lb./A of Captan 80WDG per year.
      M4 Captan 50WP 8 lb. 24 0 High To minimize risk of fruit russet or other fruit damage avoid captan from petal fall through fruit set. DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 64 lb./A of Captan 50WP per year.
      M4 Captan 4L 4 qt. 24 0 High To minimize risk of fruit russet or other fruit damage avoid captan from petal fall through fruit set. DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 32 qt./A of Captan 4L per year.
     

    M4

     

    M3

    Captan 80WDG +

    Manzate Pro-Stick

    2.5 lb. +

    3 lb.

    24 77 High Captan plus mancozeb for use in blocks with low scab inoculum. Other formulations - adjust rates.
      3 Indar 2F 8 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 32 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year. 
      3 Rally 40WSP 10 oz. 24 14 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 5 lb./A per year. 
      3 Rhyme 6.5 fl. oz. 12 14  High *RM DO NOT apply more than 26 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year.
      3 Cevya 3-5 fl. oz. 12 0   *RM DO NOT apply more than 15 fl. oz./A per year.
      7 Aprovia 7 fl oz 12 30 High *RM DO NOT apple more than 26.7 fl. oz. per year. 
      7 Excalia 3 to 4 fl. oz. 12 not after petal fall   Use only between green tip and petal fall. No more than 2 applications. Do not apply with oil.
      Fontelis 20 fl. oz. 12 28 High *RM DO NOT mix with captan. DO NOT apply more than 61 fl oz/A per year.
      7 Sercadis 4.5 fl. oz. 12 0 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 18 fl oz/A per season.
      7 Miravis 3.4 fl oz 12 30 High *RM Do not apply more than 13.6 fl oz per year
      11 Flint Extra 2.9 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 10.5 fl. oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      11 Flint 2.5 oz 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 11 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      11 Sovran 6.4 oz. 12 30 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 25.6 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      3 + 9 Inspire Super 12 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 60 fl. oz./A per year.
      7 + 11 Luna Sensation 5.8 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 21 fl. oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      7 + 11 Merivon 5.5 fl. oz. 12 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 22 fl. oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year. 
      7 + 11 Pristine 18.5 oz. 12 0 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 74 oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year. 
                   
    Fire Blight 25 Agri-Mycin 17 PLUS Regulaid 1.5 lb 16 fl oz per 100 gal 12 50 High Apply when fire blight disease models forecast a risk of fire blight. DO NOT concentrate Regulaid. Streptomycin will be effective for 48 hr. If a second application is required because risk remains High, Serenade Opti or Double Nickel LC, effective for an additional 48 hr. If a third application is needed, reapply streptomycin. DO NOT apply streptomycin after petal fall except to control fire blight after hail or damaging wind. 
      25 Firewall 17 WP PLUS Regulaid 1.5 lb 16 fl oz per 100 gal 12 50 High Apply when fire blight disease models forecast a risk of fire blight. DO NOT concentrate Regulaid. Streptomycin will be effective for 48 hr. If a second application is required because risk remains High, Serenade Opti or Double Nickel LC, effective for an additional 48 hr. If a third application is needed, reapply streptomycin. DO NOT apply streptomycin after petal fall except to control fire blight after hail or damaging wind. 
      NC Serenade Opti 14 to 20 oz 4 0 fair to good Serenade should only be used in rotation with streptomycin. Streptomycin should be applied first, followed by Serenade if risk continues.
      NC DoubleNickel LC 1 to 2 qt 4 0 fair to good DoubleNickel should only be used in rotation with streptomycin. Streptomycin should be applied first, followed by DoubleNickel if risk continues.
      F6 LifeGard 4.5 oz/100 gal. 4 0 moderate If no pre-bloom applications made, then combine applications with other standard bloom sprays targeting fire blight. For Organic production.
      NC Apogee 4.5 to 9 oz per 100 gal 12 45 fair to good shoot blight only To control shoot blight only. Apply when petal fall begins. Apogee is a growth regulator and does not directly control fire blight bacteria, but by slowing growth makes apple shoots more resistant to infection. Apply a second application two weeks later.
      P01 Actigard 1 to 2 oz 12 60   Supression only.
                   
    Powdery
    ​Mildew
    3 Rally 40 WSP 10 oz 24 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 5 lb./A per year. 
      3 Rhyme 6.5 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 26 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year.
      3 Procure 480SC 16 fl. oz. 12 14  High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 56 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year.
      3 Indar 2F 8 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 32 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year.
      11 Flint Extra 2.9 fl. oz. 12 14 High

    *RM  DO NOT apply more than 10.5 fl. oz./A per year, , or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.

      11 Flint 2.5 oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 11 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      11 Sovran 6.4 oz 12 30 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 25.6 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      7 Aprovia 7 fl. oz. 12 30 Moderate *RM DO NOT apple more than 26.7 fl oz per year. 
      7 Excalia 3 to 4 fl. oz. 12 not after petal fall   Use only between green tip and petal fall. No more than 2 applications. Do not apply with oil.
      7 Fontelis 20 oz. 12 28 Moderate *RM DO NOT mix with captan. DO NOT apply more than 61 fl oz/A per year.
      7 Sercadis 4.5 fl. oz. 12 0 Moderate *RM  DO NOT apply more than 18 fl oz/A per season.
      7 Miravis 3.4 fl oz 12 30 Moderate *RM Do not apply more than 13.6 fl oz per year
      3 + 9 Inspire Super 12 fl. oz. 12 14 Moderate *RM  DO NOT apply more than 60 fl. oz./A per year.
      7 + 11 Luna Sensation 5.8 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 22 fl. oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year. 
      7 + 11 Merivon 5.5 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 22 fl. oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      7 + 11 Pristine 18.5 oz. 12 0 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 74 oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year. 
      M2 Sulfur DF 10 to 20 lb 24 - Moderate DO NOT apply sulfur within 14 days of an oil application.  DO NOT use captan in combination with or closely following sulfur products.  There are many sulfur formulations - follow the label.
      NC JMS Stylet Oil 1 to 2 gal 4 0 Moderate DO NOT apply sulfur within 14 days of an oil application.  DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of an oil application. DO NOT use oil with spreader-stickers.
      NC SuffOil-X 1-2% 4 0   OMRI listed.
    Rusts M3 Manzate Pro-Stick 3 lb. 24 77 Moderate DO NOT apply more than 21 lb/A per year.
      M3 Penncozeb 75 DF 3.2 lb. 24 77 Moderate DO NOT apply more than 22.4 lb/A per year.
      M3 Dithane F-45 Rainshield 2.4 qt. 24 77 Moderate DO NOT apply more than 16.8 qt/A per year.
      M3 Polyram 80 DF 3 lb. 24 77 Moderate DO NOT apply more than 21 lb/A per year
      3 Rally 40 WSP 10 oz 24 14 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 5 lb./A per year. 
      3 Rhyme 6.5 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 26 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year.
      3 Indar 2F 8 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 32 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year. 
      3 Procure 480SC 16. fl. oz. 12 14  High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 56 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year.
      3 Cevya 3-5 fl. oz. 12 0   *RM DO NOT apply more than 15 fl. oz./A per year.
      7 Aprovia 7 fl. oz. 12 30 Moderate *RM DO NOT apple more than 26.7 fl oz per year.
      7 Excalia 3 to 4 fl. oz. 12 not after petal fall   Use only between green tip and petal fall. No more than 2 applications. Do not apply with oil.
      7 Fontelis 20 oz. 12 28 Moderate *RM DO NOT mix with captan. DO NOT apply more than 61 fl oz/A per year.
      7 Sercadis 4.5 fl. oz. 12 0 Moderate *RM  DO NOT apply more than 18 fl oz/A per season.
      7 Miravis 3.4 fl oz 12 30   *RM Do not apply more than 13.6 fl oz per year
      3 + 9 Inspire Super 12 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 60 fl. oz./A per year.
      7 + 11 Merivon 5.5 fl. oz. 12 14 High

    *RM  DO NOT apply more than 22 fl. oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year. 

      NA EcoSwing 1.5 to 2 pt 4 0   OMRI
                   

    Black Rot White Rot

    Bitter Rot

    M3 Mazate Pro-Stick 3 lb. 24 77 Moderate DO NOT apply more than 21 lb./A per year.
    M3 Penncozeb 75DF 3.2 lb. 24 77 Moderate DO NOT apply more than 22.4 lb/A per year.
    M3 Dithane F-45 Rainshield 4.8 qt. 24 77 Moderate DO NOT apply more than 16.8 qt/A per year.
      M3 Polyram 3 lb. 24 77 Moderate DO NOT apply more than 21 lb/A per year. Do not apply to cultivars that will be harvested in 77 days or less.
      M3 Ziram 76DF 6 lb. 48 14 Moderate; Very low  Bitter Rot DO NOT apply more than 42.4 lb./A or more than 7 applications per year.
      M4 Captan 80WDG 5 lb. 24 0 High; Moderate Bitter Rot DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 40 lb./A of Captan 80WDG per year.
      M4  Captan 50WP 8 lb. 24 0 High; Moderate Bitter Rot DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 64 lb./A of Captan 50WP per year.
      M4 Captan 4L 4 qt. 24 0 High; Moderate Bitter Rot DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 32 qt./A of Captan 4L per year.
      11 Sovran 6.4 oz. 12 30 Moderate *RM  DO NOT apply more than 25.6 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      11 Flint 2.5 oz. 12 14 Moderate *RM  DO NOT apply more than 11 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      11 Flint Extra 2.9 fl. oz. 12 14 Moderate *RM  DO NOT apply more than 10.5 fl. oz./A per year, , or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      7 + 11 Luna Sensation 5.8 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 21 fl. oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      7 + 11 Merivon 5.5 fl. oz. 12 0 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 22 fl. oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year. 
      7 + 11 Pristine 18.5 fl. oz. 12 0 High

    *RM  DO NOT apply more than 74 oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year. 

      29 Omega 13.8 fl oz 12 28   Not labeled for other tree fruits
      F6 LifeGard 4.5 oz./100 gal 4 9 Moderate-High Apply starting at petal fall through the cover sprays on a 10- to 14-day schedule. Or apply in an alternating or tank-mix program with labeled fungicides as part of a disease management program. Good Flyspeck management. For Organic production.
    *RM Fungicide with a high risk of developing pathogen resistance. Follow resistance management recommendations here.
    Insect irac Product

    Rate/

    Acre 

    REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
    Dogwood borer 4A Assail 30SG 8 oz. 12 7 moderate One course spray to trunk between pink and mid-June. If fresh borer activity found in early July, spray Assail before early August.
      3, 28 *Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 21    
      none Isomate DWB 100 to 200 dispensers 0 0 High OMRI listetd. Not registered in all states.
    Apple rust mite 23 Envidor 2SC 16 to 18 fl.oz. 12 7 High Suggested action threshold: >200 mites per leaf
      21A Nexter SC 11-17 oz. 12 7 moderate Suggested action threshold: >200 mites per leaf
      21A Portal 0.4ED 2 pt. 12 14 High Suggested action threshold: >200 mites per leaf
    Codling moth none Cyd-X 1 to 6 fl. oz. 4 0 moderate OMRI listed. Not registered in all states. Do not tank mix with Bt products.
      none Madex HP .5 to 3 fl. oz. 4 0 moderate OMRI listed. Not registered in all states. Do not tank mix with Bt products.
      none Neemix 7 to 16 fl. oz. 12 0 moderate OMRI listed. Not registered in all states.
      11A DiPel DF .5 to 2 lb. 4 0 moderate OMRI listed. Must be ingested by larvae.
      4A Assail 30SG 4 to 8 oz. 12 7 High Most active when ingested by larvae but also has limited adult and egg toxicity.
      6 *Proclaim 5SG 4.8 oz. 12 14 moderate Most effective at high label rate. Less efficacious against later generations.
      5 Delegate 25WG 4.5 to 7 oz. 4 7 High Most active when ingested by larvae but has limited activity on eggs.
      5 Entrust SC 6 to 10 fl. oz. 4 7 moderate Must be ingested by larvae and may take several days to cause mortality. The addition of an adjuvant is recommended to improve spray deposition.
      15 Rimon 0.83EC 20 to 40 fl. oz. 12 14 High An insect growth regulator that impedes egg development. Must be applied  before egg laying or shortly after egg laying begins.
      18 Intrepid 2F 16 fl. oz. 4 14 moderate An insect growth regulator that primarily affects larvae. The addition of an adjuvant is recommended to improve spray deposition. May take several days to cause mortality.
      22 Avaunt 30WDG 5 to 6 oz. 12 14 moderate  
      28 Altacor 35WDG 2.5 to 4.5 oz. 4 5 High Most active when ingested by larvae. Apply higher rates where pest density is high.
      28 + 4A Voliam Flex 4-7 oz. 12 35 High Most active when ingested by larvae. Apply higher rates where pest density is high.
      28 Belt 4SC 3 to 5 fl. oz. 12 14 High Most active when ingested by larvae. Apply higher rates where pest density is high.
      28 Exirel 8.5-17 oz. 12 3 High Most active when ingested by larvae. Apply higher rates where pest density is high. Avoid tank mix with Captan.
      28 Verdepryn 100SL 8.2 to 11 oz 4 7    
      3, 28 *Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 21    
      1A Sevin 4F 1-3 qt. 12 3 moderate Fruit thinner if used within 30 days after bloom.
      3A *Danitol 2.4 EC 16-21.3 oz. 24 14 High  
      3A

    *Brigade 2EC

    *Brigade WSB

    2.6 to 12.8 fl oz

    5 to 6 oz

    12 14   Supplemental label. Do not make more than 3 applications per year. The minimum re-treatment interval is 30 days.
      NA Spear-LEP 1 to 2 pt 4 0 ? max 6 pt per acre per season
    Comstock mealybug none oil 1 gal. 0 0    
      4A Assail 30SG 4 to 8 oz. 12 7 High  
      16 Centaur WDG 34.5 oz. 12 14 High  
      21A Portal 0.4EC 2 pts. 12 14 High  
      23 Movento 6 to 9 fl. oz. 24 7 High  
    European apple sawfly 1B Imidan 70W 2.1 to 5.7 lb. 4 days 7 High  
      4A Actara 4.5 to 5.5 oz. 12 35 High Bee hazard. PHI varies with rate.
      4A Assail 5 to 8 oz. 12 7 moderate  
      22 Avaunt eVo 5 to 6 oz. 12 14 moderate  
      28 Altacor 2.5 to 4.5 oz. 4 5 High  
      28 Exirel 8.5 to 17 fl. oz. 12 3   Avoid tank mix with Captan.
    European
    red mite
    6 *Agri-Mek SC 2.2 to 4.2 fl. oz. 12 28 High Add horticultural oil (not dormant oil).
      10A Apollo 4SC 4 to 8 fl. oz. 12 45 High Tank mixing with oil improves control. Primarily an ovicide.
      10A Onager Optek 12 to 24 fl. oz. 12 28 High One application per season. Primarily an ovicide.
      10B Zeal 72WS 2 to 3 oz. 12 14 High One application per season. 
      25 Nealta 13.7 fl. oz. 12 7   Apply at the first sign of mites, and before the population increases. Do not make more than 1application before using an effective miticide with a different mode of action.
      12B *Vendex 50WP 1 to 2 lb. 48 14 Low  
      20B Kanemite 15SC 31 fl. oz. 12 14 High  
      21A Nexter SC 11-17 oz. 12 7 High Use higher rates in mature trees with dense foliage.
      21A Portal 0.4EC 2 pt. 12 14 High  
      23 Envidor 16 to 18 fl. oz. 12 7 High  
      none Acramite 50WS .75 to 1 lb. 12 7 High  
      none SuffOil-X 1-2% 4 0   OMRI listed.
    Green fruitworms 28 Exirel 8.5 to 17 fl. oz. 12 3   Labeled for plum curculio. Avoid tank mix with Captan.
      28 Altacor 2.5 to 4 oz. 4 5 High  
      28 Belt SC 3 to 5 fl. oz. 12 14 High  
      3, 28 *Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 21    
      6 *Proclaim 5SG 3.2 to 4.8 oz. 12 14 High  
      4A + 28 Voliam Flexi 4 to 7 oz. 12 35 High Efficacy High for plum curculio.
      NA Spear-LEP 1 to 2 pt 4 0 ? max 6 pt per acre per season
    Gypsy moth 11A DiPel DF .5 to 2 lb. 4 0 High  
      5 Delegate 25WG 4.5 to 7 oz. 4 7 High  
      28 Altacor 2.5 to 4 oz. 4 5 High  
      NA Spear-LEP 1 to 2 pt 4 0 ? max 6 pt per acre per season
    Lesser appleworm none Isomate CM/OFM TT 200 ties 0 0 High OMRI listed. Not registered in all states.
      1A Sevin XLR Plus 1 to 3 qts. 12 3 moderate  
      4A Assail 30SG 4 to 8 oz. 12 7 High  
      5 Delegate 25WD 4.5 to 7 oz. 4 7 High  
      6 Proclaim 5SG 4.8 oz. 12 14 moderate  
      15 Rimon 0.83EC 20 to 40 fl. oz. 12 14 High  
      18 Intrepid 2F 12 to 16 fl. oz. 4 14 moderate  
      22 Avaunt 30WDG 5 to 6 oz. 12 14 moderate  
      28 Belt 4SC 3 to 5 fl. oz. 12 14 High  
      3, 28 *Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 21    
      none Neemix 7 to 16 fl. oz. 12 0 moderate  
      4A + 28 Voliam Flexi WDG 4 to 7 oz. 12 35 High  
    Mullein plant bug 4A Assail 30SG 4 to 8 oz. 12 7 High  
      4C Transform WG 1.5 to 2.75 oz 24 7    
      4A + 28 Voliam Flexi WDG 4 to 7 oz. 12 35 High  
    Obliquebanded leafroller & Red banded leafroller 5 Delegate 25WG 4.5 to 7 oz. 4 7 High  
      5 Entrust SC 6 to 10 fl. oz. 4 7 High OMRI listed.
      6 *Proclaim 3.2 to 4.8 oz. 12 14 High  
      11A Dipel DF 0.5 to 2 lb. 4 0 High OMRI listed.
      15 Rimon 0.83ED 20 to 40 fl. oz. 12 14 High  
      18 Intrepid 2F 8 to 16 oz. 4 14 High  
      28 Exirel 8.5 to 17 fl. oz. 12 3 High Avoid tank mix with Captan.
      28 Altacor 2.5 to 4.5 oz. 4 5 High  
      28 Belt SC 3 to 5 fl. oz. 12 14 High  
      4A + 28 Voliam Flexi WDG 4 to 7 oz. 12 35 High  
      NA Spear-LEP 1 to 2 pt 4 0 ? max 6 pt per acre per season
    Oriental fruit moth none Checkmate OFM-F 1.3 to 2.9 fl. oz. 0 0 High Not labeled in all states. Better control when pheromone distruption begins with 1st generation. Shold be applied before 1st flight of target generation. Insecticide or double rate of pheromones may be needed in border rows adjacent to sources of OFM.
      none Checkmate OFM Dispenser 100 to 200 dispensers 0 0 High Not labeled in all states. Sames comments as for Checkmate.
      none Isomate CM/OFM TT 200 ties 0 0 High OMRI listed. Not labeled in all states. Sames comments as for Checkmate.
      none Isomate OFM TT 100 ties 0 0 High OMRI listed. Not labeled in all states. Sames comments as for Checkmate.
      none Madex HF .5 to 3 fl. oz. 4 0 moderate OMRI listed. No not tank mix with Bt products.
      none Neemix 7 to 16 fl. oz. 12 0 moderate OMRI listed.
      1B Imidan 70W 2.1 to 5.7 lb. 4 days 7 High  
      4A Assail 30 SG 4 to 8 oz. 12 7 High  
      5 Delegate 25WG 4.5 to 7 oz. 4 7 High  
      5 Entrust SC 6 to 10 fl. oz. 4 7 moderate OMRI listed.
      6 *Proclaim 5SG 4.8 oz. 12 14 moderate  
      11A DiPel DF 0.5 to 2 lb. 4 0 moderate OMRI listed.
      15 Rimon 0.83EC 20 to 40 fl. oz. 12 14 High An insect growth regulator that impedes egg development. Must be applied  before egg laying or shortly after egg laying begins.
      18 Intrepid 2F 12 to 16 fl. oz. 4 14 moderate An insect growth regulator that primarily affects larvae. Addition of adjuvant is recommended to improve spray deposition. May take several days to cause mortality.
      22 Avaunt eVo 5 to 6 oz. 12 14 moderate  
      28 Altacor 2.5 to 4.5 oz. 4 5 High  
      28 Belt 4SC 3 to 5 fl. oz. 12 14 High  
      28 Exirel 10 to 17 fl. oz. 12 3 High Avoid tank mix with Captan.
      28 Verdepryn 100SL 5.5 to 11 oz 4 7    
      4A + 28 Voliam Flexi WDG 4 to 7 oz. 12 35 High  
      3, 28 Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 21    
    Oystershell scale 1A Sevin   12 3 High  
      16 Centaur WDG 34.5 oz. 12 14 High  
      none SuffOil-X 1-2% 4 0   OMRI listed
    Plum curculio none Surround 95WP 25 to 50 lb. 4 0 moderate OMRI listed.
      1A Sevin   12 3 moderate  
      1B Imidan 70W 2.1 to 5.7 4 days 7 High  
      4A Actara 4.5 to 5.5 oz. 12 35 High PHI varies with rate.
      22 Avaunt eVo 5 to 6 oz. 12 14 High  
      28 Exirel 13.5 to 20.5 fl. oz. 12 3 High Avoid tank mix with Captan.
      28 Verdepryn 100SL 5.5 to 11 oz 4 7    
      4A + 28 Voliam Flexi WDG 6 to 7 oz. 12 35 High  
      6 + 4A *Agri-Flex SC 5.5 to 8.5 fl. oz. 12 35 High

    Add horticultural oil (not dormant oil) at 1 gallon per acre.

      3, 28 *Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 21    
    Rosy apple aphid 4A Admire Pro 4.6SC 2.8 fl. oz. 12 7 High Most RAA has already occurred by petal fall.
      4A Assail 30SC 2.5 to 4 oz. 12 7 High Most RAA has already occurred by petal fall.
      4C Transform WG 0.75 to 1.5 oz 24 7    
      9A PQZ 2.4 to 3.2 fl oz 14 14 ?  
      23 Movento 6 to 9 fl. oz. 24 7 moderate Most RAA has already occurred by petal fall.
      28 Exirel 13.5 to 20.5 fl. oz. 12 3 High Most RAA has already occurred by petal fall. For best results use with effective adjuvant. Avoid tank mix with Captan.
      9D Versys 1.5 fl. oz. 12 7 ? Most RAA damaged has already occured by PF.
      4A + 28 Voliam Flexi WDG 6 to 7 oz. 12 35 High Most RAA has already occurred by petal fall.
    San Jose scale 23 Movento 240SC 6 to 9 fl. oz. 12 7 High Must be used with adjuvant having spreading and penetrating properties. Most effective when used at petal fall to first cover.
      23,7C Senstar 18 fl. oz. 24 45   Apply when crawlers first appear and include spray oil. No more than two applications per year. Minimal interval is 14 days.
      NC SuffOil-X 1-2% 4 0   OMRI listed.
      4C Transform WG 2.75 oz 24 7   Suppression only
    Spotted tentiform leafminer 1A Lannate   72 14 High See specific Lannate label for rates
      4A Actara  4.5 oz. 12 35 High  
      4A Admire Pro 4.6SC 2.8 fl. oz. 12 7 High  
      4A Assail 30SG 2.5 oz. 12 7 High  
      5 Delegate 25WG 4.5 to 7 oz. 4 7 High Adjuvant may improve efficacy.
      5 Entrust SC 6 to 10 fl. oz. 4 7 High OMRI listed.
      6 *Proclaim 5SG 3.2 to 4.8 oz. 12 14 High  
      6 *Agri-Mek 2.2 to 4.2 fl oz 12 28    
      15 Rimon 0.83EC 15 to 40 fl. oz. 12 14 High  
      22 Avaunt eVo 5 to 6 oz. 12 14 moderate  
      28 Altacor 35WDG 2.5 to 4 oz. 4 5 High  
      28 Belt 4SC 3 to 5 fl. oz. 12 14 High  
      3, 28 *Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 28    
      none Aza-Direct 11.5 to 42 fl. oz. 4 0 High  
      none Azatin XL 10 to 16 fl. oz. 4 0 High  
      4A + 28 Voliam Flexi WDG 4 to 7 oz. 12 35 High  
      6 + 4A *Agri-Flex SC 5.5 to 8.5 fl. oz. 12 35 High  Add horticultural oil (not dormant oil) at 1 gallon per acre.
    Tarnished plant bug 9C Beleaf 50SG 2 to 2.8 oz. 12 21 High  
      4C Transform WG 1.5 to 2.75 oz 24 7    
      22 Avaunt eVo 5 to 6 oz. 12 14 moderate  
      3A

    Brigade 2EC

    Brigade WSB

    2.6 -12.8 fl oz

    5 to 6 oz

    12 14   Supplemental label
      3, 28 *Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 21    
    White apple leafhopper 1A Sevin   12 3 High See specific Sevin label for rates.
      4A Actara  2 to 2.7 oz. 12 14 High 35-day PHI with higher than 2.7 oz.
      4A Admire Pro 4.6SC 2.8 fl. oz. 12 7 High  
      4A Assail 30SG 2.5 to 4 oz. 12 7 High  
      4C Transform WG 07.5 to 1.5 oz 24 7    
      6 *Agri-Mek SC 2.2 to 4.2 fl. oz. 12 28 High  
      16 Centaur 0.7WDG 9 to 12 oz. 12 14 moderate  
      21A Portal 0.4EC 2 pt. 12 14 High  
      22 Avaunt eVo 5 to 6 oz. 12 14 High  
      28 Exirel 8.5 to 17 fl. oz. 12 3 High Avoid tank mix with Captan.
      3, 28 *Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 21    
      none Aza-Direct 12.5 to 42 fl. oz. 4 0 moderate OMRI listed.
      none Neemix 7 to 16 fl. oz. 12 0 moderate OMRI listed.
      6 + 4A *Agri-Flex SC 5.5 to 8.5 fl. oz. 12 35 High  

    * Restricted Use Pesticide

    8 - Fruit Set: 7 to 14 days after Petal Fall (apple)

     Jump to INSECT

    DISEASE FRAC Product

    Rate/

    Acre

    REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
    Apple scab M3 Manzate Pro-Stick 3 lb. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 21 lb/A per year. 
      M3 Penncozeb 75 DF 3.2 lb. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 22.4 lb/A per year.
      M3 Dithane F-45 Rainshield 2.4 qt. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 16.8 qt/A per year.
      M3 Polyram 80 DF 3 lb. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 21 lb/A per year
      M4 Captan 80WDG 5 lb. 24 0 High To minimize risk of fruit russet or other fruit damage avoid captan from petal fall through fruit set. DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 40 lb./A of Captan 80WDG per year.
      M4 Captan 50WP 8 lb. 24  0 High To minimize risk of fruit russet or other fruit damage avoid captan from petal fall through fruit set. DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 64 lb./A of Captan 50WP per year.
      M4 Captan 4L 4 qt. 24 0 High To minimize risk of fruit russet or other fruit damage avoid captan from petal fall through fruit set. DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 32 qt./A of Captan 4L per year.
     

    M4

    M3

    Captan 80WDG 
    Manzate Pro-Stick

    2.5 lb.

    3 lb.

    24 77 High Captan plus mancozeb for use in blocks with low scab inoculum. Other formulations - adjust rates. To minimize risk of fruit russet or other fruit damage avoid captan from petal fall through fruit set. 
      3 Indar 2F 8 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 32 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year. 
      3 Rally 40WSP 10 oz. 24 14 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 5 lb./A per year. 
      3 Rhyme 6.5 fl. oz. 12 14  High *RM DO NOT apply more than 26 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year.
      3 Cevya 3-5 fl. oz. 12 0   *RM DO NOT apply more than 15 fl. oz./A per year.
      7 Aprovia 7 fl. oz. 12 30 High *RM DO NOT apple more than 26.7 fl. oz. per year. 
      7 Fontelis 20 fl. oz. 12 28 High *RM DO NOT mix with captan. DO NOT apply more than 61 fl oz/A per year.
      7 Sercadis 4.5 fl. oz. 12 0 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 18 fl oz/A per season.
      7 Miravis 3.4 fl oz 12 30 High *RM Do not apply more than 13.6 fl oz per year
      11 Flint Extra 2.9 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 10.5 fl. oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      11 Flint 2.5 oz 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 11 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      11 Sovran 6.4 oz 12 30 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 25.6 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      3 + 9 Inspire Super 12 fl. oz. 12 14 High

    *RM  DO NOT apply more than 60 fl. oz./A per year.

      7 + 11 Luna Sensation 5.8 fl oz 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 21 fl. oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year. 
      7 + 11 Merivon 5.5 fl. oz. 12 High

    *RM  DO NOT apply more than 22 fl. oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.

      7 + 11 Pristine 18.5 oz 12 0 good *RM  DO NOT apply more than 74 oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year. 
                   
    Powdery
    ​Mildew
    3 Rally 40 WSP 10 oz. 24 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 5 lb./A per year. 
      3 Rhyme 12 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 26 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year.
      3 Procure 480SC 16 fl. oz. 12 14 High

    *RM  DO NOT apply more than 56 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year.

      3 Indar 2F 8 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 32 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year.
      11 Flint Extra 2.9 fl. oz. 12 14 High

    *RM  DO NOT apply more than 10.5 fl. oz./A per year, , or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.

      11 Flint 2.5 oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 11 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      11 Sovran 6.4 oz. 12 30 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 25.6 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      7 Aprovia 7 fl. oz. 12 30 Moderate *RM DO NOT apple more than 26.7 fl oz per year. 
      7 Fontelis 20 oz. 12 28 Moderate *RM DO NOT mix with captan. DO NOT apply more than 61 fl oz/A per year.
      7 Sercadis 4.5 fl. oz. 12 0 Moderate *RM  DO NOT apply more than 18 fl oz/A per season.
      7 Miravis 3.4 fl oz 12 30 Moderate *RM Do not apply more than 13.6 fl oz per year
      3 + 9 Inspire Super 12 fl. oz. 12 14 Moderate *RM  DO NOT apply more than 60 fl. oz./A per year.
      7 + 11 Luna Sensation 5.8 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 22 fl. oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year. 
      7 + 11 Merivon 5.5 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 22 fl. oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      7 + 11 Pristine  18.5 fl. oz. 12 0 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 74 oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year. 
      M2 Sulfur DF 10 to 20 lb 24 - Moderate DO NOT apply sulfur within 14 days of an oil application.  DO NOT use captan in combination with or closely following sulfur products.  There are many sulfur formulations - follow the label.
      NC JMS Stylet Oil 1 to 2 gal 4 0 Moderate DO NOT apply sulfur within 14 days of an oil application.  DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of an oil application. DO NOT use oil with spreader-stickers.
      NC SuffOil-X 1-2% 4 0   OMRI listed.
    Rusts M3 Manzate Pro-Stick 3 lb. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 21 lb/A per year. Do not apply to cultivars that will be harvested in 77 days or less.
      M3 Penncozeb 75 DF 3.2 lb. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 22.4 lb/A per year. Do not apply to cultivars that will be harvested in 77 days or less.
      M3 Dithane F-45 Rainshield 2.4 qt. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 16.8 qt/A per year. Do not apply to cultivars that will be harvested in 77 days or less.
      M3 Polyram 80 DF 3 lb. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 21 lb/A per year. Do not apply to cultivars that will be harvested in 77 days or less.
      3 Rally 40 WSP 10 oz 24 14 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 5 lb./A per year. 
      3 Rhyme 6.5 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 26 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year.
      3 Indar 2F 8 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 32 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year. 
      3 Procure 480SC 16 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 56 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year.
      3 Cevya 3-5 fl. oz. 12 0   *RM DO NOT apply more than 15 fl. oz./A per year.
      7 Aprovia 7 fl. oz. 12 30 Moderate

    *RM DO NOT apple more than 26.7 fl oz per year.

      7 Fontelis 20 oz. 12 28 Moderate

    *RM DO NOT mix with captan. DO NOT apply more than 61 fl oz/A per year.

      7 Sercadis 4.5 fl. oz. 12 0 Moderate *RM  DO NOT apply more than 18 fl oz/A per season.
      7 Miravis 3.4 fl oz 12 30   *RM Do not apply more than 13.6 fl oz per year
      3 + 9 Inspire Super 12 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 60 fl. oz./A per year.
      7 + 11 Merivon 5.5 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 22 fl. oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year. 
      NA EcoSwing 1.5 to 2 pt 4 0   OMRI
    Fireblight P01 Actigard 50WG 1 to 2 oz 12 60   Suppression only.

    Black Rot

    White Rot 

    Bitter Rot

    M3 Manzate Pro-Stick 3 lb. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 21 lb/A per year. Do not apply to cultivars that will be harvested in 77 days or less.
    M3 Penncozeb 75 DF 3.2 lb. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 22.4 lb/A per year. Do not apply to cultivars that will be harvested in 77 days or less.
      M3 Dithane F-45 Rainshield 2.4 qt. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 16.8 qt/A per year. Do not apply to cultivars that will be harvested in 77 days or less.
      M3 Polyram 80 DF 3 lb. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 21 lb/A per year. Do not apply to cultivars that will be harvested in 77 days or less.
      M4 Captan 80WDG 5 lb. 24 0 High; Moderate Bitter Rot DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 40 lb./A of Captan 80WDG per year.
      M4 Captan 50WP 8 lb. 24 0 High; Moderate Bitter Rot DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 64 lb./A of Captan 50WP per year.
      M4 Captan 4L 4 qt. 24 0 High; Moderate Bitter Rot DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 32 qt./A of Captan 4L per year.
      11 Flint Extra 2.9 fl. oz. 12 14 Moderate *RM  DO NOT apply more than 10.5 fl. oz./A per year, , or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      11 Flint 2.5 oz. 12 14 Moderate *RM  DO NOT apply more than 11 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      11 Sovran 6.4 oz. 12 14 Moderate

    *RM  DO NOT apply more than 25.6 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.

      7 + 11 Luna Sensation 5.8 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 21 fl. oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      7 + 11 Merivon 5.5 fl. oz. 12 0 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 22 fl. oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year. 
      7 + 11 Pristine 18.5 fl. oz. 12 0 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 74 oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year. 
      29 Omega 13.8 fl oz 12 28   Not labeled for other tree fruits
      F6 LifeGard 4.5 oz./100 gal 4 0 Moderate Apply in an alternating or tank-mix program with labeled fungicides as part of a disease management program. Manages Flyspeck. For Organic production.
    *RM Fungicide with a high risk of developing pathogen resistance. Follow resistance management recommendations here.
    Insect irac Product

    Rate/

    Acre 

    REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
    Apple rust mite 23 Envidor 2SC 16 to 18 fl.oz. 12 7 High Suggested action threshold: >200 mites per leaf
      21A,39 Magister SC 32 to 36 oz. 12 7   One application per year. Also manages powdery mildew.
      21A Nexter SC 11-17 oz. 12 7 moderate Suggested action threshold: >200 mites per leaf
      21A Portal 0.4ED 2 pt. 12 14 High Suggested action threshold: >200 mites per leaf
    Comstock mealybug none oil 1 gal. 0 0    
      4A Assail 30SG 4 to 8 oz. 12 7 High  
      16 Centaur WDG 34.5 oz. 12 14 High  
      21A Portal 0.4EC 2 pts. 12 14 High  
      23 Movento 6 to 9 fl. oz. 24 7 High  
    European
    red mite
    6 *Agri-Mek SC 2.2 to 4.2 fl. oz. 12 28 High Add horticultural oil (not dormant oil).
      6, 4A *Agri-Flex 1.5 to 2 oz 12 35   Must be used with NIS, COC, VOC, MSO wetting agent to avoid illegal residues.
      10A Apollo 4SC 4 to 8 fl. oz. 12 45 High Tank mixing with oil improves control. Primarily an ovicide.
      21A,39 Magister SC 32-36 oz. 12 7   One application per year. Also manages powdery mildew.
      10A Onager Optek 12 to 24 fl. oz. 12 28 High One application per season. Primarily an ovicide.
      10B Zeal 72WS 2 to 3 oz. 12 14 High One application per season. 
      25 Nealta 13.7 fl. oz. 12 7   Apply at the first sign of mites, and before the population increases. Do not make more than 1application before using an effective miticide with a different mode of action.
      12B *Vendex 50WP 1 to 2 lb. 48 14 Low  
      20B Kanemite 15SC 31 fl. oz. 12 14 High  
      21A Nexter SC 11-17 oz. 12 7 High Use higher rates in mature trees with dense foliage.
      21A Portal 0.4EC 2 pt. 12 14 High  
      23 Envidor 16 to 18 fl. oz. 12 7 High  
      none Acramite 50WS .75 to 1 lb. 12 7 High  
    Gypsy moth 5 Delegate 25WG 4.5 to 7 oz. 4 7 High  
      28 Altacor 2.5 to 4 oz. 4 5 High  
      NA Spear-LEP 1 to 2 pt 4 0 ? max 6 pt per acre per season
    Codling moth & Oriental fruit moth none Madex HF .5 to 3 fl. oz. 4 0 moderate OMRI listed. Not registered in all states. Do not tank mix with Bt products.
      none Neemix 7 to 16 fl. oz. 12 0 moderate OMRI listed. Not registered in all states.
      1B Imidan 70W 2.1 to 5.7 lb. 4 days 7 High Many codling moth populations showing resistance.
      4A Assail 30 SG 4 to 8 oz. 12 7 High Most active when ingested by larvae but also has limited adult and egg toxicity.
      5 Delegate 25WG 4.5 to 7 oz. 4 7 High Most active when ingested by larvae but has limited activity on eggs.
      5 Entrust SC 6 to 10 fl. oz. 4 7 moderate OMRI listed. Must be ingested by larvae and may take several days to cause mortality. Addition of adjuvant is recommended to improve spray deposition.
      6 *Proclaim 5SG 4.8 oz. 12 14 moderate Most effective at high label rate. Less efficacious against later generations.
      11A DiPel DF 0.5 to 2 lb. 4 0 moderate OMRI listed.
      15 Rimon 0.83EC 20 to 40 fl. oz. 12 14 High An insect growth regulator that impedes egg development. Must be applied  before egg laying or shortly after egg laying begins. May be too late for codling moth egg management.
      18 Intrepid 2F 12 to 16 fl. oz. 4 14 moderate An insect growth regulator that primarily affects larvae. Addition of adjuvant is recommended to improve spray deposition. May take several days to cause mortality.
      22 Avaunt eVo 5 to 6 oz. 12 14 moderate  
      28 Altacor 35WDG 2.5 to 4.5 oz. 4 5 High Most active when ingested by larvae. Apply higher rates where pest density is high.
      28 Belt 4SC 3 to 5 fl. oz. 12 14 High Most active when ingested by larvae. Apply higher rates where pest density is high.
      28 Exirel 10 to 17 fl. oz. 12 3 High Most active when ingested by larvae. Apply higher rates where pest density is high.
      28 Verdepryn 100 SL 5.5 to 11 oz 4 7    
      3, 28 *Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 21    
      4A + 28 Voliam Flexi WDG 4 to 7 oz. 12 35 High Most active when ingested by larvae. Apply higher rates where pest density is high.
      1A Sevin 4F 1 to 3 qt. 12 3 moderate Fruit thinner if used within 30 days after bloom.
      3A Danitol 2.4EC 12 to 21.3 oz. 24 14 High  
      3A

    Brigade formulations

    see label 12 14   supplemental label. Do not make more than 3 applications per year. Minimum re-treatment interval is 30 days.
      NA Spear-LEP 1 to 2 pt 4 0 ? max 6 pt per acre per season; codling moth only
    Oystershell scale 1A Sevin   12 3 High  
      16 Centaur WDG 34.5 oz. 12 14 High  
    Plum curculio none Surround 95WP 25 to 50 lb. 4 0 moderate OMRI listed.
      1A Sevin   12 3 moderate  
      1B Imidan 70W 2.1 to 5.7 4 days 7 High  
      4A Actara 4.5 to 5.5 oz. 12 35 High  
      22 Avaunt eVo 5 to 6 oz. 12 14 High  
      28 Exirel 13.5 to 20.5 fl. oz. 12 3 High  
      28 Verdepryn 100 SL 5.5 to 11 oz 4 7    
      3, 28 *Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 21    
      4A + 28 Voliam Flexi WDG 6 to 7 oz. 12 35 High  
      6 + 4A *Agri-Flex SC 5.5 to 8.5 fl. oz. 12 35 High

    Add horticultural oil (not dormant oil) at 1 gallon per acre.

      3A

    *Brigade formulations

    see label 12 14   supplemental label. Do not make more than 3 applications per year. Minimum re-treatment interval is 30 days.
    Spotted tentiform leafminer 1A Lannate   72 14 High See specific Lannate label for rates
      4A Actara 4.5 oz. 12 35 High  
      4A Admire Pro 4.6SC 2.8 fl. oz. 12 7 High  
      4A Assail 30SG 2.5 oz. 12 7 High  
      5 Delegate 25WG 4.5 to 7 oz. 4 7 High Adjuvant may improve efficacy.
      5 Entrust SC 6 to 10 fl. oz. 4 7 High OMRI listed.
      6 *Proclaim 5SG 3.2 to 4.8 oz. 12 14 High  
      6 *Agri-Mek 2.2 to 4.4 fl oz 12 28    
      15 Rimon 0.83EC 15 to 40 fl. oz. 12 14 High  
      22 Avaunt eVo 5 to 6 oz. 12 14 moderate  
      28 Altacor 35WDG 2.5 to 4 oz. 4 5 High  
      28 Belt 4SC 3 to 5 fl. oz. 12 14 High  
      28 Verdepryn 100SL 5.5 to 11 oz 4 7    
      3, 28 *Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 21    
      none Aza-Direct 11.5 to 42 fl. oz. 4 0 High  
      none Azatin XL 10 to 16 fl. oz. 4 0 High  
      4A + 28 Voliam Flexi WDG 4 to 7 oz. 12 35 High  
      6 + 4A *Agri-Flex SC 5.5 to 8.5 fl. oz. 12 35 High  Add horticultural oil (not dormant oil) at 1 gallon per acre.
      3A *Brigade formulations see label 12 14   supplemental label. Do not make more than 3 applications per year. Minimum re-treatment interval is 30 days.
    White apple leafhopper 1A Sevin   12 3 High See specific Sevin label for rates.
      4A Actara 25WDG 2 to 2.7 oz. 12 varies by rate High  
      4A Admire Pro 4.6SC 2.8 fl. oz. 12 7 High  
      4A Assail 30SG 2.5 to 4 oz. 12 7 High  
      4A Actara 2.0 to 2.7 oz 12 14   PHI is 35 days for rates higher than 2.7 oz.
      4C Transform WG 0.75 to 1.5 oz 24 7    
      6 *Agri-Mek SC 2.2 to 4.2 fl. oz. 12 28 High  
      16 Centaur 0.7WDG 9 to 12 oz. 12 14 moderate  
      21A Portal 0.4EC 2 pt. 12 14 High  
      22 Avaunt eVo 5 to 6 oz. 12 14 High  
      28 Exirel 8.5 to 17 fl. oz. 12 3 High  
      28 Verdepryn 100SL 5.5 to 11 oz 4 7    
      3, 28 *Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 21    
      none Aza-Direct 12.5 to 42 fl. oz. 4 0 moderate OMRI listed.
      none Neemix 7 to 16 fl. oz. 12 0 moderate OMRI listed.
      6 + 4A *Agri-Flex SC 5.5 to 8.5 fl. oz. 12 35 High  
      3A *Brigade formulations see label 12 14   Supplemental label. Do not make more than 3 applications per year. Minimum re-treatment interval is 30 days.

    * Restricted Use Pesticide

    9 - Summer (apple)

    Jump to INSECT

     

    DISEASE FRAC Product

    Rate/

    Acre

    REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
    Apple Scab M3 Manzate Pro-Stick 3 lb. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 21 lb/A per year. Do not apply to cultivars that will be harvested in 77 days or less.
      M3 Penncozeb 75 DF 3.2 lb. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 22.4 lb/A per year. Do not apply to cultivars that will be harvested in 77 days or less.
      M3 Dithane F-45 Rainshield 2.4 qt. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 16.8 qt/A per year. Do not apply to cultivars that will be harvested in 77 days or less.
      M3 Polyram 80 DF 3 lb. 24 77 High DO NOT apply more than 21 lb/A per year. Do not apply to cultivars that will be harvested in 77 days or less.
      M4 Captan 80WDG 5 lb. 24 0 High DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 40 lb./A of Captan 80WDG per year.
      M4 Captan 50WP 8 lb. 24 0 High DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 64 lb./A of Captan 50WP per year.
      M4 Captan 4L 4 qt. 24 0 High DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 32 qt./A of Captan 4L per year.
      3 Indar 2F 8 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 32 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year. 
      3 Rally 40WSP 10 oz. 24 14 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 5 lb./A per year. 
      3 Rhyme 6.5 fl. oz. 12 14  High *RM DO NOT apply more than 26 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year.
      3 Cevya 3-5 fl. oz. 12 0   *RM DO NOT apply more than 15 fl. oz./A per year.
      11 Flint Extra 2.9 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 10.5 fl. oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      11 Flint 2.5 oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 11 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      11 Sovran 6.4 oz. 12 30 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 25.6 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      3 + 9 Inspire Super 12 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 60 fl. oz./A per year.
      7 + 11 Luna Sensation 5.8 fl oz 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 21 fl. oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year. 
      7 + 11 Merivon 5.5 fl. oz. 12 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 22 fl. oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year. 
      7 + 11 Pristine 18.5 oz 12 0 Moderate *RM  DO NOT apply more than 74 oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.  
      7 Miravis 3.4 fl oz 12 30 High *RM Do not apply more than 13.6 fl oz /year
                   
    Fire Blight NC Apogee 4.5 to 9 oz per 100 gal 12 45 Shoot blight only - Low to Moderate To control shoot blight only. If Apogee was applied during petal fall, apply a second application 2 weeks later. Apogee is a growth regulator and does not directly control fire blight bacteria, but by slowing growth makes apple shoots more resistant to infection. 
                   
    Sooty Blotch / Flyspeck M3 Ziram 76DF 6 lb. 48 14 Moderate DO NOT apply more than 42.4 lb./A or more than 7 applications per year.
      M4 Captan 80WDG 2.5 to 5 lb. 24 0 Moderate DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. 

    DO NOT apply more than 40 lb./A of Captan 80WDG per year.

      M4 Captan 50 WP 4 to 8 lb. 24 0 Moderate DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 64 lb./A of Captan 50WP per year. 
      M4 Captan 4L 2 to 4 qt. 24 0 Moderate DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 32 qt./A of Captan 4L per year. 
      1 Topsin 4.5 FL 20 fl. oz. 48 1 High *RM. Tank mix with 2.5 lb/A Captan 80 WDG or equivalent. DO NOT apply more than 80 fl. oz./A per year.
      1 Topsin M WSB 1 lb. 48 1 High *RM. Tank mix with 2.5 lb/A Captan 80 WDG or equivalent. DO NOT apply more than 4 lb./A per year.
      1 Thiophanate Methyl 85 WDG 0.8 lb. 48 1 High *RM. Tank mix with 2.5 lb/A Captan 80 WDG or equivalent. DO NOT apply more than 3.3 lb./A per year.
      3 Indar 2F 8 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 32 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year. 
      3 Ceyva 3-5 fl. oz. 12 0   *RM DO NOT apply more than 15 fl. oz./A per year.
      11 Flint Extra 2.9 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 10.5 fl. oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      11 Flint 2.5 oz 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 11 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      11 Sovran 4 to 6.4 oz 12 30 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 25.6 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      33 Helena ProPhyt  4 to 6 pt 4 0 High ProPhyt should be tank mixed with 2.5 lb/A Captan 80 WDG or equivalent to reach adequate efficacy against sooty blotch and flyspeck.
      3 + 9 Inspire Super 12 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 60 fl. oz./A per year.
      7 + 11 Luna Sensation 5.8 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 21 fl. oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      7 + 11 Merivon 5.5 fl. oz. 12 0 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 22 fl. oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year. 
      7 + 11 Pristine 18.5 fl. oz. 12 0 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 74 oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year. 
      7 Miravis 3.4 fl oz 12 30 High *RM Do not apply more than 13.6 fl oz /year
      7 Aprovia 5.5 to 7 fl oz 12 30    
      F6 LifeGard 4.5 oz./100 gal 4 0 Moderate Apply in an alternating or tank-mix program with labeled fungicides as part of a disease management program. For Organic production.
      29 Omega 10 to 13.8 fl oz 12 28   Not labeled for other tree fruits
    Powdery
    ​Mildew
    3 Rally 40WSP 10 oz. 24 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 5 lb./A per year. 
      3 Rhyme 6.5 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 26 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year.
      3 Indar 2F 8 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM DO NOT apply more than 32 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year.
      3 Procure 480SC 16 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 56 fl. oz./A or 4 sprays per year.
      11 Flint Extra 2.9 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 10.5 fl. oz./A per year, , or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      11 Flint 2.5 oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 11 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      11 Sovran 6.4 oz. 12 30 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 25.6 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      3+9 Inspire Super 12 fl oz 12 14   *RM Not more than 60 fl oz/A per year
      7 Miravis 3.4 fl oz 12 30   *RM
      M2 Sulfur DF 10 to 20 lb 24 - good DO NOT apply sulfur within 14 days of an oil application.  DO NOT use captan in combination with or closely following sulfur products.  There are many sulfur formulations - follow the label.
      NC JMS Stylet Oil 1 to 2 gal 4 0 good DO NOT apply sulfur within 14 days of an oil application.  DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of an oil application. DO NOT use oil with spreader-stickers.
      NC SuffOil-X 1-2% 4 0   OMRI listed.

    Black Rot 

    White Rot

    Bitter Rot

    1 Topsin 4.5 FL 20 fl oz 48 1 High *RM. Tank mix with 2.5 lb/A Captan 80 WDG or equivalent. DO NOT apply more than 80 fl. oz./A per year.
    1 Topsin M WSB 1 lb 48 1 High *RM. Tank mix with 2.5 lb/A Captan 80 WDG or equivalent. DO NOT apply more than 4 lb./A per year.
      1 Thiophanate Methyl 85 WDG 0.8 lb 48 1 High *RM. Tank mix with 2.5 lb/A Captan 80 WDG or equivalent. DO NOT apply more than 3.3 lb./A per year.
      M3 Ziram 76DF 6 lb. 48 14 Moderate; Very low  Bitter Rot DO NOT apply more than 42.4 lb./A or more than 7 applications per year.
      M4 Captan 80WDG 5 lb. 24 0 High; Moderate Bitter Rot DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 40 lb./A of Captan 80WDG per year.
      M4 Captan 50WP 8 lb. 24 High; Moderate Bitter Rot DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 64 lb./A of Captan 50WP per year.
      M4 Captan 4L 4 qt. 24 0 High; Moderate Bitter Rot DO NOT apply captan within 10 days of oil. DO NOT apply more than 32 qt./A of Captan 4L per year.
      11 Sovran 6.4 oz. 12 30 Moderate

    *RM  DO NOT apply more than 25.6 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.

      11 Flint 2.5 oz. 12 14 Moderate *RM  DO NOT apply more than 11 oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      11 Flint Extra 2.9 fl. oz 12 14 Moderate *RM  DO NOT apply more than 10.5 fl. oz./A per year, , or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      7 + 11 Luna Sensation 5.8 fl. oz. 12 14 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 21 fl. oz./A per year, or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year.
      7 + 11 Merivon 5.5 fl. oz. 12 0 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 22 fl. oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year. 
      7 + 11 Pristine 18.5 fl. oz. 12 0 High *RM  DO NOT apply more than 74 oz./A per season,or more than 4 applications of any Group 11 fungicide per year. 
      29 Omega 13.9 fl oz 12 28   Not labeled for other tree fruits
    RM Fungicide with a high risk of developing pathogen resistance. Follow resistance management recommendations here.
                   
    Insect IRAC Product

    Rate/

    Acre

    REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
    Dogwood borer 4A Assail 30SG 8 oz. 12 7 moderate One course spray to trunk between pink and mid-June. If fresh borer activity found in early July, spray Assail before early August.
    Borers 3, 28 *Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 21    
    Apple aphid, Spirea aphid 4A Admire Pro 2.8 fl. oz. 12 7 High  
      4A Assail 30SG 2.5 to 4 oz. 12 7 High  
      4A Belay 4 to 6 fl. oz. 12 7 High  
      4A Actara 4.5 oz 12 35   PHI depends on rate applied.
      4C Transform WG 0.75 to 1.5 oz 24 7    
      9A PQZ 2.4 to 3.2 fl oz 12 14    
      29 Beleaf 50SG 2 to 2.8 oz. 12 21 High  
      23 Movento 6 to 9 fl. oz. 24 7 High  
      none

    Aza-Direct

    12.5 to 42 fl. oz. 4 0 moderate OMRI listed.
      23,7C Senstar 12-18 fl. oz. 24 45   No more than 2 applications per year. Minimum interval of 14 days.
      9D Versys 1.5 fl. oz. 12 7 ? Suppresses woolly apple aphid
      3, 28 *Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 21    
      4A + 28 Voliam Flexi 6 to 7 oz. 12 35 High  
      6 + 4A *Agri-Flex 5.5 to 8.5 fl. oz. 12 35 High Add horticultural oil (not dormant oil) at 1 gallon per acre.
      none SuffOil-X 1-2% 4 0   OMRI listed
    Apple maggot none Surround 95WP 25 to 50 lb. 4 0 moderate OMRI listed.
      4A Assail 30SG 8 oz. 12 7 High  
      4A Belay 6 fl. oz. 12 7 High  
      22 Avaunt 6 oz. 12 14 moderate  
      28 Exirel 13.5 to 20.5 fl. oz. 12 3 moderate Avoid tank-mix with Captan
      28 Altacor 2.4 to 4.5 oz 4 5    
      28 Verdepryn 100SL 5.5 to 11 oz 4 7    
      3, 28 *Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 21    
      1B Imidan 70-W 2.125 to 5.75 lb 96 7 High 14 day REI for PYO/public orchards
    Apple rust mite 23 Envidor 2SC 16 to 18 fl.oz. 12 7 High Suggested action threshold: >200 mites per leaf
      21A,39 Magister 32 to 36 oz. 12 7   One application per year. Also manages powdery mildew.
      21A Nexter 75WS 5.2 to 6 oz. 12 25 moderate Suggested action threshold: >200 mites per leaf
      21A Portal 0.4ED 2 pt. 12 14 High Suggested action threshold: >200 mites per leaf
    Codling moth none Cyd-X 1 to 6 fl. oz. 4 0 moderate

    a.i. codling moth granulovirus. Make at least two applications per codling moth larval generation. Target small larvae early in their life cycle.

    OMRI listed. Not registered in all states. Do not tank mix with Bt products.

      none Madex HP .5 to 3 fl. oz. 4 0 moderate
      none Checkmate CM-F 2.4 to 4.8 fl. oz. 4 0 moderate Mating disruption product. Not registered in all states. Best when applied before bloom.
      none Isomate CM/OFM TT 200 ties 0 0 High Mating disruption product. OMRI listed. Not registered in all states. Best when applied before bloom.
      none

    CIDETRAK® CMDA COMBO MESO-A

    32-36 dispensers per acre 0 0   Mating disruption product. Not registered in all states.  Best when applied before bloom because dispensers last the entire growing season.
      none CIDETRAK® CMDA + OFM MESO 32-38 dispensers per acre 0 0   For mating disruption of codling moth AND Oriental fruit moth. Not registered in all states. Best when applied before bloom because dispensers last the entire growing season.
      none Neemix 7 to 16 fl. oz. 12 0 moderate OMRI listed. Not registered in all states.
      none Surround 95WP 25 to 50 lb. 4 0 moderate OMRI listed.
      1A Sevin   12 3 moderate See specific Sevin label for rate.
      1B Imidan 70W 2.1 to 5.7 lb. 4 days 7 High Many codling moth populations showing resistance.
      11A DiPel DF .5 to 2 lb. 4 0 moderate OMRI listed.
      4A Assail 40SG 4 to 8 oz. 12 7 High Most active when ingested by larvae but also has limited adult and egg toxicity.
      5 Delegate 25WG 4.5 to 7 oz. 4 7 High Most active when ingested by larvae but has limited activity on eggs.
      5 Entrust SC 6 to 10 fl. oz. 4 7 moderate Must be ingested by larvae and may take several days to cause mortality. Addition of adjuvant is recommended to improve spray deposition.
      15 Rimon 0.83EC 20 to 40 fl. oz. 12 14 High An insect growth regulator that impedes egg development. More effective when used early in the season.
      18 Intrepid 2F 16 fl. oz. 4 14 moderate An insect growth regulator that primarily affects larvae. Addition of adjuvant is recommended to improve spray deposition. May take several days to cause mortality.
      22 Avaunt eVo 5 to 6 oz. 12 14 moderate  
      28 Altacor 35WDG 2.5 to 4.5 oz. 4 5 High Most active when ingested by larvae. Apply higher rates where pest density is high and against second generation.
      28 Belt 4SC 3 to 5 fl. oz. 12 14 High Most active when ingested by larvae. Apply higher rates where pest density is high and against second generation.
      28 Exirel 8.5 to 17 oz 12 3 High Avoid tank-mix with Captan
      28 Verdepryn 100SL 5.5 to 11 oz 4 7    
      3, 28 *Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 21    
      4A + 28 Voliam Flexi WDG 4 to 7 oz. 12 35 High Most active when ingested by larvae. Apply higher rates where pest density is high and against second generation.
      3A Danitol 2.4EC 16 to 21.3 oz. 24 14 High  
      3A *Brigade formulations see label 12 14   Supplemental label. Do not make more than 3 applications per year. Minimum re-treatment interval is 30 days.
      NA Spear-LEP 1 to 2 pt 4 0 ? max 6 pt per acre per season
    Comstock mealybug 4A Assail 30SG 4 to 8 oz. 12 7 High  
      16 Centaur WDG 34.5 oz. 12 14 High  
      21A Portal 0.4EC 2 pts. 12 14 High  
      23 Movento 6 to 9 fl. oz. 24 7 High  
      6 + 4A *Agri-Flex SC 5.5 to 8.5 fl. oz. 12 35 High Add horticultural oil (not dormant oil) at 1 gallon per acre.
    European cornborer 5 Delegate 25WG 4.5 to 7 oz. 4 7 High  
      11A DiPel DF .5 to 2 lb. 4 0 moderate  
      28 Verdepryn 100SL 5.5 to 11 oz 4 7    
    European
    red mite
    6 *Agri-Mek SC 2.2 to 4.2 fl. oz. 12 28 High Add horticultural oil (not dormant oil).
      6, 4A *Agri-Flex 1.5 to 2 oz 12 35   Must be used with NIS, COC, VOC, MSO wetting agent to avoid illegal residues.
      10A Apollo 4SC 4 to 8 fl. oz. 12 45 High Tank mixing with oil improves control. Primarily an ovicide.
      10A Onager Optek 12 to 24 fl. oz. 12 28 High One application per season. Primarily an ovicide.
      10B Zeal 72WS 2 to 3 oz. 12 14 High One application per season. 
      25 Nealta 13.7 fl. oz. 12 7 High Apply at the first sign of mites, and before the population increases. Do not make more than 1application before using an effective miticide with a different mode of action.
      12B *Vendex 50WP 1 to 2 lb. 48 14 Low  
      20B Kanemite 15SC 31 fl. oz. 12 14 High  
      21A,39 Magister 32 to 36 oz. 12 7   One application per year. Also manages powdery mildew.
      21A Nexter SC 11 to 17 oz. 12 7 High Use higher rates in mature trees with dense foliage.
      21A Portal 0.4EC 2 pt. 12 14 High  
      23 Envidor 16 to 18 fl. oz. 12 7 High  
      29 Omega 13.8 fl oz 12 28   Not labeled for other tree fruits
      none Acramite 50WS .75 to 1 lb. 12 7 High  
      NC SuffOil-X 1-2% 4 0   OMRI listed
    Japanese beetle 1A Sevin   12 3 High See specific Sevin label for rates.
      1B Imidan 70-W 2.1 to 5.7 lb. 4 days 7 High  
      4A Assail 30SG 5 to 8 oz. 12 7 High  
      4A Actara 4.5 to 5.5 oz 12 See label   PHI depends on rate applied.
      UN Aza-Direct 5 to 57 fl oz 4 0   OMRI
      3A, UN Azera Insecticide See label 12 0   OMRI
      28, 3A Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 21    
      15, 4A Cormoran 20 to 28 fl oz 12 14    
      3A Danitol 2.4 EC 16 to 21.33 fl oz 24 14    
      3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 6 fl oz 24 35    
      3A, 6 Gladiator See label 12 28    
        Surround 25 to 50 lb 4 0    
        Grandevo WDG See label 4 0    
      UN Neemix 4.5 4 to 16 fl oz 4 0   OMRI
      3A Lambda-Cyhalothrin (Nufarm) 2.56 to 5.12 fl oz 24 21    
      3A Pyganic EC 1.4 II 16 to 64 fl oz 12 0   OMRI
      3A Pyganic EC 5.0 II 4.5 to 15.61 fl oz 12 0   OMRI
      28, 3A Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 21    
      28, 4A Voliam Flexi 7 oz 12 35    
      3, 28 *Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 21    
    Lesser appleworm none Isomate CM/OFM TT 200 ties 0 0 High OMRI listed. Not registered in all states.
      4A Assail 30SG 4 to 8 oz. 12 7 High  
      5 Delegate 25WD 4.5 to 7 oz. 4 7 High  
      18 Intrepid 2F 12 to 16 fl. oz. 4 14 moderate  
      22 Avaunt eVo 5 to 6 oz. 12 14 moderate  
      28 Belt 4SC 3 to 5 fl. oz. 12 14 High  
      3, 28 *Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 21    
      4A + 28 Voliam Flexi WDG 4 to 7 oz. 12 35 High  
    Obliquebanded leafroller & Red banded leafroller 5 Delegate 25WG 4.5 to 7 oz. 4 7 High  
      5 Entrust SC 6 to 10 fl. oz. 4 7 High OMRI listed.
      6 *Proclaim 3.2 to 4.8 oz. 12 14 High  
      11A Dipel 10.3DF 0.5 to 2 lb. 4 0 High  
      15 Rimon 0.83ED 20 to 40 fl. oz. 12 14 High  
      18 Intrepid 2F 8 to 16 oz. 4 14 High  
      28 Exirel 8.5 to 17 fl. oz. 12 3 High Avoid tank-mix with Captan
      28 Verdepryn 100SL 5.5 to 11 oz 4 7    
      28 Altacor 2.5 to 4.5 oz. 4 5 High  
      28 Belt SC 3 to 5 fl. oz. 12 14 High  
      3, 28 Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 21    
      4A + 28 Voliam Flexi WDG 4 to 7 oz. 12 35 High  
      NA Spear-LEP 1 to 2 pt 4 0 ? max 6 pt per acre per season
      3A *Brigade formulations see label 12 14   Supplemental label. Do not make more than 3 applications per year. Minimum re-treatment interval is 30 days.
    Oriental fruit moth none Checkmate OFM-F 1.3 to 2.9 fl. oz. 0 0 High Not labeled in all states. Better control when pheromone distruption begins with 1st generation. Shold be applied before 1st flight of target generation. Insecticide or double rate of pheromones may be needed in border rows adjacent to sources of OFM.
      none Checkmate OFM Dispenser 100 to 200 dispensers 0 0 High Not labeled in all states. Sames comments as for Checkmate.
      none Isomate CM/OFM TT 200 ties 0 0 High OMRI listed. Not labeled in all states. Sames comments as for Checkmate.
      none Isomate OFM TT 100 ties 0 0 High OMRI listed. Not labeled in all states. Sames comments as for Checkmate.
      none Madex HF .5 to 3 fl. oz. 4 0 moderate OMRI listed. Do not tank mix with Bt products.
      none Neemix 7 to 16 fl. oz. 12 0 moderate OMRI listed.
      1B Imidan 70W 2.1 to 5.7 lb. 4 days 7 High  
      4A Assail 30 SG 4 to 8 oz. 12 7 High  
      4A Belay 6 to 12 fl. oz. 12 7 High Bee hazard.
      5 Delegate 25WG 4.5 to 7 oz. 4 7 High  
      5 Entrust SC 6 to 10 fl. oz. 4 7 moderate OMRI listed.
      6 *Proclaim 5SG 4.8 oz. 12 14 moderate  
      11A DiPel DF 0.5 to 2 lb. 4 0 moderate OMRI listed.
      15 Rimon 0.83EC 20 to 40 fl. oz. 12 14 High  
      18 Intrepid 2F 12 to 16 fl. oz. 4 14 moderate  
      22 Avaunt 5 to 6 oz. 12 14 moderate  
      28 Altacor 2.5 to 4.5 oz. 4 5 High  
      28 Belt 4SC 3 to 5 fl. oz. 12 14 High  
      28 Exirel 10 to 17 fl. oz. 12 3 High Avoid tank-mix with Captan
      28 Verdepryn 100SL 5.5 to 11 oz 4 7    
      3, 28 Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 21    
      4A + 28 Voliam Flexi WDG 4 to 7 oz. 12 35 High  
    Oystershell scale 1A Sevin   12 3 High See specific Sevin label for rates.
      16 Centaur WDG 34.5 oz. 12 14 High  
    Plum curculio none Surround 95WP 25 to 50 lb. 4 0 moderate OMRI listed.
      1A Sevin   12 3 moderate See specific Sevin label for rates.
      1B Imidan 70W 2.1 to 5.7 4 days 7 High  
      4A Actara 4.5 to 5.5 oz. 12 35 High PHI depends on rate applied
      4A Belay 6 fl. oz. 12 7    
      22 Avaunt eVo 5 to 6 oz. 12 14 High  
      28 Exirel 13.5 to 20.5 fl. oz. 12 3 High Avoid tank-mix with Captan
      3, 28 *Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz        
      4A + 28 Voliam Flexi WDG 6 to 7 oz. 12 35 High  
      6 + 4A *Agri-Flex SC 5.5 to 8.5 fl. oz. 12 35 High

    Add horticultural oil (not dormant oil) at 1 gallon per acre.

      3A *Brigade formulations see label 12 14   supplemental label. Do not make more than 3 applications per year. Minimum re-treatment interval is 30 days.
    San Jose scale 1B Imidan 70W 2.1 to 5.7 lb. 4 days 7 moderate  
      4A Admire Pro 2.8 fl. oz. 12 7 moderate  
      4A Assail 30SG 8 oz. 12 7 moderate  
      4C Transform WG 2.75 oz 24 7   Suppression only
      7C Esteem 35WP 4 to 5 oz. 12 45 High  
      16 Centaur 0.7WDG 34.5 oz. 12 14 High  
      23 Movento 240SC 6 to 9 fl. oz. 12 7 High Must be used with adjuvant having spreading and penetrating properties. Most effective when used at petal fall to first cover.
      3, 28 *Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 21    
      NC SuffOil-X 1-2% 4 0   OMRI listed.
    Spotted tentiform leafminer 4A Actara 4.5 oz. 12 35 High PHI depends on rate applied
      4A Admire Pro 4.6SC 2.8 fl. oz. 12 7 High  
      4A Assail 30SG 2.5 oz. 12 7 High  
      4A Belay 6 fl. oz. 12 7 High  
      5 Delegate 25WG 4.5 to 7 oz. 4 7 High Adjuvant may improve efficacy.
      5 Entrust SC 6 to 10 fl. oz. 4 7 High OMRI listed.
      6 *Proclaim 5SG 3.2 to 4.8 oz. 12 14 High  
      6 *Agri-Mek 2.2 to 4.2 fl oz 12 28    
      15 Rimon 0.83EC 15 to 40 fl. oz. 12 14 High  
      28 Altacor 2.5 to 4 oz. 4 5 High  
      28 Belt 4SC 3 to 5 fl. oz. 12 14 High  
      28 Verdepryn 100SL 5.5 to 11 oz 4 7    
      3, 28 *Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 21    
      none Aza-Direct 11.5 to 42 fl. oz. 4 0 High OMRI listed.
      none Azatin XL 10 to 16 fl. oz. 4 0 High OMRI listed.
      4A + 28 Voliam Flexi WDG 4 to 7 oz. 12 35 High  
      6 + 4A *Agri-Flex SC 5.5 to 8.5 fl. oz. 12 35 High  Add horticultural oil (not dormant oil) at 1 gallon per acre.
    Stink bugs, incl. brown marmorated stink bug none Surround 95WP 25 to 50 lb. 4 0 moderate OMRI listed.
      3 *Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl. oz. 24 21 moderate  
      3A Baythroid XL 1,4 to 2,8 fl oz 12 7 moderate 14 days application interval
      3A *Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 12 21 moderate  
      3A *Brigade formulations see label 12 14   Supplemental label. Do not make more than 3 applications per year. Minimum re-treatment interval is 30 days.
      4A Belay 6 fl oz 12 7 good max. 12 fl oz per acre per season
      3A Danitol 2.4EC 10.7 to 21.3 fl. oz. 24 14 moderate  
      4A + 3A *Endigo ZC 5 to 6 fl. oz. 24 35 high  
      3A/28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 21 high max 31 fl oz per acre per season; 10 day application interval
      4A + 28 Voliam Flexi WDG 6 to 7 oz. 12 35 moderate max 16 oz per acre per season; 10 day application interval
      28 Verdepryn 100SL 5.5 to 11 oz 4 7    
      22 Avaunt eVo 5 to 6 oz 12 14    
      3A, UN Azera See label 12 0   OMRI
      28, 3 *Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 21    
      4C Closer SC 2.75 to 5.75 fl oz 12 7    
      15, 4A Cormoran 20 to 28 fl oz 12 14    
      3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 6 fl oz 24 35    
      1A Lannate LV 1.5 to 3 pt 72 14    
      1A Lannate SP 0.5 to 1 lb 72 14    
      3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7    
      3A Mustang Maxx 1.28 to 4 fl oz 12 14    
      3A Lambda-Cyhalothrin 1 EC 2.56 to 5.12 fl oz 24 21    
      3A Perm-UP 3.2 EC 10 fl oz 12 0    
      3A Pyganic EC 5.0 II 4.5 to 15.61 fl oz 12 0    
      3A Pyganic EC 1.4 II 16 to 64 fl oz 12      
      15 Rimon 0.83EC 20 to 50 fl oz       See label for REI and PHI
      1A Sevin XLR Plus 1.5 to 3 qt 12 72    
      3A Warrior II 1.28 to 2.56 fl oz 24 21    
    Twospotted spider mite 6, 4A *Agri-Flex 1.5 to 2 oz 12 35   Must be used with NIS, COC, VOC, MSO wetting agent to avoid illegal residues.
      6 *Agri-Mek 2.2 to 4.2 fl oz 12 28    
      10B Zeal 72WS 2 to 3 oz. 12 14 High  
      12B *Vendex 50WP 1 to 2 lb. 48 14 moderate  
      20B Kanemite 15SC 31 fl. oz. 12 14 High  
      21A Nexter 75WS 8.8 to 10.6 oz. 12 25 moderate  
      21A Portal 0.4EC 2 pt. 12 14 High  
      23 Envidor 16 to 18 fl. oz. 12 7 High  
      25 Nealta 13.7 fl. oz. 12 7 High  
      none Acramite 50WS .75 to 1 lb. 12 7 High  
    Variegated leafroller, Sparganothis fruitworm 11A Deliver 18WG 0.5 to 2 lb. 4 0 moderate OMRI listed. Not registered in all states.
      11A DiPel DF 0.5 to 2 lb. 4 0 moderate OMRI listed.
      11A Javelin 7.5WDG 0.5 to 4 lb. 4 0 moderate OMRI listetd. Not registered in all states.
      NA Spear-LEP 1 to 2 pt 4 0 ? max 6 pt per acre per season
    White apple leafhopper, Potato leafhopper 1A Sevin   12 3 High See specific Sevin label for rates.
      4A Actara 2 to 2.7 oz. 12 12 High PHI is 35 days with rates higher than 2.7 oz.
      4A Admire Pro 4.6SC 2.8 fl. oz. 12 7 High  
      4A Assail 30SG 2.5 to 4 oz. 12 7 High  
      4A Belay 4 to 6 fl. oz. 12 7 High  
      4C Transform WG 0.75 to 1.5 oz 24 7    
      6 *Agri-Mek SC 2.2 to 4.2 fl. oz. 12 28 High  
      16 Centaur 0.7WDG 9 to 12 oz. 12 14 moderate  
      21A Portal 0.4EC 2 pt. 12 14 High  
      22 Avaunt eVo 5 to 6 oz. 12 14 High  
      28 Exirel 8.5 to 17 fl. oz. 12 3 High Avoid tank-mix with Captan
      28 Verdepryn 100SL 5.5 to 11 oz 4 7    
      28 Altacor 2.4 to 4.5 4 5    
      3, 28 Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 21    
      none Aza-Direct 12.5 to 42 fl. oz. 4 0 moderate OMRI listed.
      none Neemix 7 to 16 fl. oz. 12 0 moderate OMRI listed.
      4A + 28 Voliam Flexi 4 to 7 oz. 12 35 High  
      6 + 4A *Agri-Flex SC 5.5 to 8.5 fl. oz. 12 35 High Add horticultural oil (not dormant oil) at 1 gallon per acre.
      3A Brigade formulations see label 12 14   supplemental label. Do not make more than 3 applications per year. Minimum re-treatment interval is 30 days.
    Woolly apple aphid 1B *Diazinon 50W 1 lb./100 gal 96 petal fall High  
      4A Admire Pro 7 to 10.5 fl. oz. 12 7 Moderate  
      4A Assail 30SG 2.5 to 4 oz. 12 7 Moderate  
      4C Transform 50 WG 1.5 – 2.75 oz. 24 7 High Do not make applications less than 7 days apart. Mo more than 4 applications per year. Do not make more than 2 consecutive applications per crop.  
      29 Beleaf 50SG 2 to 2.8 oz. 12 21 Moderate  
      23 Movento 6 to 9 fl. oz. 24 7 High  
      23,7C Senstar 12-18 fl. oz. 24 45   No more than 2 applications per year. Minimum spray interval 14 days.

    * Restricted Use Pesticide

    Apple Fungicide Efficacy

    Written by: 
    Daniel Cooley
    Product

    Apple

    SCAB

    Powdery

    mildew

    cedar

    apple
    rust

    sooty

    blotch
    flyspeck

    black Rot

    white rot

    bitter

    rot

    FRAC

    Code

    Aprovia 1 1 4 4 4 4 7
    Captan 1 4 4 2 1 2 M4
    Cevya 1 3 1 1 1 - 3
    Copper 3 - - - - - M1
    Double Nickel 3 - - - - - F6
    Excalia 1 1 3 - - - 7
    Flint 1 1 3 1 2 2 11
    Flint Extra 1 1 3 1 2 2 11
    Fontelis 1 1 1 - - - 7
    Indar 1 1 1 1 - - 3
    Inspire Super 1 2 1 1 - - 3+9
    LifeGard - - - 2 - 2 F6
    Lime sulfur (Sulforix) 2 2 - - - - M2
    Luna Sensation 1 1 1 1 1 1 7+11
    Luna Tranquility 1 1 - - - - 7+9

    Mancozeb (Dithane,

    Manzate, Penncozeb)

    1 4 2 4 2 2 M3
    Merivon 1 1 2 1 1 1 7+11
    Polyram 2 4 2 1 2 2 M3
    Pristine 1 1 3 1 1 1 7+11
    Procure 2 1 1 - - - 3
    Rally 2 1 1 - - - 3
    Regalia 3 3 3 3 3 3 P5
    Rhyme 2 1 1 - - - 3
    Scala 1 - - - - - 9
    Sercadis 1 1 - - 4 1 7
    Serenade Optimum 3 3 3 3 - 3 F6
    Sovran 1 1 3 1 2 2 11
    SulfoMEX - 2 - - - - M2
    Sulfur 3 3 4 4 4 3 M2
    Syllit 1 3 2 - - - M7
    Topsin-M 3 2 - 1 3 4 1
    Vangard 1 - - - - - 9
    Ziram 3 4 2 2 2 4 M3
    1 = high; 2 = moderate; 3 = low; 4 = very low to none; - = not registered/no efficacy

    Nutrient Management

    Written by: 
    Mary Concklin, University of Connecticut

     Fertilizer decisions for fruit crops should be made based on scientific evidence of need. This is accomplished by combining results of foliar tissue and soil testing, with environmental conditions and crop load to develop a fertilizer program.

    Foliar tissue analysis indicates the levels of macro and micro nutrients within the plant tissue. Standards have been established for tree fruit.

    Foliar tissue collection timing: 60 to 70 days after Petal Fall. Collect 70 to 100 of the most recent mature leaves from trees of the same variety. All labs use the sample testing method. Suggest sampling every 1 to 3 years for maintenance.

    A soil analysis indicates the levels of macro nutrients (not nitrogen) and some micro nutrients available in the soil, as well as soil pH.

    Soil sample collection timing: anytime the soil is not frozen. One sample will cover 10 acres unless there are changes in topography, previous fertility practices across the area have not been uniform, and if crops vary. Sample every 3 to 5 years. There are three different soil  testing methods (Morgan, Modified Morgan and Mehlich 3). All are correct. However, in order to compare a field from one testing to another, use the same soil testing lab each time.

    apple nutrient foliar standards

    NUtrient Foliar standard

    Nitrogen (N)

    2.2 to 2.4 % Hard varieties

    1.8 to 2.2 % Soft varieties

    2.4 to 2.6 % Non-bearing

    Phosphorus (P) 0.08 to 0.33 %
    Potassium (K) 1.2 to 1.8 % (higher end for Empire)
    Calcium (Ca) 1.3 to 2.0 %
    Magnesium (Mg) 0.35 to 0.5 %
    Boron (B) 35 to 50 ppm
    Iron (Fe) 60 to 400 ppm
    Manganese (Mn) 35 to 135 ppm
    Copper (Cu) 7 to 12 ppm
    Zinc (Zn) 25 to 50 ppm
    soil optimum nutrient levels (modified morgan)
    nutrient optimum level
    pH

    6.5 to 7.0 (Non-bearing)

    6.0 to 6.5 (Established)

    Phosphorus (P)

    >10 (Pre-plant)

    9 lb (Established)

    Potassium (K) 240 lb
    Calcium (Ca) 2400 lb
    Magnesium (Mg) 400 lb

     

    Apple bud stages

    Apple bud stages...

    Resistance management: apple fungicides

    Fungicide resistance can make apple scab management much more difficult.  Apple scab has developed resistance to most fungicides in at least a few parts of the U.S., and the risk of resistance is high for single-site fungicides. Once resistance to a fungicide class is established in an orchard, that class is no longer a control option. It is important to keep options, and manage fungicide risk.

    The following risk management rules are recommended.

    • Use a sanitation program to reduce inoculum.
    • Use a multi-site fungicide in every spray - FRAC groups M3 and M4 - captan, mancozeb or metiram. 
    • Change site-specific fungicides - FRAC groups 3, 7, 9 and 11. 
    • Use at least three active ingredients from three different FRAC groups over primary scab season. 
    • If possible, do not use any one class of single-site fungicide more than twice in a season. For many fungicides, labels limit applications to no more than 4 per season. 
    • Whenever possible fungicides should be applied preventatively, before infection periods. Labels may suggest post-infection uses, but these should be used only as a last resort.
    • Apply the maximum label rate of single-site fungicides.
    • Pre-mix fungicides containing two single-site ingredients  – Merivon, Luna Sensation and Luna Tranquility – should still be mixed with a multi-site fungicide.
    • Each ingredient in a pre-mix fungicide counts as an application. For example, Luna Sensation with both fluopyram (FRAC group 7) and trifloxystrobin (FRAC group 11) would count as an application of a Group 7 and an application of a Group 11.

    General resistance management guidelines are here.

    Cider Apples

    Written by: 
    Terence Bradshaw and Jessica Foster, University of Vermont

    Note that this section discusses the intentional production of apples for the purpose of making fermented or hard cider, which in this section will be referred to as ‘cider’. The term ‘sweet cider’ will refer to non-fermented, fresh cider that is traditionally sold in plastic jugs at farms and other retail outlets. It is important to distinguish between the two types of cider due to differences between them in handling and food safety. Fermentation and other processes ‘treat’ the juice from cider apples in a manner that inherently improves microbial food safety. Juice for sweet cider is non- or minimally-treated, making food safety requirements substantially greater for juice apples than for cider apples Fruit used in making sweet cider must be whole, sound, and free from soil and other contaminants. This does not mean that cider fruit may be damaged and dirty, but they may have a higher tolerance for imperfections.


    In recent years, growth in the production and marketing of fermented/hard cider has been accompanied by increased interest in growing cider apples. The first consideration is to properly define ‘cider apples’. A simple definition is ‘apples used to make cider’. Growers should then carefully consider the economic and management impacts of producing cider apples. Some of those considerations include: cidery demand; current market supply; and orchards design management factors.

    Markets

    The vast majority of apples used for cider in New England are commonly-grown dessert cultivars, e.g. ‘McIntosh’, ‘’Cortland’, etc. Common dessert cultivars have become repurposed as cider apples because they are the most-planted and therefore most-produced apple cultivars in the region. Additionally, packing lines that sort fruit to meet the standards of the USDA grading system efficiently separate high-value fruit from lower-value cider apples. This is a critical consideration when growing dessert cultivars that will be used for cider making because differences in prices paid for fresh vs. cider apples will determine overall orchard profitability. Cider apple prices received by growers vary by region and buyer and, although they are generally higher than they were prior to the expansion of the cider market, they are still 3-6 times lower than fresh fruit prices paid for the same cultivars when sorted and packed to market standards. To maximize the prices received for dual purpose cultivars growers should produce as high a proportion of their fruit for higher-value fresh markets as possible and sell the smaller proportion of utility-grade apples to cideries.  Alternatively, growers could enter into contracts with cideries to guarantee profitable prices for cider apples if sold exclusively for processing.


    Cideries may seek heirloom or other specific apple cultivars that contribute flavors, aromas, mouthfeel, and other characteristics to finished ciders. These cider specific apple cultivars may be inherently more valuable to cideries than off-grade dessert cultivars and thus growers may receive high enough prices to justify growing them specifically for that market. Decisions to plant or manage these fruit should be made in collaboration with potential buyers, as there may be great risk in producing a cultivar that is not marketable when an orchard comes to maturity.

    Specific Cultivars

    Cultivars specifically for use in cider making may fall into two classes: dual-purpose cultivars and cider-only cultivars. Dual-purpose cultivars include apples with characteristics that make them useful for both fresh and cider markets. Many traditional heirloom cultivars, e.g., ‘Northern Spy’, ‘Golden Russet’, and ‘Esopus Spitzenburg’, may fall into this category. In addition, some newer, highly-flavored cultivars like ‘Liberty’, ‘Goldrush’ and ‘Crimson Crisp’ could be grown for both fresh and cider markets, but it is critical to assess the local markets, both for fresh and for cider fruit, prior to planting or topgrafting these cultivars. For some niche cultivars, local fresh fruit markets may be easily saturated. At the same time, these cultivars may not receive the same prices that cider-only cultivars may command from cideries.


    Specific, cider-only cultivars possess especially unique flavor and juice chemistry attributes that may make them especially valuable for cider making, but which taste objectionable as fresh fruit. Therefore, those cultivars must sell for comparable prices to fresh dessert fruit cultivars in order to justify their production. Generally, these cultivars fall into two classes. First are the European-origin bittersweet and bittersharp cultivars that are commonly grown in England, France, and, increasingly, in developing cider regions around the world. Such cultivars include ‘Dabinett’, ‘Yarlington Mill’, ‘Kingston Black’, and numerous others. At this time, the adaptability of European cider apple cultivars to New England is not entirely known, and many of the cultivars have unique production challenges, including biennial bearing tendencies, difficulty in training to modern orchard systems, and high susceptibility to sunburn, fruit rots, and fire blight. Second are the less common but likely under-explored North American cider apple cultivars, such as ‘Hewes Crab’, ‘Harrison’, and ‘Franklin Cider Apple’.


    Planting and production of cider-specific cultivars has the potential to significantly increase new markets for apple producers in New England. Caution is advised when establishing such orchards, because of the sometimes still-unknown production challenges and limited marketability of fruit outside of cider markets. Growers of cider-specific cultivars are dependent on an independent cider industry or must themselves establish a cidery which can bring its own production, management, capital, and marketing challenges. A grower interested in cider apple production should carefully consider all production and marketing aspects and should explore developing long-term contracts or other business arrangements with buyers of cider fruit to minimize financial risk.

    Management

    Orchard management may need to be adjusted when growing cider fruit as compared to fresh market apples. Changes in management may be based upon desires to affect fruit/juice quality; to reduce production costs to meet lower price points for cider apples; or to reduce orchard inputs for environmental or labor management reasons. It is important to provide cider apples with a basic level of management in order to maintain acceptable fruit production; reduce disease inoculum and insect pest populations; and maintain worker access into the orchard. Furthermore, if an orchard is managed to provide fruit to both fresh and cider markets, it nearly always makes sense to manage your crop so that the maximum proportion of fruit goes to the highest-valued market. The recent increase in cider/sweet cider apple prices paid for dessert cultivars does not generally justify substantial reductions in inputs or management when growing them.

    Training System

    There is substantial debate about the best planting and training system for producing cider apples. Modern, high-density orchard systems, e.g., tall spindle, are being increasingly adopted for fresh market dessert cultivars because of their precocity, crop yield, and fruit quality potential. However, tall spindle systems are substantially more expensive to establish than lower-density, freestanding central leader systems, and their high installation and early management costs are typically recouped through early, high-yield harvests of high-value fruit. For cider-specific cultivars, lower potential fruit price, biennial bearing tendency, and reduced need for fruit-sun exposure may make those advantages less significant. There is also substantial discussion around best harvest methods, including mechanical and/or ground harvesting of cider fruit that may lend themselves to certain training systems. Research needs to be conducted on the best training systems for cider-specific cultivars, especially the European bittersweet and bittersharp cultivars, to assess potential juice quality effects, and the economics of New England cider production before widespread recommendations may be made. Growers are urged to carefully consider potential costs, returns, and markets when choosing a tree planting and training system for cider apple production.

    Pruning

    Cider apple trees in freestanding central leader systems may be pruned somewhat less than trees grown for dessert fruit, but it is important to maintain sufficient light to the interior of the tree to produce annual fruit buds. Reduced pruning of cider trees may also reduce airflow into the tree canopy and thus could increase some fungal diseases. Finally, access to the trees by pickers and other workers may be difficult if trees are not adequately pruned on at least a biennial basis. While intensive pruning may be reduced somewhat in cider apple trees, trees that are ‘let go’ will decline in fruit production and quality in just a few years’ time.

    Nutrient Management

    Management of orchard fertility specifically for cider apple production has not been specifically optimized for New England conditions nor for the multiple cider apple cultivars and planting systems used. Apple fertility programs recommended in New England have generally been developed for optimum fresh market fruit which are grown for (relatively) large fruit size. Cider-specific apples are typically managed for maximum, preferably annual, tonnage of fruit, with less regard for fruit size. Both fresh market and cider apple production systems will ultimately remove substantial amounts of mineral nutrients from the orchard system, and those must be replaced either from the soil reserves or through application of fertilizing materials. Some important minerals to maintain include potassium, boron, calcium, and magnesium, and those should be managed in the same way for both dessert and cider cultivars. Some research suggests that the phenolic (tannin) content of cider cultivar juice may benefit lower levels of nitrogen than are typically recommended for dessert fruit.For biennial cider cultivars, it may be prudent to reduce nitrogen applications in the ‘off’ year in order to reduce excessive vegetative growth. The increased susceptibility of many European cider cultivars to fire blight may also justify a reduced-nitrogen program for those trees.


    As with any orchard nutrient management program, it is important to know the nutrient status of the trees and the soil before making fertilizer applications. The same recommendations for foliar tissue sampling and soil analysis as are included for fresh fruit are suggested for cider orchards.

    Thinning

    Crop load management in cider apples is approached with different goals than for dessert fruit. For cider apples, fruit size is not typically an important consideration, nor necessarily is reduction of fruit clustering. Typically, a cider apple grower is seeking high total tonnage of smaller apples with higher skin-to-flesh ratio, preferably on an annual basis. Therefore, aggressive thinning and especially thinners that promote cell division (e.g., benzyladenine-containing materials) are not generally recommended in cider orchards. Many European cider apple cultivars show limited response to most chemical thinners and tend to adopt biennial bearing habits regardless of crop load management practices applied.

    Pest Management

    Because cosmetic finish is not a major concern for cider apples, IPM programs are an area where input and management reductions may be made without compromising the profitability of the orchard. There are multiple considerations in tailoring an IPM approach in a cider orchard. First, as mentioned above, if any substantial portion of the crop will be sold to a higher-value, higher-quality standard market, then the IPM program should be tailored to meet that highest market. This means that growers who plan to sell the majority of their crop as fresh fruit and the off-grade fruit to cideries should manage the orchard to maximize fresh market fruit, which may eliminate any potential management savings from reduced inputs. If a crop is managed from the beginning of the season, or after a hail storm or other event that reduces fruit finish, as intended for cider, then there may be some opportunities to reduce inputs and management compared to a fresh market crop.


    Only a handful of diseases and insect pests in New England may be considered purely cosmetic and thus may warrant not managing at all in cider orchards. For example, tarnished plant bug causes cosmetic fruit damage, especially early in the season prior to bloom. In cider orchards, insecticide treatment for this pest at pink bud stage may be skipped. Likewise, the summer diseases sooty blotch and flyspeck are not of concern on cider apples, and their management may be skipped. However, there may be other pests and diseases that are active at those same times which could negatively affect crop quantity or quality. Many cider apple cultivars appear to be especially susceptible to summer fruit rots, so complete elimination of disease management in summer after primary apple scab ascospore release may not be prudent.


    Apple scab deserves discussion in regards to its potential to impact profitability of cider apple production. Scab is often considered a cosmetic disease, and thus one for which management on cider apples may be reduced. In an orchard where scab is managed, but some disease incidence breaks through because of poor fungicide coverage, missed infection periods, or fungicide resistance, the visual effects often do appear cosmetic. But the apple scab fungus derives all of its energy from the host, and may weaken trees even when infection is only moderate. Apple scab infection may reduce crop yield and quality, and severe fruit scab can lead to secondary fruit rots. Scab is best managed through a preventative approach, including reduction of overwintering inoculum and avoidance of primary ascospore infections which can prevent season-long disease management. The urge to lighten up on scab management in cider apples may be strong, but it is still best to protect trees from the disease rigorously during primary ascospore release to reduce management needs later in the season.


    Fire blight is one disease which the cider apple grower should be especially vigilant. Many European bittersweet and bittersharp cider cultivars are highly susceptible to this disease. Such cultivars also tend to bloom one to two weeks after most dessert cultivars grown in New England. This shifts the management of blossom fire blight on these cultivars into early summer when temperatures are typically warmer, which further increases infection potential. The management practices for cider cultivars are the same as for dessert cultivars, so as long as growers are fastidious in performing them, the disease should be manageable. It is especially important to maintain a comprehensive management program against the disease, including inoculum reduction, nutrient management, reduction of vegetative growth, and application of antibiotics during blossom infection.


    Insect pests often cause cosmetic damage to fruit for which cider apple growers may be relatively tolerant. Some pests, e.g., plum curculio and European apple sawfly, may cause fruit significant abscission that can reduce crop yield at harvest; others, e.g., codling moth and other lepidopteran pests may cause damage that can leave fruit susceptible to rots that can leave fruit unusable for cider making. Therefore, insect pest management on cider apples should not be ignored. For example, growers may consider reducing applications targeting certain pest generations, such as targeting plum curculio with a single well-timed insecticide application as opposed to 2-3 applications using the standard degree day model. More research on adaptation of scouting thresholds and damage tolerance levels on cider apples is needed before recommendations for specific cider IPM programs may be developed.

    Harvest

    Harvest labor costs for cider apples may potentially be reduced compared to costs for picking dessert fruit, because pickers would typically ‘strip-pick’ all fruit from the tree rather than be selective for fruit size and color requirements for fresh market apples. However, cider apples are often smaller than dessert fruit, which can increase harvest time and eliminate labor gains made by strip-picking. Cider apples are typically ripened as much as possible on the tree, which makes them prone to drop either during or prior to harvest. Some cider apple growers even wait until a substantial portion of the fruit is on the ground, then shake the remaining fruit from the trees and harvest from the orchard floor. While this method may be efficient and lend itself to optimum ripeness development, as well as potentially to mechanical harvest, food safety must be a primary consideration. Most food safety plans for sweet cider would preclude the intentional harvest of fruit from the ground, which can introduce numerous human pathogens to the fruit. While fermentation is an accepted method for reducing pathogen load in finished ciders, ground harvested fruit should be sorted for rots and debris and washed prior to pressing. If shared equipment will be used for juice intended for both sweet cider and fermented cider, fruit storage and equipment sanitation become especially critical and written procedures and compliance standards should be maintained to ensure that fresh cider does not become contaminated with pathogens.

    Miticides for tree fruit

    Adapted from John Wise et al, Michigan State University, https://www.canr.msu.edu/news/miticides_options_for_controlling_mites_in_fruit. Updated April, 2019.

    COMPOUND IRAC FRUIT CROP MITES Life stage target seasonal timing residual control
    Superior, stylet oils none All tree fruit crops ERM, RM egg/larvae Early (pre-bloom) 2 to 6 weeks
    Lime-sulfur M2 Pome, stone RM motiles* Early (delayed dormant) 2 to 6 weeks
    Dimilin 7C
    RUP
    Pear RM motiles* Early (pre-bloom) 2 to 6 weeks
    Onager 10A Stone TSSM egg/larvae Mid (or threshold)** 6 to 8 weeks
    Apollo 10A Pome, cherry, peach ERM egg/larvae Early **** 8 to 12 weeks
    Apollo 10A Pome, cherry, peach TSSM egg/larvae Mid (or threshold)** 6 to 8 weeks
    Agri-Mek, ABBA 6 Pome, stone ERM, RM motiles* Early **** 8 to 12 weeks
    Agri-Mek 6 Pome, stone TSSM motiles* Mid (or threshold)** 6 to 8 weeks
    Minecto Pro 6,28
    RUP
    Pome, stone ERM, RM motiles* Early **** 8 to 12 weeks
    Minecto Pro 6,28
    RUP
    Pome, stone TSSM motiles* Mid (or threshold) 6 to 8 weeks
    Agri-Flex 6,4A
    RUP
    Pome ERM, RM motiles* Early **** 8 to 12 weeks
    Gladiator 6,3
    RUP
    Pome, stone ERM, RM motiles* Early **** 8 to 12 weeks
    Gladiator 6,3
    RUP
    Pome, stone TSSM motiles* Mid (or threshold) 6 to 8 weeks
    Zeal 10B Pome, stone ERM egg/larvae Early (or threshold) ** 8 to 10 weeks
    Zeal 10B Pome, stone TSSM egg/larvae Mid (or threshold)** 6 to 8 weeks
    Nexter 21A Pome, stone ERM, RM motiles* Mid (or threshold)** 6 to 8 weeks
    Nexter 21A Pome, stone TSSM motiles* Mid (or threshold)** 6 to 8 weeks
    Portal 21A Pome ERM, RM, TSSM motiles* Mid (or threshold)** 6 to 8 weeks
    Nealta 25 Pome ERM, TSSM motiles* Mid (or threshold)** 6 to 8 weeks
    Magister 21A,39 fung. Pome, stone TSSM eggs, motiles* Mid (or threshold)** 6 to 8 weeks
    Kanemite 20B Pome ERM, TSSM motiles* Mid (or threshold)** 6 to 8 weeks
    Acramite, Banter none Pome, peach, plum ERM, TSSM motiles* Mid (or threshold)** 6 to 8 weeks
    Danitol 3
    RUP
    Pome ERM, TSSM motiles* Mid (or threshold)** 4 to 6 weeks
    Brigade 3A
    RUP
    Pear ERM, TSSM motiles* Mid (or threshold)** 4 to 6 weeks
    Vendex 12B Pome, stone ERM, TSSM motiles* Mid (or threshold)** 4 to 6 weeks
    Sulforix none Pear RM motiles (include pear blister mite) Late (post-harvest) 2 to 6 weeks

    * Motile forms include mite larvae, nymph and adult stages.
    ** Optimally used petal fall through August when mites reach threshold.
    *** Optimally used pre-bloom through first cover.
    **** Optimally used petal fall through second cover.
    RUP Restricted Use Pesticide