Stone Fruit

Peaches & Nectarines

Written by: 
Section Editor: Mary Concklin, University of Connecticut

Insects

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB)

Halyomorpha halys
Written by: 
Jaime Pinero and Elizabeth Garofalo

Overview.

BMSB is an invasive stink bug that feeds on a wide variety of host plants, including a variety of fruits (e.g., apples, stone fruits including peaches and apricots, figs, mulberries, citrus fruits and persimmons), vegetables (e.g., beans, corn, tomatoes and soybeans) and many ornamental plants and weeds. BMSB is currently distributed in 43 US states and 4 Canadian provinces.

BMSB is considered to be a landscape-level threat. This means that adults frequently switch between cropped land (agronomic crops, fruits, vegetables, ornamentals) and wooded habitats. BMSB nymphs and adults feed by inserting their piercing-sucking mouthparts into fruit, nuts, seed pods, buds, leaves, and stems and appear to prefer plants bearing reproductive structures. Their mouthparts can penetrate very hard and thick tissue, such as the hazelnut hull.

Biology.

During the winter months, BMSB enters a type of hibernation called diapause. During this time adults do not feed and do not reproduce. Overwintering takes place in forested areas as well as inside houses and other buildings. In the spring, BMSB adults emerge from overwintering sites (houses, barns, storage buildings, and dead trees) and become active on nearby crops during warm sunny days. In the spring and throughout the summer, adults feed, mate, and lay eggs.

Monitoring

Commercially available traps and pheromone lures for BMSB monitoring provide valuable information on the presence/absence of BMSB and also help to decide if insecticide treatments are needed to manage this pest. Ag-Bio, Inc. (http://www.agbio-inc.com), Great Lakes IPM (http://www.greatlakesipm.com), Trece, Inc. (http://www.trece.com) and Sterling International are some of the companies that sell monitoring systems for BMSB. Monitoring for BMSB can start in late-May and needs to continue until early- or mid-October.

Monitoring devices.

  • Black pyramid traps. Stink bugs, including BMSB, are visually attracted to tree silhouettes. The trap recommended for monitoring is a black pyramidal trap, which represents trunk mimic, coupled with a capturing device.
  • Double-sided clear sticky cards. Researchers have found that double-sided clear sticky cards (6 x 12 inches), attached to a wooden pole, can be used for monitoring purposes. Cards are easier (and cheaper) to deploy than black pyramid traps.

Thresholds. Insecticide applications to apple orchards are recommended when a cumulative threshold of 10 BMSB/trap is reached. After the spray, the threshold is reset and subsequent trap accumulations reaching 10 adults per trap will trigger successive management sprays as the season progresses. This threshold is likely to work in peach orchards as well.

Management.

Insecticide sprays is the most effective control method for BMSB. It is important to select effective insecticides given that adult BMSB are hard to kill. Whenever possible, target the nymph stage, as nymphs are more sensitive to insecticides than adults. Multiple applications may be needed with re-infestation.

The overwintering generation of BMSB tends to be more susceptible to insecticides than the summer generation. Therefore, products with the best effectiveness against this pest should be used later in the season.

Insecticides should be rotated among products in different classes with different modes of action to delay the onset of resistance to pesticides.

Green Peach Aphid (GPA)

Myzus persicae
Written by: 
Jaime Pinero

Overview

GPA adults and nymphs do the damage in three ways: first, they feed directly on young tender plant tissues, often drying out shoots, causing wilts and distortions; second, they produce honeydew which falls onto foliage and becomes blackened by sooty mold fungi; and third, they spread many types of viruses. Plants injured by GPA feeding will have leaves that appear curled, distorted and discolored. 

The GPA mainly attacks peach; however, apricot, plum, cherry, and a wide variety of vegetable and floricultural crops can be attached by GPA.

Eggs – oval, shiny black; about half the size of a pencil point. The eggs are only found on the bark of fruit trees.

Nymphs – Green peach aphid nymphs resemble wingless adults in color (have black legs and antennae) but are smaller.

Adults – Wingless forms are light green to yellow. Winged forms are pale to dark green with a large dusky blotch on the abdomen. The body of the winged form is much slimmer with large oval shaped clear wings. The rear of the green peach aphid has 3 extrusions of the body wall called cornicles.

Biology

GPA has a complicated life cycle. Within a single growing season, GPA populations will have multiple asexual generations. GPA overwinters as an egg on the bark of fruit trees, specifically peach, cherry, apricot, and plum.

Egg hatch occurs on fruit trees about the time of peach bloom. GPA has both a sexual and asexual form. The majority of reproduction occurs asexually by a process called pathogenesis, where live young (females only) are produced by unmated females, called stem mothers.

Development occurs very quickly, growing from neonate to adult in as few as 5 days. At some point during the summer, winged adults develop which disperse to alternate hosts including many vegetable crops. Generations developing on vegetable crops will have both winged and wingless adults and reproduce asexually. In late August winged forms will migrate back to fruit trees.

Near the end of the growing season on fruit trees, sexual forms of the green peach aphid appear for the first time. After mating the female green peach aphid will oviposit eggs on the bark of fruit trees. GPA may have 10+ generations in a growing season.

Monitoring

Beginning at petal fall, inspect the undersides of leaves for new colonies. For faster inspection, shake limbs over a cloth tray (“beating tray”) to observe the dislodged insects.

It is important to identify parasitized aphids, which result in mummies. The presence of mummies (see picture of parasitized GPA) indicates that parasitic wasps are actively attacking aphids.

Economic threshold: Treat peaches when there are two or more colonies per tree before shuck split, or six or more colonies per tree after shuck split. 

Management

Aphid population levels are heavily influenced by temperature, rainfall, numbers of natural enemies present and frequency/type of pesticide application. Aphid outbreaks are most frequent in hot dry weather. Heavy rains will often reduce the aphid population below the economic threshold.

Aphid predators and parasites usually keep populations low. The most common are lady beetles (adults and larvae), syrphid fly larvae, green lacewing larvae, and tiny parasitic wasps that lay their eggs in the aphids. The wasp larvae develop in the aphids eating the inside parts and turning the aphids into empty shells called "mummies". There are many parasitoids attacking the green peach aphid with, perhaps, species of Aphidius and Aphelinus, the most important. 

When pesticides are applied care should be taken to select pesticides that are not damaging to natural enemies of aphids. Because aphids reproductive rate is greater than their natural enemies, incorrect pesticide use may contribute to aphid outbreaks by removing the natural enemies. 

Japanese Beetle (JB)

Popillia japonica
Written by: 
Jaime Pinero

Overview

Both as adults and as grubs (the larval stage), JB is a destructive plant pest. Adults feed on the foliage and fruits of several hundred species of fruit trees, ornamental trees, shrubs, vines, and field and vegetable crops. Adults leave behind skeletonized leaves and large, irregular holes in leaves. The grubs develop in the soil, feeding on the roots of various plants and grasses.

The adult JB is 1/4 to 1/2 inch in length and has a shiny, metallic-green body with bronze-colored outer wings. The beetle has six small tufts of white hair along the sides and back of its body under the edges of its wings. Their eggs are yellowish-white, elliptical or spherical in shape, and are laid about 3 inches into the soil in grassy areas, often in closely cut grass. The grubs can be recognized by the distinctive C-shape they take when curled up. They are white or cream in color, have three pairs of legs, and a hard brown head. The grub stage is about 10 months long. They then go into a brief pupa or resting stage in late spring where they change into a beetle.

Biology

The JB has only one generation per year, but these beetles emerge over a long period from early July through late August and they live for over 30 days. JB overwinters as third-instar larvae in the soil, approximately 12 to 18 inches deep. As soils warm in the spring, larvae migrate to the top 1 to 2 inches and resume feeding on grass rootlets. Larvae begin pupation by mid-June. Warm, sunny days draw beetles out in larger numbers. During the feeding and mating period, females intermittently leave plants, burrow about 3 inches into the ground nearby host plants and lay a few eggs. This cycle is repeated until the female lays 40 to 60 eggs. Larvae migrate downward before the soil freezes to overwinter.

Monitoring

Traps are available for JB but are only effective for monitoring the initial adult emergence. Adults may be monitored by quietly moving into the tree, jarring several branches, and observing how many fly off. Direct fruit counts are the most effective way of assessing the level of damage. Since feeding may be "clumped" or unevenly distributed, care should be taken in looking at a representative sample before making a spray decision. If feeding exceeds 1 percent, then treatment is justified. 

Management

Control of adults can be difficult. Insecticides can reduce damage, but applications may need to be repeated every three to four days since new migrations of beetles can occur daily. Insecticide options include broad-spectrum and reduced-risk. Do not spray when trees are in bloom.

Mass trapping systems have been developed for use against JB under certain situations e.g., organic orchards, in rural areas. Contact Dr. Jaime Piñero at jpinero@umass.edu for more information about mass trapping as an organic management method for Japanese beetles.

Lesser Peachtree Borer (LPTB)

Synanthedon pictipes
Written by: 
Jaime Pinero

Overview.

The adult LPTB is a clear-winged, metallic-blue moth that has two or more yellow bands across the abdomen, giving it a wasp-like appearance. In the Northeast, LPTB causes comparatively less damage than PTB. Peach, nectarine, and cherry are the preferred hosts of LPTB, but all stone fruits may be attacked. Injury by LPTB is almost always associated with previous tree injuries such as incidence of Cytospora canker and, to a lesser extent, pruning wounds, winter injury, and mechanical damage.

Biology.

LPTB overwinters as a larva in various stages of development ranging from young to nearly full-grown. In the spring, larvae resume feeding, complete their development, and pupate. Adult emergence usually takes place around shuck-split or shuck-fall and continues for several weeks. 

LPTB attack higher on the trunk and scaffold branches, especially where there are injuries and callus tissue. The flight period for LPTB is about June 1st through late August, depending on the region. Moths are active during the day, with mating and oviposition occurring soon after emergence. Female moths are attracted to damaged and previously infested trees and deposit eggs in cracks or under bark scales of wounded sites.

 

Monitoring.

LPTB adults can be monitored using pheromone traps.  Use at least 2 traps per block to determine adult flight.  Install LPTB traps by petal fall. Populations seldom need treatment when trap catches peak at less than 10 moths/trap/week. Use of monitoring traps is recommended in combination with mating disruption.

Inspect wounded areas on the upper trunk, scaffold limbs and branches for larvae and empty pupal cases protruding from the bark. An early sign of LPTB injury is the presence of wood chips, sawdust, and frass
produced by feeding borers in the gum in cankered areas. Control is recommended if 1-2 larvae or empty pupal cases are found per tree.  

Management.

Mating distruption and insecticides are two control options for growers.

For mating disruption, use Isomate PTB-Dual at a rate of 150 pheromone ties per acre.  Dispensers should be deployed at shuck split before LPTB moth flight begins. Use a higher rate (200-250/A) for outside edges of border rows, areas that haven’t been disrupted before and have high populations, and in blocks smaller than 5 acres. Larger blocks are better sites to use this control method compared to small (especially long, narrow) ones. 

When applying insecticides for LPTB, cover the trunk and scaffold limbs using a hand-gun with low pressure and high volume. Ideally, protect the trees for the entire period when the females could be laying eggs. If peachtree borer is also a problem, then the insecticide spray should be made within the first 2 weeks of September. If only LPTB is present, sprays may be applied to late maturing varieties in early August.

Mites (European Red Mite [ERM] and Two-spotted Spider Mite [TSSM])

Panonychus ulmi (ERM),Tetranychus urticae (TSSM)

 

European Red Mite

Two-spotted Spider Mite

Overwintering stage

Eggs

Orange-colored adult females

Overwintering sites

Overwintering eggs are laid on twigs and small limbs, especially in the crevices, and roughened bark of apple trees

Orchard ground cover

Timing of egg-hatch

Egg hatch begins at Tight Cluster, is about half complete by Pink, and is complete by Petal Fall.

With the arrival of warm weather in the spring, these mites leave their places of hibernation and start wandering about looking for food plants.

Feeding sites during spring

Young mites move to newly opened leaves where they feed, mature, and reproduce.

Weeds and grasses (mites move to fruit trees (underside of leaves) in the summer

Early-season monitoring

Two-spotted spider mites should be monitored and managed in much the same way as European red mites. Counts of the two species should be combined to determine whether thresholds are exceeded.

Monitoring of European red mite eggs can be done by visually inspecting the bases of twigs and spurs on 5 to 10 selected trees with a hand lens. Look for clusters of tiny (less than 1/50 inch), red spheres. See pictures below.

Mite injury during the weeks following Petal Fall can damage fruit crop. Monitor mite populations by examining underside of fruit cluster leaves through May and June. Action threshold is 1-2 motile (not eggs) mites per leaf or 30% of leaves with one or more mites

Early-season management

Oil is recommended at the 2-3 gal rate during the dormant period. Use 2 gal rate until Tight Cluster. Reduce to 1 gal rate from Tight Cluster to Pink. Oils can be safely applied up to the pink stage.  Since fruit tree architecture includes many cracks and crevices as well limbs and twigs that exponentially increase surface area, coverage to the point of drip is key. 

 

Do not use oils within 24 to 48 hours before freezing temperatures, or if temperature is below 35F following a freeze. Do not apply within 10 to 14 days of sprays containing captan or sulfur.

Chemical control

A selective miticide program that is based on thresholds may allow biological control by predator mites.

Oriental fruit moth (OFM)

Grapholita molesta
Written by: 
Jaime Pinero

Overview

Native to China, OFM is now found throughout much of the world. The adult OFM is approximately 1/4 inch (6.5mm) long and has a faint gray-brown salt-and-pepper pattern on its wings. Pupae are reddish brown. Fully developed larvae are about 1/2 inch (12.5mm) long, pink to white in color. Eggs are about 1/32 inch (0.7mm) in diameter, yellow-white, and laid singly on leaves or twigs.

Biology

OFM overwinters as a fully-grown larva (caterpillar), on limbs or trunk. First generation moths appear in May, and females lay their eggs on upper leaf surfaces, frequently on the terminal leaf of a young shoot. When the caterpillar hatches, it bores into the shoot, causing the terminal to wilt or “flag”. Later generations attack the fruit of both stone fruit and apples. In the northeastern United States, the OFM may have 3-5 generations (flights) per year, depending on weather conditions. As fruit develop the larvae will often enter near or through the stem end of stone fruit or calyx end of apple and bore directly into the interior of the fruit. OFM larvae do not feed on the seed; in contrast, codling moth larvae do feed on apple seeds.

Monitoring

Pheromone traps are available to monitor OFM activity and effectively time sprays. Traps are placed in the inside of the tree at eye level or higher just before bloom. Follow manufacturers’ guidelines for proper trap and lure maintenance and replacement. One trap per ten acres is recommended for commercial orchards, with a minimum of two traps.

Place sex pheromone traps in early April and check at least three times a week until biofix (i.e., first sustained capture of two or more moths per trap) is established. Then, calculate and record degree days to determine the percent egg hatch for each generation and timing of insecticide sprays (see ‘management’ below). Continue to monitor traps weekly throughout the season. Pheromone-baited OFM traps will also catch lesser apple worm, so it will be important to know how to distinguish between the two.

Trap threshold: In peaches, if there are >15 moths per trap per week for the first flight, there could be potential fruit infestation problems if control steps are not taken. The suggested trap threshold for OFM in peaches for 2nd - 4th  flight is 10 moths per trap per week. High trap counts do not trigger an immediate insecticide application; there is a lag period for egg hatch after the moths fly.

Management

Several management options are available for OMF including insecticide sprays and mating disruption. Regardless of the type of OFM management method chosen, careful monitoring is critical to the success of IPM tools.

Chemical control of the OFM can be improved by using a degree-day model to establish optimum timing of insecticide sprays targeting newly hatched larvae, since most insecticides are not effective at controlling adults. The most important spray against OFM on peaches is for the first generation. Keep in mind that there is a lag period for egg hatch after the moths fly. The first insecticide spray for OFM in peaches is recommended at 175 DD (base 45°F) after biofix. However, this often coincides with petal fall, so sprays targeting plum curculio should also control the 1st generation of OFM. Control measures for the second-generation egg hatch ought to occur at around 1,100 growing degree-days (base 45°F) after biofix.

With mating disruption, pheromone (sex attractant) dispensers are placed throughout the orchard. As the pheromone is released from the dispensers, male moths that normally use the pheromones to locate females become confused and fail to locate females. This interferes with the mating process. The densities of pheromone dispensers per acre depends on the formulation. Pheromone traps are used to evaluate the effectiveness of the mating disruption. If mating disruption is working, the pheromone traps should catch no moths. Mating disruption is only recommended for an orchard of 5 acres or larger in size.

If codling moth is also a problem in the same block, select a mating disruption material that releases pheromones of both species.

Peachtree Borer (PTB)

Synanthedon exitiosa
Written by: 
Jaime Pinero

Overview

PTB attacks all stone fruits, particularly peach and nectarine. Female moths are dark blue with a broad orange band around the body and forewings darker than the clear hind wings. The male is smaller and has three to four narrow yellowish bands across the body; both pairs of wings are clear. 

PTB larvae burrow into the bark, usually entering at a crack or wound near the soil surface. Larvae feed on the cambium and tunnel between the inner bark and the sapwood. Larvae normally attack the tree trunk between 7.5 cm (3 in) below ground to 25 cm (10 in) above ground; larger roots are occasionally attacked. Areas attacked often have masses of gum, mixed with frass, exuding from the bark. Young trees may be completely girdled and eventually die; older trees are debilitated and more susceptible to other insects or diseases.

Biology

PTB has a single generation per year. PTB overwinter as partially grown larvae, in a gallery under the bark - usually close to or below ground level. Most larvae complete their development during June and July. Most adults emerge and mate, and females oviposit, during July and August on tree trunks, in cracks or under bark scales, and in soil near the tree trunk.

Monitoring

Pheromone traps can be used to monitor PTB. Captures peaking at less than 10 moths per week generally indicates low pest pressure. Also, inspect the base of the tree for gum containing frass and sawdust. 

Management

Mating disruption. The Isomate PTB Dual mating disruption pheromone dispensers release pheromones for 100 to 120 days and should be placed in the orchard before moth emergence in early June. For effective control of this pest, use at least 200 dispensers per acre, distributed uniformly throughout the entire block. The Isomate PTB Dual dispensers will also control LPTB, but they need to be placed in the orchard earlier in the spring before adult LPTB emergence. 

Insecticides. Recommended treatments include root dips for new plantings and sprays targeting the lower 18 to 24 inches of the trunk. Roots should be dipped in an insecticide solution before planting. Protective trunk sprays with products containing chlorpyrifos should be applied in the summer from the lower scaffold branches to the soil line.

 

Plum curculio (PC)

Conotrachelus nenuphar
Written by: 
Jaime Pinero

Overview

The plum curculio (PC) is among the most damaging insect pests of stone fruit including peach, plum, nectarine, plum, and cherry. The primary injury is caused by the female PC during egg-laying. Later in the season, both males and females make round feeding punctures on the fruit.
 

Biology

  • Adult PCs typically overwinter in wooded lots adjacent to peach orchards or around fence rows from where they immigrate into peach orchards in the spring beginning around bloom.

  • Generally, commercial orchards do not have overwintering populations within their borders. Some studies, however, have shown that PCs can overwinter inside orchard blocks that are weedy in the fall.  Wild hosts (abandoned orchards, crab apples, etc.) near orchards provide habitat that allows adult PC to migrate into orchards before and after bloom.

  • The female makes a crescent-shaped cut in the skin of the fruit and then lays eggs under the flap of skin. This results in D-shaped scars on the fruit surface. When eggs hatch, larvae tunnel into fruitlets and begin to feed. Larvae complete four instars inside the fruit in about 16 days. PC-infested fruitlets generally drop to the ground prematurely.

  • Larvae may feed on the fruit for 2–3 weeks before they burrow into the ground to pupate. Adults emerge in mid- to late-summer to cause more feeding damage on mature fruit before they overwinter.

Monitoring

  • Fruitlets should be monitored beginning at about 5 mm diameter along orchard borders to determine if new injury is occurring. If fresh oviposition scars are observed, a first cover spray should be made to the entire block. Cool, wet weather will prolong PC activity.
  • Continue to monitor for fresh scars. If more are found, a second cover spray targeting perimeter-row trees may be needed.

Management

  • Management of PC relies heavily on petal fall, first and second cover insecticide applications. The first insecticide application should be made to the whole orchard in order to control PC adults that have migrated into the inner part of the orchard.

  • Additional insecticide applications may be necessary and can be limited to the outer two rows of trees.

  • Kaolin clay (Surround WP) is an OMRI-listed material that can also be complementary to conventional management strategies. Applied in suspension in water, kaolin clay produces a dry white film layer of interlocking microscopic particles on the surface of leaves, stems, and fruit after evaporation of the water. Kaolin acts as a physical barrier preventing insects from reaching vulnerable plant tissue. It acts as a repellent by creating an unsuitable surface for feeding or egg-laying.

Surround applications begin at Petal Fall and get reapplied weekly to maintain coverage and deter egg-laying.  

Do not apply insecticides until bloom is completely finished to reduce unwanted pollinator exposure to insecticides. 

 

Tarnished Plant Bug (TPB)

Lygus lineolaris
Written by: 
Jaime Pinero

Overview

Several species of insects with piercing-sucking mouthparts that feed on peaches early in the growing season can cause a gnarling and distortion of the fruits called catfacing. Fruit is deformed because areas around feeding sites grow more quickly than the damaged parts. Early-season feeding damage from TPB causes raised and sunken corky areas free of fuzz on the surface of the peach fruit. Late-season feeding results in stings with gummy ooze.

TPB is one of several bugs (order Hemiptera) that can produce fruit catfacing. TPB feed on a wide range of crops. TPB is most often a problem in fruit orchards with ground cover comprised of broadleaf weeds, or in orchards near alfalfa fields or other host plants.

TPB adults are about ¼ inch long, oval, and somewhat flattened. Color ranges from green to dark brown, flecked with white, yellow, reddish brown, and black markings. Nymphs (immature stages) are pale yellow to green. Mouthparts are the piercing-sucking type; the beak is three- or four-segmented, arises on the front of the head, and is held below the body, between the legs, when not in use. Nymphs are generally similar to adults but do not have wings.

 

Biology

TPB overwinter as adults in leaf litter, plant debris, and brush piles, and move to broadleaf weeds, grasses and crops to lay eggs in the spring. TPB adults are strongly attracted to orchards with winter annual weeds in bloom. The nymph is pale yellow or green. It resembles the adult but is smaller and has no wings. It develops through five instars. The third to fifth instars have distinct spots on the thorax and abdomen. The fourth and fifth instars begin to develop brown pigment and larger wings resembling the adult TPB.

 

Monitoring

White sticky traps are available for monitoring TPB adults. White cards are hung out about two feet from the ground from an outer branch at silver tip and checked preferably twice a week. Traps (one per three to five acres) should be placed at the edge of the block. The economic threshold s 2.4 TPB per trap by tight cluster and 4.1 per trap by late pink. Monitoring in peaches and nectarines is critical at petal fall to shuck fall.

 

Management

When trees are at the vegetative stage, low densities of TPB can be tolerated. As the trees begin to set buds, chemical controls may be needed. On stone fruits, insecticide applications at petal fall, shuck fall, and 10 days after shuck fall typically provide good control. Applications during pink are often unnecessary because most fruit injured at this time aborts. In comparatively larger blocks, border rows can reduce TPB numbers and level of damage.

 

White Prunicola Scale (WPS)

Pseudaulacaspis prunicola
Written by: 
Jaime Pinero

Overview

White Prunicola Scale (WPS) is a serious pest of Prunus, especially in temperate areas. In upstate NY orchards, Cornell University researchers  have reported the presence of WPS, which seems to be a closely related species of White Peach Scale (Pseudaulacaspis pentagona) found in the southeastern United States. The WPS is more common in temperate climatic zones.

Infestations are characterized by numerous white scales that cluster on the trunk and scaffolds, giving them a whitewashed appearance. Feeding reduces tree vigor, and foliage of affected trees may become sparse and yellow. Heavy infestations can cause death of twigs, branches and entire trees if left unattended.

Biology

WPS overwinters as an adult female and deposits eggs in the spring. In northern Pennsylvania, the scale is bivoltine (two generations per year).  

Monitoring

Monitor crawler emergence with black electrician's tape wrapped around scale infested branches with the sticky side out. A thin coating of petroleum jelly will enhance and extend the tape's effectiveness in capturing crawlers.

Management

Horticultural oil is recommended as a dormant spray in April, and insecticides can be used against crawlers in mid-June through early July (about 700–1150 DD base 50°F from March 1).

Diseases

Written by: 
Elizabeth Garofalo

The primary diseases of peaches in New Engand includes American brown rot, peach leaf curl, peach scab, and bacterial spot. Cankers are also common, however, they can be caused by several different factors including pathogens and mechanical injury.

Bacterial spot

Xanthomonas campestris
Written by: 
Elizabeth Garofalo

Overview

  • Bacterial spot (aka bacterial shot hole, bacterial leaf spot and black spot), Xanthomonas campestris pv pruni favors warm, humid conditions during the growing season and can manifest on leaves, twigs and fruit.
  • The bacteria overwinter in twig cankers, and buds, and have been shown to survive epiphytically on twigs and buds. 
  • Infections begin around late bloom to petal fall during rain events that cause splash dispersal of the bacteria to susceptible tissue.  Initiated infection lead to reinfection throughout the season when conditions are conducive.
  • Symptoms on leaves begin as grayish, water soaked areas on the lower side. Lesions begin as small, dark angular spots, which become necrotic and often these spots will drop our leading to the “shot hole” appearance.  Additionally, early season fruit infections can lead to lesions on the skin.
  • Cultural controls are important to reducing over all disease. Some resistant varieties include (but are not limited to): Loring, Redhaven and Madison.  Chemical control begins with a late dormant copper application.  Antibiotic applications begin at petal fall; however, avoidance by way of resistant cultivars is the best line of defense. 

More information

New England Vegetable & Fruit Conference December 2105 presentation by Kari Peter: BACTERIAL DISEASES OF STONE FRUITS: SPOTS AND CANKERS

 

Brown rot

Monilinia fructicola
Written by: 
Elizabeth Garofalo

Overview

 

  • Brown rot is caused by two fungi in the northeast: Monolinia fructicola and M. laxa (causal agent of European brown rot): with M. fructicola being the most common of the two pathogens in New England. 
  • The fungus overwinters in mummies and cankers created by the previous season’s infections. 
  • Infections are dependent on the presence of inoculum in the orchard, temperature and wetness.  Optimum development temperatures range from 55°F to 70°F (13°C-21°C) with required wetness times decreasing as temperatures increase.  Below 40°F (4°C), infection is delayed, but not necessarily prevented.
  • Damage from these pathogens manifests as blossom and shoot blight and fruit rot.  Fruit rots both on the tree and post harvest.  When conditions are right, this can result in significant crop loss
  • Cultural management includes removal of mummies and twig cankers during pruning.  Additionally, thinning fruitlets prior to pit hardening (60 days from bloom) can reduce inoculum for later season infection due to rapid decay of infected material.  Chemical control is achieved through targeted fungicidal applications during bloom and fruit ripening.

 

 

 

Peach leaf curl

Taphrina deformans

Overview

Symptoms

Disease cycle

Management

Peach scab

Cladosporium carpophilum
Written by: 
Elizabeth Garofalo

Overview

  • caused by fungus Cladosporium carpophilum
  • also infects apricot and nectarine
  • typically of minor importance in New England
  • affects appearance and market value of fruit and can be entry point for brown rot

Symptoms

  • olive to black spots velvety spots on fruit, twigs, and leaves
  • on fruit has a tendence to be more severe on near stem end
  • lesions can combine to form larger areas of disease and can result in fruit cracking
  • shoot and twig infections are slightly raised and round to oval, brown in color with purple margins later in the season

Disease cycle

  • overwinters in the tree as twig infections
  • infection begins at shuck split and peaks in 2 to 6 weeks with high humidity
  • fungus is air- and water-borne
  • fruit is susceptible to infection from shuck split until harvest

Management

  • prune to maintain air movement in canopy
  • where a problem, fungicide sprays (Bravo at shuck split, Captan applied thereafter, sulfur) at 10 to 14 day intervals should begin at shuck split and continue until 40 days before harvest

Plant Growth Regulators

ReTain® Plant Growth Regulator (Valent Biosciences) is labeled for harvest management and improvement of fruit quality of peaches and nectarines.

The label specifies: Depending on cultivar, orchard conditions, and grower objectives, one or more of the following benefits will be associated with ReTain...

  • Improved harvest management
  • Additional time for increase in fruit size
  • Maintenance of fruit firmness
  • Reduced preharvest fruit drop
  • Improved fruit quality
  • Enhanced storage potential 

Rate and Timing: Apply one pouch of ReTain per acre one to two weeks prior to the anticipated beginning of the normal harvest period of untreated fruit

Water Volume: ReTain efficacy requires that fruit and foliage receive thorough spray coverage. To ensure thorough coverage adjust water volumes based on tree size and spacing and use calibrated spray equipment (i.e., orchard air blast sprayer). Excessive spray application volumes that result in spray runoff will reduce product performance. In most cases, 100 gallons per acre has been shown to be effective.

Use of Adjuvants: For optimal response, use ReTain with a 100% organosilicone surfactant. Use a final surfactant concentration of 0.05 to 0.1% (v/v) in the spray tank. To reduce foaming, add the adjuvant last and minimize agitation.

Harvest: The normal harvest period for a particular orchard block refers to that time when fruits not treated with ReTain would be harvested. To help determine the beginning of the normal harvest period, refer to historical trends for harvest dates and the “days from full bloom to harvest” interval for each cultivar in your area, and closely monitor the fruit maturity development for the current season.

Additional Notes: Pre Harvest Interval (PHI): ReTain has a 7 day (PHI) for labeled Stone Fruit.

Spray Table

1 - Dormant

               
DISEASE FRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS

Dormant - After leaf drop in the fall or before bud break in the spring

Bacterial Spot M1 C-O-C-S WDG 12 to 16 lb 24 PF Excellent Copper applied for Peach leaf curl will also manage Bacterial spot
M1 Kocide 2000 6 to 12 lb 48 21 Excellent Copper applied for Peach leaf curl will also manage Bacterial spot
M1 Kocide 3000 3.5 to 7 lb 48 0 Excellent Copper applied for Peach leaf curl will also manage Bacterial spot
M1 Cuprofix Ultra 40 Disperss 5 to 7.5 lb 48 Shuck split Excellent Copper applied for Peach leaf curl will also manage Bacterial spot
M1 Champ WG 8 to 16 lb 48 21 Excellent OMRI Copper applied for Peach leaf curl will also manage Bacterial spot
M1 Badge X2 3.5 to 14 lb 48 21 Excellent OMRI. Copper applied for Peach leaf curl will also manage Bacterial spot
M1 Badge SC 5 to 14 pt 48 21 Excellent Copper applied for Peach leaf curl will also manage Bacterial spot
M1 Cueva Fungicide Concentrate 0.5 to 2 gal 4 0   OMRI
44 Serifel Biofungicide 4 to 16 oz 4 0   OMRI
UN pHorcepHite 2 to 4 qt 4 0   Suppression only
Peach leaf curl M1 C-O-C-S 12 to 16 lb 24 PF Excellent May require late fall and early spring applications
M1 Kocide 2000 6 to 12 lb 48 21 Excellent May require late fall and early spring applications
M1 Kocide 3000 3.5 to 7 lb 48 0 Excellent May require late fall and early spring applications
M1 Badge X2 3.5 to 14 lb 48 21 Excellent Organic. May require late fall and early spring applications
M1 Badge SC 3.5 to 14 pt 48 21 Excellent May require late fall and early spring applications
M3 Ferbam Granuflo 4 to 5 lb 24 21   May require late fall and early spring applications
M3 Thiram Granuflo 3.5 lb 24 7   May require late fall and early spring applications
M3

Ziram 76DF

Ziram Granuflo

3.75 to 8 lb 48 14    
M5 Bravo Ultrex 2.3 to 3.8 lb 12 hr Shuck split Excellent May require late fall and early spring applications
M5 Bravo Weather Stik 3.1 to 4.1 pt 12 hr Shuck split Excellent May require late fall and early spring applications
M5 Echo 720 3.1 to 4.1 pt 12 hr Shuck split   May require late fall and early spring applications
M5 Echo 90DF 2.25 to 3.5 lb 12 hr Shuck split   May require late fall and early spring applications
M5 Oranil 6L 3.12 to 4.12 pt 12 Shuck split   Best applied late fall or prior to budswell in spring
3, 7 Luna Experience 6 to 12 fl oz 12 0    
Phytophthora root, crown and collar rots 4 Ridomil Gold SL 2 qt 48 0   Soil application. Apply in spring before growth starts or 2 weeks after planting
33 Prophyt 2 pt 4 0   Use 100 gal/A and repeat on a 60 day interval as necessary. Do not make more than 4 sprays per season.
 
  UN RootShield PLUS WP 16 to 32 oz 4 0   OMRI In-furrow spray or transplant starter solution
PEST IRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
Cottony scale, European fruit lecanium scale, San Jose Scale NC Oil 8 to 12 gal 4 0 Excellent OMRI
4A Assail 5.3 to 8 oz 12 14 Fair Apply with Horticulture oil
7C Esteem 35WP 4 to 5 oz 12 14 Excellent  
16 Centaur 34.5 oz 12 14 Excellent  
UN AzaGuard 10 to 16 fl oz 4 0   OMRI
NC SuffOil-X 1-2% by volume 4 0   OMRI
European red mite NC Oil 8 to 12 gal 4 0 Excellent OMRI
  NC SuffOil-X 1-2% by volume 4 0   OMRI
Peach Twig Borer 28 Altacor 3 to 4.5 oz 4 10   Apply with oil
28 Exirel 10 to 20.5 fl oz 12 3   Can be applied with oil
UN AzaGuard 10 to 16 fl oz 4 0   OMRI

 

2 - Pink

DISEASE FRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS

Pink

Brown rot/Blossom blight

1

 

M4

Topsin M PLUS

Captan WP or Captan 80WDG or Captec 4L

1 to 1.5lb

PLUS

4 to 8 lb or

2.5 to 5 lb or 3 to 4 qt

48 1 Excellent  
M1 Badge X2 3.5 to 5 lb 48 21   OMRI
M1 Badge SC 3.5 to 5.25 pt 48 21    
2 Rovral 4F  1 to 2 pt 24 Petal fall Excellent  
2 Meteor 1 to 2 pt 24 Petal fall   Good for European brown rot
M2 Sulfur 80WDG 10 to 30 lb 24 0 Fair  
3 Indar 2F 6 fl oz 12 0 Excellent Good for European brown rot
3 Cevya Fungicide 4 to 5 oz 12 0    
3 Orius 20AQ 8.6 to 17.2 oz 12 0 Excellent  
3 Quash 50WDG 2.5 to 3.5 oz 12 14 Good Do not exceed 3 applications per season
3 Rally 40WSP 4 to 6 oz 24 0 Excellent  
3 Rhyme 7 fl oz 12 7    
3 Tilt 3.6EC 4 fl oz 12 0    
M3 Thiram Granuflo 3.5 lb 24 7    
M3

Ziram 76DF

Ziram Granuflo

4.5 to 8 lb

 

 

48

 

 

14

 

 

Poor/Fair  
M4

Captan 50WP

Captan 80WDG

Captec 4L

4 to 8 lb

 

2.5 to 5 lb

3 to 4 qt

24

 

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

 

Good  
M5 Bravo WeatherStik 3.1 to 4.1 pt 12 Shuck split Good  
M5

Echo 720

 

Echo 90DF

3.1 to 4.1 pt

2.25 to 3.5 lb

12

Shuck split
 

Good  
M5 Equus DF 2.8 to 3.8 lb 12 0 Good  
M5 Oranil 6L 3.12 to 4.12 pt 12 Shuck split    
7 Miravis 3.4 fl oz 4 0    
7 Fontelis 1.67 14 to 20 oz 12 0 Excellent  
9 Scala SC 9 to 18 fl oz 12 2* Good *or do not make
more than 2 applications of
a Group 9 fungicide within 30 days of harvest
11 Aframe 12 to 15.5 fl oz 4 0    
11 Gem 500SC 1.9 to 3.8 oz 12 1   Product discontinued. use up inventory
11 Flint Xtra 2.5 to 3.8 fl oz 12 1    
17 Elevate 50WDG

1.5 lb (alone)

1 to 1.5 lb (tank mixed)

12 0 Excellent  
3, 7 Luna Experience 6 to 10 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
3, 9 Inspire Super 16 to 20 fl oz 12 2    
3, 11 Quadris Top 12 to 14 fl oz 12 0   Do not allow to drift onto apples
3, 11 Quilt Xcel 14 fl oz 12 0   Do not allow to drift onto apples
3, 11 Topguard EQ 6 to 8 fl oz 12 7    
7, 11 Luna Sensation 5 to 7.6 fl oz 12 1 Excellent  
7, 11 Merivon 4 to 6.7 fl oz 12 0 Excellent Good for European brown rot. Don't mix with an EC product, crop oil concentrate or MSO adjuvant
7, 11 Pristine 38WG 10.5 to 14.5 oz 12 0 Good  
44 Serifel Biofungicide 4 to 16 oz 4 0   OMRI
NC BotryStop 3 lb 4 0   OMRI. Do not use a stomatal flooding or penetrant adjuvant
Peach Scab M5 Oranil 6L 3.12 to 4.12 pt 12 Shuck split    
11 Flint Xtra 2.5 to 3.8 fl oz 12 1 Excellent  
3, 7 Luna Experience 6 to 10 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
7, 11 Luna Sensation 5 to 7.6 fl oz 12 1 Excellent  
  3, 9 Inspire Super 16 to 20 fl oz 12 2    
PEST IRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
Tarnished plant bug 3 Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Baythroid XL 2 to 2.4 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
3A BotaniGard Maxx 0.25 to 2 qt 4 0    
3A Danitol 2.4EC 10.7 to 21.3 fl oz 24 3 Excellent  
3A Mustang Maxx 1.28 to 4 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Pounce 6.4 to 16 oz 12 14 Good  
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent  
3A Brigade formulations see label 12 14   Do not make applications less than 30 days apart. 
4A Actara 4.5 to 5.5 oz 12 14 Good  
4A Assail 30SG 5.3 to 8 oz 12 7 Fair/Good  
9 Beleaf 50SG 2 to 2.8 oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14    
3, 28 Besiege 9 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Good  
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14   Best used when multiple pests are present.
4A, 28 Voliam Flexi 4 to 7 oz 12 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
6, 3 Gladiator 19 fl oz 12 21   Best used when multiple pests are present
UN Botanigard ES 0.5 to 2 qt 4 0    

 

3 - Bloom

DISEASE FRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS

BLOOM

Brown rot/ Blossom blight

1

 

M4

Topsin M PLUS Captan 50WP, or

Captan 80WDG or

Captec 4L

1 to 1.5 lb PLUS

4 to 8 lb or

2.5 to 5 lb or

3 to 4 qt

48 1 Excellent  
M1 Badge X2 3.5 to 5 lb 48 21   OMRI
M1 Badge SC 3.5 to 5.25 pt 48 21    
2 Rovral 4F 1 to 2 pt 24 Petal fall

Excellent

 
2 Meteor  1 to 2 pt 24 Petal fall   Good for European brown rot
M2 Sulfur 80WDG 10 to 30 lb 24 0 Fair  
3 Cevya Fungicide 3 to 5 oz 12 0    
3 Indar 2F 6 fl oz 12 0 Excellent Good for European brown rot
3 Orius 20AQ 8.6 to 17.2 oz 12 0 Excellent  
3 Quash 50WDG 2.5 to 3.5 oz 12 14 Good Do not exceed 3 applications per season
3 Rally 40WSP 4 to 6 oz 24 o Excellent  
3 Rhyme 7 fl oz 12 7    
3 Tilt 3.6EC 4 fl oz 12 0    
M3 Thiram Granuflo 3.5 lb 24 7    
M3

Ziram 76DF,

Ziram Granuflo

4.5 to 8 lb 48 14 Poor/Fair  
M4

Captan 50WP,

Captan 80WDG,

Captec 4L

 

4 8 lb

2.5 to 5 lb

 

3 to 4 qt

24 0 Good  
M5 Bravo WeatherStik 3.1 to 4.1 pt 12 Shuck split Good  
M5

Echo 720

Echo 90DF

3.1 to 4.1 pt

2.25 to 3.5 lb

12 Shuck split Good  
M5 Equus DF 2.8 to 3.8 lb 12 0 Good  
M5 Oranil 6L 3.12 to 4.12 pt 12 Shuck split    
P5 Regalia 1 to 4 qt 4 Petal fall   OMRI
7 Fontelis 1.67 14 to 20 oz 12 0 Excellent  
7 Miravis 3.4 to 5.1 fl oz 12 0    
9 Scala SC 9 to 18 fl oz 12 30 Good  
11 Aframe 12 to 15.5 fl oz 4 0    
11 Gem 500 SC 1.9 to 3.8 oz 12 1   Product discontinued. Use up inventory
11 Flint Xtra 2.5 to 3.8 fl oz 12 1    
17 Elevate 50WDG

1.5 lb alone

1 to 1.5 lb tank mixed

12 0 Excellent  
3, 7 Luna Experience 6 to 10 fl oz 12 0    
3, 9 Inspire Super 16 to 20 fl oz 12 2    
3, 11 Quadris Top 12 to 14 fl oz 12 0   Do not allow to drift onto apples
3, 11 Quilt Xcel 14 fl oz 12 0   Do not allow to drift onto apples
3, 11 Topguard EQ 6 to 8 fl oz 12 7   Do not allow to drift onto apples
7, 11 Luna Sensation 5 to 7.6 fl oz 12 1 Excellent  
7, 11 Merivon 4 to 6.7 fl oz 12 0 Excellent Good for Europan brown rot. Don't mix with EC product, crop oil concentrate or MSO adjuvant
7, 11 Pristine 39WG 10.5 to 14.5 oz 12 0 Good  
NA BotryStop 2 to 4 lb 4 0   OMRI
44 Serifel Biofungicide 4 to 16 oz 4 0   OMRI
NC BotryStop 3 lb 4 0   OMRI. Do not use a stomatal flooding or penetrant adjuvant.
Peach Scab M5 Oranil 6L 3.12 to 4.12 pt 12 Shuck split    
11 Flint Xtra 2.5 to 3.8 fl oz 12 1 Excellent  
3, 7 Luna Experience 8 to 10 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
7, 11 Luna Sensation 5 to 7.6 fl oz 12 1 Excellent  
7, 11 Merivon 4 to 6.7 fl oz 12 0 Good/Exc  
  7 Miravis 5.1 fl oz 12 0    
  3, 9 Inspire Super 16 to 20 fl oz 12 2    

 

4 - Petal fall

DISEASE FRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
               

PETAL FALL

Brown rot/Blossom blight

1

 

M4

Topsin M PLUS

Captan 50WP or Captan 80WDG or Captec 4L

1 to 1.5 lb PLUS

4 to 8 lb or

2.5 to 5 lb or

3 to 4 qt

48 1 Excellent  
M1 Badge X2 3.5 to 5 lb 48 21   OMRI
M1 Badge SC 3.5 to 5.25 pt 48 21    
2 Rovral 4F 1 to 2 pt 24 Petal Fall Excellent  
2 Meteor 1 to 2 pt 24 Petal fall   Good for European brown rot
M2 Sulfur 80WDG 10 to 30 lb 24 0 Fair  
3 Cevya Fungicide 3 to 5 oz 12 0    
3 Indar 2F 6 fl oz 12 0 Excellent Good for European brown rot
3 Orius 20AQ 8.6 to 17.2 oz 12 0 Excellent  
3 Quash 50WDG 2.5 to 3.5 oz 12 14 Good  
3 Rally 40WSP 4 to 6 oz 24 0 Excellent  
3 Rhyme 7 fl oz 12 7    
3 Tilt 3.6EC 4 fl oz 12 0    
M3 Thiram Granuflo 3.5 lb 24 7    
M3 Ziram 76DF, Ziram Granuflo 4.5 to 8 lb 48 14 Poor/Fair  
M4 Captan 50WP or Captan 80WDG or Captec 4L

4 to 8 lb

2.5 to 5 lb

3 to 4 qt

24 0 Good  
M5 Bravo WeatherStik 3.1 to 4.1 pt 12 Shuck split Good  
M5

Echo 720

Echo 90DF

3.1 to 4.1 pt

2.25 to 3.5 lb

12 Shuck split Good  
M5 Equus DF 2.8 to 3.8 lb 12 0 Good  
M5 Oranil 6L 3.12 to 4.12 pt 12 Shuck split    
P5 Regalia 1 to 4 qt 4 Petal fall    
7 Miravis 3.4 to 5.1 fl oz 12 0    
7 Fontelis 1.67 14 to 20 oz 20 0 Excellent  
9 Scala SC 9 to 18 fl oz 12 30 Good  
11 Aframe 12 to 15.5 fl oz 4 0    
11 Flint Xtra 2.5 to 3.8 fl oz 12 1    
17 Elevate 50WDG

1.5 lb (alone)

1 to 1.5 (tank mixed)

12 0 Excellent  
3, 7 Luna Experience 6 to 10 fl oz 12 0    
3, 9 Inspire Super 16 to 20 fl oz 12 2    
3, 11 Quadris Top 12 to 14 fl oz 12 0   Do not allow to drift onto apples
3, 11 Quilt Xcel 14 fl oz 12 0   Do not allow to drift onto apples
3, 11 Topguard EQ 6 to 18 fl oz 12 7   Do not allow to drift onto apples
7, 11 Luna Sensation 5 to 7.6 fl oz 12 1 Excellent  
7, 11 Merivon 4 to 6.7 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
7, 11 Pristine 38WG 10.5 to 14.5 oz 12 0 Good  
44 Serifel Biofungicide 4 to 16 oz 4 0   OMRI
NC BotryStop 3 lb 4 0   OMRI. Do not use a stomatal flooding or penetrant adjuvant
Peach Scab M2 Sulfur 80WDG 10 to 30 lb 24 0 Good  
3 Cevya Fungicide 4 to 5 oz 12 0    
3 Indar 2F 6 fl oz 12 0    
3 Quash 50WP 2.5 to 3.5 oz 12 14 Good  
M3 Thiram Granuflo 3.5 lb 24 7    
M4

Captan 50WP

Captan 80WDG

Captec 4L

4 to 8 lb

2.5 to 5 lb

3 to 4 qt

24 0 Good  
M5

Bravo Ultrex

Bravo WeatherStik

2.3 to 3.8 lb

3.1 to 4.1 pt

12 Shuck split Good  
M5

Echo 720

Echo 90DF

3.1 to 4.1 pt

2.25 to 3.5 lb

12 Shuck split Good  
M5 Oranil 6L 3.12 to 4.12 pt 12 Shuck split    
7 Fontelis 14 to 20 oz 12 0 Fair/Good  
7 Miravis 3.4 to 5.1 fl oz 12 0    
11 Aframe 12 to 15.5 fl oz 4 0    
11 Flint Xtra 2.5 to 3.8 fl oz 12 1 Excellent  
3, 7 Luna Experience 8 to 10 fl oz 12 0    
3, 9 Inspire Super 16 to 20 fl oz 12 2    
3, 11 Topguard EQ 6 to 8 fl oz 12 7    
7, 11 Luna Sensation 5 to 7.6 fl oz 12 1    
7, 11 Merivon 4 to 6.7 fl oz 12 0 Good/Exc Do not mix with EC products, crop oil concentrate or MSO adjuvant


 

PEST IRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
Borers: American plum, Peachtree, Lesser peachtree UN

Pheromone mating disrupters:

Isomate PTB Dual

150 to 250 ties 0 0 Excellent Hang pheromone traps to monitor effectiveness.
3A Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Good  
3A Baythroid XL

1.4 to 2 fl oz (LPTB)

2 to 2.4 fl oz (APB)

12 7 Good Not for PTB
3A Mustang Maxx 1.28 to 4 fl oz 12 14    
3A Pounce 25WP 6.4 to 16 oz 12 14 Good Not for APB, PTB
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl oz 24 14 Good  
3A Perm-Up 3.2 EC 4 to 10 fl oz 12 14    
4A Scorpion 35 5.25 to 7 fl oz 12 7   Suppression only
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7   Not for PTB. Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 6 Gladiator EC 19 fl oz 12 21 Good  
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
6, 3 Gladiator 19 fl oz 12 21    
3, 28 Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14    
UN AzaGuard 10 to 16 fl oz 4 0   OMRI
Green peach aphid 1A

Lannate LV

Lannage 90SP

3 pt

1 lb

96

4

   
4A Actara 3 to 4 oz 12 14    
4A Assail 30SG 2.5 to 5.3 oz 12 7    
4A Belay 3 to 6 fl oz 12 21    
4C Transform WG 0.75 to 1.5 oz 24 See label   Do not apply until complete petal fall
4D Sivanto Prime 7 to 14 fl oz 12 14    
9 Beleaf 50SG 2 to 2.8 oz 12 14    
9D Versys 1.5 fl oz 12 7   Safe on bees, all beneficial insects. 
23 Movento SC 6 to 9 fl oz 24 7   Add hort oil or non-ionic advanced spray
UN BotaniGard ES 0.5 to 2 qt 4 0    
UN PFR 97 1 to 2 lb 4 0   OMRI
UN Des-X 2% vol 12 0   OMRI. Not for yellow skinned nectarines
UN BioCeres WP 1 to 3 lbs 4 0   OMRI
UN SuffOil-X 1 to 2% by volume 4 0   OMRI
3, 4 Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
4, 28 Voliam Flexi 4 to 7 oz 12 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
Oriental fruit moth UN

Pheromone mating disrupters:

Isomate OFM TT

Isomate CM/OFM TT

100 to 300 ties

 

 

200 to 350 dispensers

0 0 Excellent

OMRI. Hang pheromone traps to monitor effectiveness.

For CM and OFM

UN Checkmate OFM mating disrupters 100 to 200 dispensers 0 0 Excellent OMRI. Hang pheromone traps to monitor effectiveness.
1A Sevin XLR 2 to 3 qt 12 3 Fair/Good  
1B Imidan 70W 2.1 to 4.25 lb 96 14 Excellent  
3A Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Good  
3A Baythroid XL

2 to 2.4 fl oz

12 7 Good  
3A Danitol 2.4EC 10.7 to 21.3 fl oz 24 3 Good/Exc  
3A Mustang Maxx 1.28 to 4 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Perm-Up 3.2 EC 4 to 10 fl oz 12 14 Good/Exc  
3A Pounce 6.4 to 16 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl oz 24 14 Good/Exc  
3A Brigade formulations see label 12 14   Do not make applications less than 30 days apart. 
4A Assail 30SG 5.3 to 8 oz 12 7 Excellent  
4A Belay 6 fl oz 12 21    
5 Delegate 6 to 7 oz 4 1 Excellent  
5 Entrust 1.25 to 2.5 oz 4 1 Good/Exc OMRI
11 Deliver 0.25 to 2 lb 4 0   OMRI
15 Rimon 0.83EC 20 to 40 fl oz 12 8 Excellent  
18 Intrepid 2F 10 to 16 fl oz 4 7 Good  
22A Avaunt eVo

6 oz

12 14 Good  
28 Altacor 35WDG 3 to 4.5 oz 4 10 Excellent  
28 Belt SC 3 to 4 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
28 Exirel

10 to 20.5 fl oz

12 3 Excellent  
UN Madex HP 0.5 to 3 fl oz 4 0 Good OMRI For OFM and CM only
UN Grandevo 1 to 3 lb 4 0 Good OMRI
UN Venerate 1 to 4 qt 4 0 Good OMRI
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14 Goof/Exc Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
28, 3A Besiege 9 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Good  
4A, 15 Cormoran 20 to 28 oz 12 8    
4A, 28 Voliam Flexi 6 to 7 oz 12 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
6, 3A Gladiator 19 fl oz 12 21 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
16, 28 Tourismo 10 to 14 fl oz 12 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
28, 6 Minecto 8 to 12 fl oz 12 21 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
Plum curculio 1B Imidan 70W 2.1 to 4.25 lb 96 14 Excellent  
3A Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Good  
3A Baythroid XL 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Good  
3A Perm-Up 3.2 EC 4 to 10 fl oz 12 14 Fair/good  
3A Pounce 25WP 6.4 to 16 oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl oz 24 14 Good  
4A Actara 4.5 to 5.5 oz 12 14 Good  
5 Delegate 25WG 6 to 7 oz 4 1 Poor/Good  
22A Avaunt 30WDG 5 to 6 oz 12 14 Good/Exc  
28 Exirel 13.5 to 20.5 fl oz 12 3 Excellent  
UN Surround 25 to 50 lb 4 0 Repellent OMRI
3, 28 Besiege 9 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
3, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 3A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 15 Cormoran 20 to 28 oz 12 8   Best used when multiple pests are present
6, 3 Gladiator EC 19 fl oz 12 21 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
28, 6 Minecto 10 to 12 fl oz 12 21 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
Tarnished plant bug 3 Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Baythroid XL 2 to 2.4 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
3A BotaniGard MAXX 0.25 to 2 qt 12 0    
3A Danitol 2.4EC 10.7 to 21.3 fl oz 24 3 Excellent  
3A Mustang Maxx 1.28 to 4 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Perm-Up 3.2 EC 4 to 10 fl oz 12 14 Fair/Good  
3A Pounce 25WP 6.4 to 26 oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent  
3A Brigade formulations see label 12 14   Do not make applications less than 30 days apart. 
4A Actara 4.5 to 5.5 oz 12 14 Good  
4A Assail 30SG 5.3 to 8 oz 12 7 Fair  
4A Belay 6 fl oz 12 21 Excellent  
9 Beleaf 2 to 2.8 oz 12 14    
28, 3A Besiege 9 to 12 fl oz 24 14 good  
3, 4 Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 oz 12 7   Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 28 Voliam Flexi 6 to 7 oz 12 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
6, 3 Gladiator 19 fl oz 12 21   Best used when multiple pests are present
UN BotaniGard ES 0.5 to 2 qt 4 0    

 

5 - Shuck Split

DISEASE FRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS

SHUCK SPLIT

Brown rot

1

 

 

 

M4

Topsin M or

Topsin 4.5FL PLUS Captan 50WP or Captan 80WDG or Captec 4L

1 to 1.5 lb,

20 to 30 fl oz PLUS

4 to 8 lb, or 2.5 to 5 lb, or 3 to 4 qt

48

 

 

1
 

 

Excellent  
M2 Sulfur 80WDG 10 to 30 lb 24 0 Poor  
3 Cevya Fungicide 4 to 5 oz 12 0    
3 Indar 4F 6 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
3 Quash 50WDG 2.5 to 3.5 oz 12 14 Good  
3 Rally 40WSP 2.5 to 6 oz 24 0    
3 Rhyme 7 fl oz 12 7    
3 Tilt 4 fl oz 12 0    
M3 Ziram 76DF, Ziram Granuflo 4.5 to 8 lb 48 14 Poor/Fair  
M4

Captan 50WP, Captan 80WDG,

Captec 4L

4 to 8 lb

2.5 to 5 lb

3 to 4 qt

24

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

Fair/Good  
M5 Bravo WeatherStik 3.1 to 4.1 pt 12 hr Shuck split

 

 

 
M5

Echo 720

Echo 90DF

3.2 to 4.1 pt

2.25 to 3.5 lb

12 hr

 

Shuck split    
M5 Oranil 6L 3.12 to 4.12 pt 12 Shuck split    
7 Fontelis 14 to 20 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
7 Miravis 3.4 to 5.1 fl oz 12 0    
11 Aframe 12 to 15.5 fl oz 4 0    
11 Flint Xtra 3.8 fl oz 12 1 Good  
17 Elevate 50WDG

1.5 lb (alone)

1 to 1.5 lb (tank mixed)

12 0 Excellent  
3A, 7 Luna Experience 6 to 10 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
3, 9 Inspire Super 16 to 20 fl oz 12 2 Excellent  
3, 11 Topguard EQ 6 to 8 fl oz 12 7    
7, 11 Luna Sensation 5 to 7.6 fl oz 12 1 Excellent  
7, 11 Merivon 4 to 6.7 fl oz 12 0 Excellent Do not mix with EC products, crop oil concentrate, or MSO  adjuvant
7, 11 Pristine 10.5 to 14.5 oz 12 0 Good  
44 Serifel Biofungicide 4 to 16 oz 4 0   OMRI
NC BotryStop 3 lb 4 0   OMRI. Do not use a stomatal flooding or penetrant adjuvant
Bacterial spot M1 Badge X2 0.5 to 2 lb 48 21   OMRI
M1 Badge SC 0.5 to 2 pt 48 21    
M1 Cueva Fungicide Concentrate 0.5 to 2 gal 4 0   OMRI
41 Mycoshield 17WP 12 oz/100 12 21   OMRI
41 Fireline 17WP 0.4 to 3.75 lb 12 21    
44 Serifel Biofungicide 4 to 16 oz 4 0   OMRI
UN OxiPhos 2.5 to 5 qt 4 0    
UN pHorcepHite 2 to 4 qt 4 0   Suppression only
Peach scab M2 Sulfur 80WDG 10 to 30 lb 24 0 Good  
3 Cevya Fungicide 4 to 5 oz 12 0    
3 Indar 2F 6 fl oz 12 0    
3 Quash 50WP 2.5 to 3.5 oz 12 14 Good  
M3 Thiram Granuflo 3.5 lb 24 7    
M4

Captan 50WP

Captan 80WDG

Captec 4L

4 to 8 lb

2.5 to 5 lb

3 to 4 qt

24

0

Good  
M5

Bravo Ultrex

Bravo WeatherStik

2.3 to 3.8 lb

3.1 to 4.1 pt

12 Shuck split Good  
M5

Echo 720

Echo 90DF

3.1 to 4.1 pt

2.25 to 3.5 lb

12 Shuck split Good  
M5 Oranil 6L 3.12 to 4.12 pt 12 Shuck split    
7 Fontelis 14 to 20 oz 12 0 Fair/Good  
7 Miravis 3.4 to 5.1 fl oz 12 0    
11 Aframe 12 to 15.5 fl oz 4 0    
11 Flint Xtra 2.5 to 3.8 fl oz 12 1 Excellent  
3, 7 Luna Experience 8 to 10 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
3, 9 Inspire Super 16 to 20 fl oz 12 2    
3, 11 Topguard EQ 6 to 8 fl oz 12 7    
7, 11 Luna Sensation 5 to 7.6 fl oz 12 1 Excellent  
7, 11 Merivon 4 to 6.7 fl oz 12 0 Fair/Good Do not mix with EC products, crop oil concentrate, or MSO adjuvant
Rusty Spot 3 Rhyme 7 fl oz 12 7   Continue through 3rd cover or terminal bud set. Controlling powdery mildew in nearby apples will help reduce Rusty Spot incidence.
PEST IRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
Obliquebanded leafroller 3A Baythroid XL 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
3A Danitol 10.7 to 21.3 fl oz 24 3 Good  
3A Perm-Up 3.2 EC 4 to 10 fl oz 12 14 Good/Exc  
3A Brigade formulations see label 12 14   Do not make applications less than 30 days apart. 
5 Delegate 25WG 4.5 to 7 oz 4 1 Excellent  
5 Entrust 80WP 1.25 to 2.5 oz 4 1 Good OMRI
11 Biobit HP 0.5 to 2 lb 4 0   OMRI
11 Deliver 0.25 to 2 lb 4 0 Excellent OMRI
11 Dipel DF 0.5 to 2 lb 4 0   OMRI
21 Apta 21 to 27 fl oz 12 14    
28 Altacor 35WDG 3 to 4.5 oz 4 10 Excellent  
28 Belt SC 3 to 4 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
28 Exirel 10 to 20.5 fl oz 12 3    
28 Verdepryn 100SL 5.5 to 11 fl oz 4 7    
UN Grandevo 1 to 3 lb 4 0   OMRI
UN Surround 25 to 50 lb 4 0   OMRI
UN Venerate XC 1 to 8 qt 4 0   OMRI
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
3, 28 Besiege 9 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Good  
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
16, 28 Tourismo 10 to 14 fl oz 12 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
NA Spear-LEP 1 to 2 pt 4 0 ? 6 pt/A maximum per season
Oriental fruit moth UN

Pheromone mating disrupters: Isomate OFM TT

Isomate CM/OFM TT

100 to 300 ties

 

 

200  to 350 dispensers

0 0 Excellent OMRI Hang pheromone traps to monitor effectiveness
UN Pheromone mating disrupter: Checkmate OFM 100 to 200 dispensers 0 0 Excellent OMRI Hang pheromone traps to monitor effectiveness
1A Sevin XLR 2 to 3 qt 12 3 Fair/Good  
1B Imidan 70W 2.1 to 4.25 lb 96 14 Excellent  
3A Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Good/Exc  
3A Baythroid XL 2 to 2.4 fl oz 12 7 Good/Exc  
3A Danitol 2.4EC 10.7 to 21.3 fl oz 24 3 Good/Exc  
3A Mustang Maxx 1.8 to 4 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Pounce 6.4 to 16 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent  
3A Perm-Up 3.2 EC 4 to 10 fl oz 12 14 Good/Exc  
4A Assail 30SG 5.3 to 8 oz 12 7 Excellent  
4A Belay 6 fl oz 12 21    
5 Delegate 6 to 7 oz 4 1 Excellent  
5 Entrust 1.25 to 2.5 oz 4 1 Good/Exc OMRI
11 Deliver 0.25 to 2 lb 4 0   OMRI
15 Rimon 0.83EC 20 to 40 fl oz 12 8 Excellent  
18 Intrepid 2F 10 to 16 fl oz 4 7 Good  
22A Avaunt eVo 6 oz 12 14 Fair  
28 Altacor 35WDG 3 to 4.5 oz 4 10 Excellent  
28 Belt SC 3 to 4 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
28 Exirel 10 to 20.5 fl oz 12 3 Excellent  
28 Verdepryn 100SL 5.5 to 11 fl oz 4 7    
UN Madex HP 0.5 to 3 fl oz 4 0 Good OMRI
UN Grandevo 1 to 3 lb 4 0 Good OMRI
UN Venerate XC 1 to 4 qt 4 0 Good OMRI
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14 Good/exc Best used when multiple pests are present
3, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 6 Gladiator 19 fl oz 12 21 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
3, 28 Besiege 9 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 28 Voliam Flexi 6 to 7 oz 12 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 15 Cormoran 20 to 28 oz 12 8   Best used when multiple pests are present
6, 3 Gladiator 19 fl oz 12 21   Best used when mulitple pests are present
16, 28 Tourismo 10 to 14 fl oz 12 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
28, 6 Minecto 8 to 12 fl oz 12 21 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
Plum curculio

 

 


 
1B Imidan 70W 2.1 to 4.25 lb 96 14 Excellent  
3A Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Good  
3A Baythroid XL 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Good  
3A Danitol 2.4 EC 10.7 to 21.3 fl oz 24 2 Good  
3A Pounce 6.4 to 16 oz 12 14 Good  
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl oz 24 14 Good  
3A Perm-Up 3.2 EC 4 to 10 fl oz 12 14 Good/Exc  
3A Brigade formulations see label 12 14   Do not make applications less than 30 days apart. 
4A Actara 4.5 to 5.5 oz 12 14

Good/Exc

 
4A Assail 30SG 2.5 to 5.3 oz 12 7 Excellent  
4A Belay 3 to 6 fl oz 12 21 Good  
4A Scorpion 5.25 to 7 fl oz 12 3    
21A Aptec 21 to 27 fl oz 12 14 Good  
22A Avaunt 30 eVo 5 to 6 oz 12 14 Good/Exc  
28 Exirel 13.5 to 20.5 fl oz 12 3 Good/Exc  
28 Verdepryn 100SL 5.5 to 11 fl oz 4 7    
UN Surround 25 to 50 lb 4 0 Repellent only OMRI
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7   Best used when multiple pests are present
3, 28 Besiege 9 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 28 Voliam Flexi 6 to 7 oz 12 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 15 Cormoran 20 to 28 oz 12 8   Best used when multiple pests are present
6,3 Gladiator EC 19 fl oz 12 21 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
28, 6 Minecto 10 to 12 fl oz 12 21 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
San Jose Scale, Lecanium scale 4A Admire Pro 1.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 0 Fair  
4C Transform WG 2.75 oz 24 7    
4A Belay 6 oz 12 21 Good Not for yellow skinned peaches
7C Esteem 13 to 16 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
16 Centaur WDG 34.5 oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7   Best used when multiple pests are present
23, 7C Senstar 12 to 18 fl oz 24 14   Do not apply until after petal fall
UN Des-X 2% 12 0   OMRI
UN Venerate XC 1 to 8 qt 4 0   OMRI
UN AzaGuard 10 to 16 fl oz 4 0   OMRI
NC SuffOil-X 1 to 2 % by volume 4 1   OMRI
Tarnished plant bug 3 Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Baythroid XL 2 to 2.4 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
3A Danitol 2.4EC 10.7 to 21.3 fl oz 24 3 Excellent  
3A Mustang Maxx 1.28 to 4 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Perm-Up 3.2 EC 4 to 10 fl oz 12 14 Fair/Good  
3A Pounce 6.4 to 26 oz 12 14 Good/Exc  
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent  
3A Brigade formulations see label 12 14   Crawler stage. Do not make applications less than 30 days apart. 
4A Actara 4.5 to 5.5 oz 12 14 Good  
4A Assail 30SG 5.3 to 8 oz 12 7 Fair/Good  
4A Belay 6 fl oz 12 21 Excellent  
9 Beleaf 2 to 2.8 oz 12 14 Excellent  
3, 28 Besiege 9 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Good  
3, 4 Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 oz 12 7   Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 28 Voliam Flexi 6 to 7 oz 12 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
6, 3 Gladiator 19 fl oz 12 21   Best used when multiple pests are present

Borers: Peach tree,

Lesser peach tree

UN Isomate PTB Dual 150 0 0 Excellent Hang pheromone traps to monitor effectiveness
3A Asana Xl 4.5 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Good  
3A Baythroid XL 1.4 to 2 fl oz 12 7 Good  
3A Mustang Maxx 1.28 to 4 fl oz 12 14    
3A Perm-Up 3.2 EC 4 to 10 fl oz 12 14    
3A Pounce 25WP 6.4 to 16 oz 12 14 Good  
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl oz 24 1 Good/Exc  
4A Scorpion 35 SL 5.25 to 7 fl oz 12 3   PTB Only
28 Verdepryn 100SL 5.5 to 11 fl oz 4 7   Borer, peach twig
32 Spear-LEP 1 to 2 pts 4 0   peach twig borer; tank mix with Bt.
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 4 Excellent  
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
3, 28 Besiege 9 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Good  
3A, 28 Volium Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14    
6, 3 Gladiator 19 fl oz 12 21 Excellent  
UN AzaGuard 10 to 16 fl oz 4 0   OMRI

 

6 - Summer

DISEASE FRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
               

SUMMER

Bacterial spot 41 Mycoshield 17WP 12 oz/100 gals 12 21    
41 Fireline 17WP 0.4 to 3.75 lb 12 21    
M1 Copper products See labels for rates      

Care should be taken when applying copper products after bloom.

Organic formulations

44 Serifel Biofungicide 4 to 16 oz 4 0   OMRI
UN pHorcepHite 2 to 4 qt 4 0   Suppression only
Brown rot M2 Sulfur 80 WDG 10 to 30 lb 24 0 Poor  
3 Cevya Fungicide 4 to 5 oz 12 0    
3 Indar 2F 6 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
3 Orius 20AQ 8.6 to 17.2 oz 12 0    
3 Quash 50 WDG 2.5 to 4 oz 12 14 Good  
3 Rally 40 WSP 2.5 to 6 oz 24 0    
3 Rhyme 7 fl oz 12 7    
3 Tilt 4 fl oz 12 0    
M3 Thiram Granuflo 3.5 lb 24

7

 

   
M3

Ziram 76DF

Ziram Granuflo

4.5 to 8 lb 48 14 Poor/Fair  
M4

Capan 50WP

Captan 80WDG

Captec 4L

4 to 8 lb

 

2.5 to 5 lb

 

3 to 4 qt

12

0

Fair/Good  
P5 Regalia 1 to 4 qt 4 0   OMRI
7 Fontelis 1.67 14 to 20 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
7 Miravis 3.4 to 5.1 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
11 Aframe 12 to 15.5 fl oz 4 0    
17 Elevate 50WDG

1.5 lb (alone)

1 to 1.5 lb (tank mixed)

12 0 Excellent  
3, 7 Luna Experience 6 to 10 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
3, 9 Inspire Super 16 to 20 fl oz 12 2 Excellent  
3, 11 Topguard EQ 6 to 8 fl oz 12 7    
7, 11 Luna Sensation 5 to 7.6 fl oz 12 1 Excellent  
7, 11 Merivon 4 to 6.7 fl oz 12 0 Excellent Do not mix with EC products, crop oil concentrate or MSO
7, 11 Pristine 10.5 to 14.5 oz 12 0 Good  
44 Serifel Biofungicide 4 to 16 oz 4 0   OMRI
NC BotryStop 3 lb 4 0   OMRI. Do not use a stomatal flooding or penetrant adjuvant
Peach scab M2 Sulfur 80WDG 10 to 30 lb 24 0 Good  
3 Cevya Fungicide 4 to 5 oz 12 0    
3 Quash 50WDG 2.5 to 3.5 oz 12 14 Good  
M3 Thiram Granuflo 3.5 lb 24 7    
M4

Captan 50WP

Captan 80WDG

Captec 4L

4 to 8 lb

 

2.5 to 5 lb

 

3 to 4 qt

24

 

24

 

24

0

 

0

 

0

Good  
7 Fontelis 1.67 14 to 20 fl oz 12 0 Fair/Good  
7 Miravis 3.4 to 5.1 fl oz 12 0    

11

Abound

9 to 15.5 fl oz (peaches)

12 to 15.5 fl oz (nectarines)

4 0    
11 Aframe 12 to 15.5 fl oz 4 0    
11 Gem 500SC 1.9 to 3.8 oz 12 1 Excellent No longer produced. Use up inventory
11 Flint Xtra 2.5 to 3.8 fl oz 12 1 Excellent  
3, 9 Inspire Super 16 to 20 fl oz 12 2    
7, 11 Merivon 4 to 6.7 fl oz 12 0 Excellent Do not mix with EC products, crop oil concentrate or MSO
7, 11 Pristine 10.5 to 14.5 oz 12 0 Good  
Powdery mildew M2 Sulfur 80WDG 10 to 30 lb 24 0 Good  
P5 Regalia 1 to 4 qt 4 0   OMRI
3 Cevya Fungicide 4 to 5 oz 12 0   Suppression
3 Rhyme 7 fl oz 12 7    
7 Fontelis 1.67 14 to 20 fl oz 12 0 Good  
7 Miravis 3.4 to 5.1 fl oz 12 0    
11 Abound 12 to 15.5 fl oz 4 0    
11 Aframe 12 to 15.5 fl oz 4 0    
11 Flint Xtra 2.5 to 3.8 fl oz 12 1    
13 Quintec 2.08EC 7 fl oz 12 7 Good  
44 Serifel Biofungicide 4 to 16 oz 4 0   OMRI
48 Vivando 15.4 fl oz 12 7   Do not mix with EC products, crop oil concentrate or MSO
3, 9 Inspire Super 16 to 20 fl oz 12 2 Excellent  
UN SulfoMEX 3 to 6 pt 24 0   Do not apply with or within 14 days of oil application; do not apply with copper
Rusty Spot 3 Rhyme 7 fl oz 12 7   Continue through 3rd cover or terminal bud set


 

PEST IRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
European red mite, Two spotted spider mite 3A Danitol 10.7 to 21.3 fl oz 24 3 Good  
3A Brigade formulations see label 12 14   Do not make applications less than 30 days apart. 
10 Apollo SC 2 to 8 oz 12 21 Excellent  
10A Onager OPTEK 12 to 24 fl oz 12 7 Excellent 1 application per year. Targets eggs & immature motile mites
10B Zeal 72WS 2 to 3 oz 12 7 Excellent  
12B Vendex 50WP 1 to 2 lb 48 14 Good  
20D Banter WDG 0.75 to 1 lb 12 3   1 application per year
21A Nexter SC 7.5 to 17 oz 12 7 Good/Exc All motile stages
21A Portal 2 pt 12 365 Excellent Non-bearing only. Use with adjuvant
23 Envidor 2SC 16 to 18 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
25 Nealta 13.7 fl oz 12 7    
UN Acramite 50WS 0.75 to 1 lb 12 3 Good  
UN

Banter 4SC

12 to 16 fl oz 12 3   1 application per year
UN Des-X 2% vol 12 0   OMRI Not for yellow skinned nectarines
UN AzaGuard 10 to 16 fl oz 4 0   OMRI
NC SuffOil-X 1 to 2% by volume 4 0   OMRI
6, 3 Gladiator 19 fl oz 12 21 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
6 Agri-Mek 2.2 to 4.2 fl oz 12 21    
21A, 39 Magister SC 32 to 36 oz 12 3    
28, 6 Minecto Pro 8 to 12 fl oz 12 21 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
Green peach aphid 1A

Lannate LV

Lannate 90SP

3 pt

 

1 lb

96

4

  Peach only
3A Botanigard MAXX 0.25 to2 qt 12 0    
4A Actara 3 to 4 oz 12 14 Excellent 35-day PHI for apple and pear.  
4A Admire Pro 1.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
4A Assail 30SG 2.5 to 5.3 oz 12 7 Excellent  
4C Transform WG 0.75 to 1.4 oz 24 7    
4D Sivanto Prime 7 to 14 fl oz 12 14    
9B PQZ 2.4 to 3.2 fl oz 12 7    
9C Beleaf 50SG 2 to 2.8 oz 12 14 Excellent  
9D Versys 1.5 fl oz 12 7   Safe on bees, all beneficial insects
23 Movento 6 to 9 fl oz 24 7 Excellent  
UN Botanigard ES .05 to 2 qt 4 0    
UN PFR-97 1 to 2 lb 4 0   OMRI
UN Des-X 2 % vol 12 0   OMRI Not for yellow skinned nectarines
UN Grandevo 2 to 3 lb     Good OMRI
UN Molt-X 8 to 10 fl oz 4 0   OMRI. Use in spray mixture at pH 5.5-7.0
NC Mycotrol ESO 0.25 to 1 qt 4 0   Spray to wet but avoid runoff
UN SuffOil-X 1 to 2% vol 4 0   OMRI
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 28 Voliam flexi 4 to 7 oz 12 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
23, 7C Senstar 12 to 18 fl oz 24 14   Do not apply until after petal fall
Japanese beetle 1A

Sevin XLR Plus,

Sevin 4F

2 to 3 qt

 

12

 

3

Excellent  
1B Imidan 70W 2.1 to 4.25 lb 4 day 14 Good/Exc  
4A Admire Pro 1.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 0 Good  
4A Assail 30SG 5.3 to 8 oz 12 7 Good/Exc  
28 Exirel 13.5 to 20.5 fl oz 12 3 Good  
28 Verdepryn 100SL 5.5 to 11 fl oz 4 7    
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3, 28 Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
28, 6 Minecto Pro 10 to 12 fl oz 12 21 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
UN Molt-X 8 to 10 fl oz 4 0   OMRI Use in spray mixture at pH 5.5-7.0
Lecanium scale, San Jose scale 4A Admire Pro 1.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 0 Fair/Good  
4C Transform WG 2.75 oz 24 7    
7C Esteem 13 to 16 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
16 Centaur WDG 34.5 oz 12 14 Excellent  
23 Movento 6 to 9 fl oz 24 7 Good/Exc  
3, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
3a Brigade formulations see label 12 14   Do not make applications less than 30 days apart. 
23, 7C Senstar 12 to 18 fl oz 24 14    
NC SuffOil-X 1 to 2% vol 4 0   OMRI
NC Venerate XC 2 qt 4 0 Excellent OMRI
UN AzaGuard 10 to 16 fl oz 4 0   OMRI
Oriental fruit moth  

Pheromone disruption: Checkmate OFM dispenser,

Isomate CM-OFM TT

Isomate OFM TT

100 to 200 dispensers

 

 

200 to 300 dispensers

 

100 to 3000 dispensers

0

0

Excellent

 

 

NOP compliant

 

OMRI

1A Imidan 70W 2.1 to 4.25 lb 4 14 Excellent  
1A

Lannate LV

Lannate 90SP

3 pt

1 lb

96

4

Fair Peach only
1A

Sevin XLR Plus,

Sevin 4F

2 to 3 qt

12

3

Fair/Good  
3 Danitol 2.4EC 10.7 to 21.3 fl oz 24 3 Good/Exc  
3A Asana XL 4.8 to 14/5 fl oz 12 14 Good/Exc  
3A Baythroid XL 2 to 2.4 fl oz 12 7 Good/Exc  
3A Mustang Maxx 1.28 to 4 fl oz 12 14 Good  
3A Perm-Up 3.2 EC 4 to 10 fl oz 12 14 Good/Exc  
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl oz 24 14 Good/Exc  
4A Assail 30SG 5.3 to 8 oz 12 7 Excellent  
5 Delegate 25WG 6 to 7 oz 4 1 Excellent  
5 Entrust 80WP 1.25 to 2.5 oz 4 1 Good OMRI
11 Deliver 0.25 to 2 lb 4 0   OMRI
11 Dipel 0.5 to 2 lb 4 0   OMRI
18 Intrepid 2F 10 to 16 fl oz 4 7 Good  
22A Avaunt eVo 6 oz 12 14 Fair  
28 Altacor 35WDG 3 to 4.5 oz 4 10 Excellent  
28 Belt SC 3 to 4 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
28 Exirel 10 to 20.5 fl oz 12 3 Excellent  
28 Verdepryn 100SL 5.5 to 11 fl oz 4 7    
UN Madex HP 0.5 to 3 oz 4 0 Good OMRI
UN Neemix 7 to 16 fl oz 12 0 Good OMRI
UN Venerate XC 1 to 8 qt 4 0 Good OMRI
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 28 Besiege 9 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 15 Cormoran 20 to 28 oz 12 8   Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 28 Voliam Flexi 4 to 7 oz 12 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
6, 3 Gladiator 19 fl oz 12 21 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
16, 28 Tourismo 14 fl oz 12 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
28, 6 Minecto Pro 8 to 12 fl oz 12 21 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
Borers: American plum, Peachtree, Lesser peachtree UN Isomate PTB Dual 150     Excellent Hang pheromone traps to monitor effectiveness.
3A Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Good  
3A Baythroid XL 1.4 to 2 fl oz 12 7 Good  
3A Mustang Maxx 1.28 to 4 fl oz 12 14    
3A Perm-Up 3.2 EC 4 to 10 fl oz 12 14    
3A Pounce 25WP 6.4 to 16 oz 12 14 Good  
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl oz 24 14 Good  
4A Scorpion 35SL 5.25 to 7 fl oz 12 3   PTB only
28 Verdepryn 100 SL 5.5 to 11 fl oz 4 7   Borer, peach twig
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7   Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
3, 28 Besiege 9 to 12 fl oz 24 14 good Best used when multiple pests are present
6, 3 Gladiator 19 fl oz 12 21   Best used when multiple pests are present
UN AzaGuard 10 to 16 fl oz 4 0   OMRI
Spotted Wing Drosophila 1A

Lannate LV

Lannate 90SP

3 pt

1 lb

4 days

4

Good/Exc Peach only
1A Sevin XLR 2 to 3 qt 12 3 Fair/Good  
1B Diazinon AG500 1 pt/100 4 days 21 Good  
1B Imidan 70 2.1 to 4.25 lb 4 days 14 Excellent  
1B Malathion 5EC

2.5 to 4.8 pt (peach)

4 to 4.8 pt (nectarine)

24 7 Good  
3A Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Baythroid XL 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Good/Exc 14 day interval between applications
3A Danitol 2.4EC 10.6 to 21.3 fl oz 24 3 Excellent  
3 Lambda-Cy EC 2.5 to 5.1 fl oz 24 14 Good/Exc  
3A Mustang Maxx 4 oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Pyganic 1.4 1 pt to 2 qt 12 0 Poor OMRI
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl oz 24 14 Good/Exc  
4A Actara 4.5 to 5.5 oz 12 14 Poor  
4A Admire Pro 1.4 to 2.8 oz 12 0 Good  
4A Assail 5.3 to 8 oz 12 7 Fair  
4A Venom 2 to 4 oz 12 3 Good  
5 Delegate 25WG 6 to 7 oz 4 1 Good/Exc  
5

Entrust 80WP

Entrust Naturalyte

Entrust SC

1.25 to 2.5 oz

 

4 to 8 fl oz

4 1 Good OMRI
5 Success 4 to 8 fl oz 4 1 Good NH, Maine only
15 Rimon 0.83 EC 20 to 40 fl oz 12 8    
28 Exirel 13.5 to 20.5 fl oz 12 3 Good/Exc  
28 Verdepryn 100SL 11 fl oz 4 7 Excellent  
UN Grandevo 2 to 3 lb 4 0 Fair OMRI
UN Molt X 10 fl oz 4 0   OMRI
UN Surround 25 to 50 lb/100 4 0 Suppression only OMRI
UN BioCeres WP 1 to 3 lbs 4 0   OMRI
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5.5 to 6 fl oz 24 7 Good  
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Good  
28, 6 Minecto Pro 10 to 12 fl oz 12 21 Excellent  
Stink bugs including Brown marmorated 1A

Lannate LV

Lannage 90SP

1.5 to 3pt

0.5 to 1 lb

96

4

Excellent  
3A Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Fair  
3A Baythroid XL 1.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Fair  
3A Danitol 2.4EC 10.6 to 21.3 fl oz 24 3 Good  
3A Mustang Maxx 1.28 to 4 fl oz 12 14    
3A Perm-Up 3.2 EC 4 to 10 fl oz 12 14 Fair/good  
3A Warrior II 1.28 to 2.56 fl oz 24 14 Fair  
4A Actara 4.5 to 5.5 oz 12 14 Good 35-day PHI for apple and pear.
4A Belay 6 oz 12 21   Peach only
4A Scorpion 35SL 5.25 to 7 fl oz 12 3 Excellent Supplemental label
15 Rimon 0.83EC 20 to 40 fl oz 12 8    
28 Verdepryn 100SL 5.5 to 11 fl oz 4 7   Suppression
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 6 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 6 Gladiator 19 fl oz 12 21 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
3, 28 Besiege 9 to 12 fl oz 24 14 good Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 15 Cormoran 20 to 28 oz 12 8  

Best used when multiple pests are present

4A, 28 Voliam Flexi 6 to 7 oz 12 14 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
UN Venerate XC 1 to 4 qt 4 0   OMRI
Tarnished plant bug 1A

Lannate LV

Lannate 90SP

3 pt

1 lb

96

4

Excellent  
3A Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Baythroid XL 2 to 2.4 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
3A BotaniGard MAXX 0.25 to 2 qt 12 0    
3A Danitol 2.4EC 10.7 to 21.3 fl oz 24 3 Excellent  
3A Pounce 25WP 6.4 to 16 oz 12 14 Good/Exc  
3A Mustang Maxx 1.28 to 4 fl oz 12 14 Good/Exc  
3A Perm-Up 3.2 EC 4 to 10 fl oz 12 14 Fair/good  
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent  
3A Brigade formulations see label 12 14   Do not make applications less than 30 days apart. 
4A Actara 4.5 to 5.5 oz 12 14 Good/Exc 35-day PHI for apple and pear.
4A Assail 30SG 5.3 to 8 oz 12 7 Good  
4A Belay 2.1EC 6 fl oz 12 21 Excellent  
9C Beleaf 50SG 2 to 2.8 oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3, 28 Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 28 Voliam Flexi 6 to 7 fl oz 12 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
6, 3 Gladiator 19 fl oz 12 21 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
UN BotaniGard ES 0.5 to 2 qt 4 0    

 

7 - Fall After Leaf Drop

DISEASE FRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours EFFICACY COMMENTS

FALL AFTER LEAF DROP

Peach leaf curl M1 C-O-C-S 12 to 16 lb 24   May require early spring application
M1 Kocide 2000 6 to 12 lb 48   May require early spring application
M1 Kocide 3000 3.5 to 7 lb 48   May require early spring application
M1 Badge X2 3.5 to 14 lb 48   OMRI. May require early spring application
M1 Badge SC 3.5 to 14 pt 48   May require early spring application
M3 Ferban Granuflo 4 to 5 lb 24   May require early spring application
M3 Thiram Granuflo 3.5 lb 24   May require early spring application
M5 Bravo Ultrex 2.3 to 3.8 lb 12 hr/7 day   May require early spring application
M5 Bravo WeatherStik 3.1 to 4.1 pt 12 hr/7 day   May require early spring application
M5 Echo 720 3.1 to 4.1 pt 12 hr/7 day   May require early spring application
M5 Echo 90DF 2.25 to 3.5 lb 12 hr/7 day   May require early spring application
M5 Oranil 6L 3.12 to 4.12 pt 12   May require application prior ot budswell
3, 7 Luna Experience 6 to 10 fl oz 12   May require early spring application

 

8 - Storage Disorders

DISEASE FRAC Product Rate/100 gal COMMENTS

Storage Disorders

Storage rots 12 Scholar SC 16 fl oz  
         

 

Bud Stages

Plums

Renae Moran, University of Maine

Plums are a diverse group of fruits that comprise two major types or species, Prunus domestica, the European plum, and Prunus salciana, the Japanese plum. A third type is a hybrid of the Asian species with American and Canadian plums.  The three types vary in their susceptibility to diseases, but generally have the same insect problems.  Black knot, bacterial leaf spot, brown rot and bacterial canker are the most prevalent diseases in the northeastern United States.  Other diseases of plum include plum leaf spot, plum pockets, phytophthora root rot, and several that are causes by viruses.  Plum curculio and apple maggot are prevalent.  Fruit moths, spotted wing drosophila, plant bugs and trunk borers pose problems, but to a lesser extent in managed orchards.

For additional information on plum production, visit the Plum Production Guide.

Insects

Red sphere hung from a tree branch

A red ball "sticky trap" useful for monitoring apple maggot, a pest of plum.

Insect Pests

Plum curculio, a snout weevil, attacks young fruitlets as they begin to grow to size of one-half inch in diameter.  The plum curculio adult lays eggs directly into the fruit during a period of 5 to 7 weeks after bloom.  In the process of egg laying, the curculio creates a ¼-inch crescent shaped scar on the fruit surface. Infestation leads to fruit drop in most cases, so orchards that are not protected by insecticide can lose a considerable number of fruit to this pest.  Protectant sprays begin at or after petal fall and continue into July.

Apple maggot occurs in abundance in the northeast.  Adult flies lay eggs in fruit in summer, so damage occurs because of fruit larvae feeding within ripening fruit.  Traps, red spheres coated with a layer of sticky gel called Tangletrap™, can be used to monitor populations and to measure when thresholds are reached.  Because populations vary from orchard to orchard, traps can be used to determine when insecticides are most effective or not needed.  Populations are most abundant near unsprayed apple trees. 

Spotted wing drosophila, a fruit fly, can attack ripe fruit. Avoid leaving fully ripe fruit on the tree or in the orchard to minimize damage.  Insecticides applied for apple maggot may also protect fruit from spotted wing drosophila. 

Other pests are likely to be present in the orchard, and are generally managed by insecticide sprays applied to control plum curculio and apple maggot. 

 

Diseases

Bacterial Leaf Spot

Bacterial Leaf and Fruit Spot

The foliage and fruit of many plum, peach and apricot varieties is susceptible to infection by bacterial leaf spot, Xanthomonas arboricola, that causes small yellow spots and a shot-hole appearance in foliage.  Fruit infection leads to round, sunken spots that detract from the appearance and marketability of fruit.  These symptoms can be confused with spray injury.  Warm weather and moisture favor its spread, as do nearby susceptible peach and apricot trees.  Other names for this disease are bacterial shot-hole and bacteriosis.

Plum and peach varieties vary in susceptibility. Shiro and Early Golden have a high degree of susceptibility. Obilinya and Vanier have some resistance. In general, European plums are more tolerant than Japanese varieties. The most effective management strategy is to plant resistant varieties of plum and peach since chemical sprays are of limited use in preventing this disease.  Removal of branches and limbs with cankers during dormant pruning can reduce disease pressure. 

In early summer, signs of bacterial leaf spot first appear as watersoaked spots on the leaves. The shape of the spots is more angular than round. They eventually turn yellow and fall out which creates the shot-hole appearance. The shot-hole effect is more pronounced on plum than peach, whereas in peach, the lesions turn brown with extended areas of yellowing.  Fruit infections lead to sunken spots that easily crack with fruit expansion.

Copper sprays are more effective for prevention than control, and are of limited use due to phytotoxicity.  Consequently, planting resistant varieties is the most effective management strategy. 

Black Knot of Plum and Cherry

  • Black knot infections occur in springtime during the active phase of shoot growth when rainfall favors the spread of this fungus. Wild cherry and plum serve as alternate hosts, spreading the disease to cultivated plums and making chemical control more difficult in susceptible varieties.
  • This disease is common in plum orchards. Symptoms appear in new shoots as green swellings of the stem and oddly shaped growths covering the shoot that eventually turn black with warty surface.  In severe cases, the fungus girdles the branch.  Cultivated plums vary in susceptibility with Stanley and Methely being highly susceptible, and Obilinaja fairly resistant.
  • The most important period for black knot sprays is from white bud to shuck split.  Infections require rain and are favored by temperatures above 55 F.

Disease Cycle and Management

Black knot is caused by the fungus Dibotyron morbosum, also known as Apiosporina morbosa.  It overwinters on infected trees, and is common on wild cherry and wild plum, as well as, ornamental stone fruit species.  Dispersal occurs from ascospores released during rain beginning soon after budbreak at the green cluster stage and continue throughout shoot elongation which continues into summer, but most occur just before and during petal fall.  Symptoms become visible in fall.  Initially, infections appear as green swellings on new shoots, but they eventually turn black in their second year.  Elongated swellings that can vary in length from 1 to 12 inches. Because of their green color, it is easy to miss infections in their first year.  The knot continues to develop through the second summer with ascospores maturing the second winter after infection. 

Infections will affect the woody part of the tree, so with severe infestation, there is a yield reduction. Once established in an orchard, it is difficult to control solely by chemical means. Well-time fungicide sprays can prevent infection. However, where wild infected hosts are near the orchard, complete control is not possible in susceptible varieties.  In this case, infections should be removed during dormant pruning by cutting back several inches into healthy tissue.

Activity Rating of Fungicides

  • Copper (Cuprafix, etc.) - slight
  • Captan - good
  • Chlorothalanil (Bravo) - excellent
  • Sulfur (Microthiol Disperss, etc.) – none (ineffective)
  • Thiophanate-methyl (Topsin M) - fair

Nonchemical control is primarily by removing wild plum and cherry, and by removing infections during pruning.  Where this is not possible, select varieties with partial to complete resistance:

Spring Satin plumcot, Obilinaja, Early Italian, Green Gage, Fellenberg, and President.

 

Brown Rot Blossom Blight and Fruit Rot

  • Plum fruit infected with the brown rot fungus
    Strong resistance to brown rot does not exist in commonly grown varieties, but plums are generally not as susceptible as peaches.  However, European plums are more susceptible than Japanese plums. 
  • The brown rot fungus infects flowers when wet weather occurs during bloom and infects fruit when warm, wet weather occurs during the ripening stage. Infected fruit that is not harvested will dry and persist into the next season to continue the spread of infections, and should therefore be removed during dormant pruning.  
  • Fungicides applied to protect blossoms and ripening fruit should be timed according to susceptibility and weather that favors disease.

Disease Cycle and Management

Brown rot, a fungal disease caused by Monilia fruiticola, infects blossoms, shoots and fruit, and causes significant losses for growers when not controlled.  Plums are less susceptible to brown rot than peaches and cherries, but can be severely infected when conditions are ideal for the fungus.  The brown rot fungus overwinters on mummified fruit that remain attached to twigs, infected blossoms that cling to twigs and on infected shoots.  Fungal conidia are dispersed by wind and rain.  The disease is more severe with wet weather. 

Conidia produced on infected blossoms and shoots spread to fruit.  Infected blossoms wilt, turn brown and cling to the shoot.  The infection can move into the twig and cause a canker.  Blossom infections are not common on plum.

Fruit are susceptible to infection.  Immature fruit can be infected when insect control is poor.  Thinned fruit can serve as a source of innoculum, but thinning fruit so that they do not contact each other will reduce disease at harvest.  Signs of infection begin as small, tan colored circular lesions on the fruit surface.  In warm, humid weather, lesions develop conidia, a mass of grayish brown spores over the fruit surface.  During warm, humid conditions, grayish brown spores are produced which can be diagnostic of brown rot.  Infected fruit that remain in the orchard will shriven and cling to the branch, and serve as a source of disease the following spring.  These shriveled “mummies” should be removed during pruning.

The brown rot fungus can be spread by insects and can also spread from alternate hosts such as wild plum and cherry. Improve air circulation with annual pruning and sucker removal.  Thin fruit so that they are not in contact with other fruit.  Harvest fruit before they become over ripe.

Fungicide resistance has occurred.

Activity Rating of Fungicides

  • Copper – not applicable
  • Captan - good, but phytotoxic to some varieties
  • Chlorothalanil (Bravo, Echo) – excellent for blossom blight, not labeled for fruit rot
  • DMI (Indar, Tebuzol, etc.) – excellent, except for Rally
  • Strobilurin (Pristine) - excellent
  • Strobilurin (Flint, Gem) - suppression
  • Sulfur (Microthiol Disperss, etc.)– fair for blossom blight, slight for fruit rot
  • Biofungicides (Double Nickel, Serifel) - suppression
  • Thiophanate-methyl (Topsin M) – not recommended because of resistance

 

Fruit and leaf spotting and russetting

Russetting spotting on fruit and foliage of a gage plum. Russetting on prune-type plums

 

Possible causes are phytoxic fungicides, particularly Captan.  Russetted spots appear in early summer and can be more prevalent on the sun-exposed side of the fruit.  Captan should not be applied from shuck split through early July, and chlorothalonil from shuck split through harvest.   

Dormant through Summer Sprays Including Plant Growth Regulators

This list is not comprehensive. Other products not listed here may also be labeled for use on plum and plum hybrids.

Commonly Used Products Labeled for Use on Plum, Prune, Pluot and Plumcot

Disease or Pest

IRac/

frac

Product Rate / 100 gal Rate / Acre REI hours PHI days Comments
DORMANT TO BUD BURST

Bacterial canker

Bacterial leaf spot

M1 Badge SC   5-14  pts. 24 NA

Injury to fruit and foliage is possible with application of M1 fungicides during or after bloom.

 

M1

Badge X2

OMRI

  3.5-14 lbs. 48 NA Not after bloom.
M1 Cuprafix Ultra 40 Disperss   5 - 8 lbs. 48 NA Not after bloom.
  M1 Kocide 3000   3.5 - 7 lbs. 24 NA Not after bloom. 
    Cueva   0.5 - 2 gal. 4 1 OMRI. 
  M1 Champ WG   8 - 16 lbs 48 NA Not after bloom.
  M2 Microthiol Disperss   10 - 30 lbs. 24 0 OMRI. Incompatible with oil, do not apply oil 2 weeks before or after sulfur.
    Double Nickel LC   0.5 to 6 qts 4 0 OMRI. Us higher rates for moderate to severe disease pressure.
    Double Nickel 55   0.25 - 3 lbs. 4 0 OMRI.
  44 Serifel Biofungicide   4 - 16 ozs 4 0 OMRI. 

Black knot

M1 Cuprafix Ultra 40 Disperss   3 - 3.75 lbs 48 NA Injury to fruit and foliage is possible with application of M1 fungicides during or after bloom.
M1 Badge SC   3-7 pts. 24 NA
M1

Badge X2

OMRI

  1.5- 5 lbs.  48 NA
  M1

Kocide 3000

Kocide 3000-O

  1.75 - 3.5 lbs. 48 NA.

Supression.  Do not apply after bloom.

O formulation is OMRI.

    Cueva   0.5 to 2 gal. 4 1 OMRI.

Spider Mites

Scale insects  

UN Dormant oil 2 gal. 3 - 6 gal. 12 14  
Scale insects 16 Centaur WDG   34.5 oz. 12 14  
               

WHITE BUD TO PETAL FALL

Bacterial Leaf Spot   Cueva   0.5 - 2 gal. 4 1 OMRI.
    Double Nickel   0.5 - 6 qts. 4 0 OMRI.
  44 Serifel   4 - 16 ozs. 4 0 OMRI.
Black knot M5 Bravo Ultrex 82.5 WDG 0.9 - 1.25 lbs. 2.8 - 3.8 lbs.

12* 

NA  

 

*Severe eye irritant. REI is 7 days with no eyewash station. Special worker training required.

Do not apply from after shuck split through harvest.

M5 Bravo Weather Stik 1 - 1.4 pts. 3.1 - 4.1 pts. 12* NA
M5 other Chlorothanlanil formulations   see label 12* NA
1 Topsin M WSB ⅓ to ½ lb. 1.0 - 1.5 lbs. 48 1  
1 Topsin M 4.5 L 6.7 - 10 fl. oz. 20 - 30 fl. oz. 48 1
M1 Cuprafix Ultra 40 Disperss   3 - 3.75 lbs 48 NA Not after bloom. 
M1 Badge SC   3 - 7 pts. 24 NA Not after bloom.
M1 Badge X2   1.5 - 5 lbs. 48  NA OMRI. Not after bloom.
M1

Kocide 3000

Kocide 3000-O

  1.75 - 3.5 lbs. 48 NA

Not after bloom.

O formulation is OMRI.

  Cueva   0.5 - 2 gals. 4 1  
Brown rot blossom blight M4 Captan 80WDG 1.25 lbs. 3.75 lbs. 24 0

Captan and its different formulations may cause injury on plums if used repeatedly in early season sprays.

Causes irreversible eye damage.

Probable carcinogen.

M4

Captec 4L

Captan FL

1 qt. 1 - 3 qts. 24 0
M4

Captan 50W 

2 lbs. 6 lbs. 24 0
M5 Bravo Weather Stik 1 - 1.4 pts. 3.1 - 4.1 pts.  12* NA

*Severe eye irritant. REI is 7 days with no eyewash station. Special worker training required.

Do not apply from after shuck split through harvest.

 

M5 Other chlorothanil formulations see label    
1 Topsin M WSB ⅓ to ½ lb. 1.0 - 1.5 lbs. 48 1  
1 Topsin 4.5FL 6.7 - 10 fl oz. 20 - 30 fl. oz. 48 1  
2

Rovral

Meteor

  1 - 2 pts. 24 PF Not more than 2 applications per season.  Do not apply after petal  fall.
3, 7 Luna Experience   6 - 10 fl. oz. 12 0  
3, 9 Inspire Super   16 - 20 fl. oz. 12 2 Do not use on sweet cherries.
7, 11 Merivon   4.0 - 6.7 fl. oz. 12 0

May cause crop injury when mixed with some adjuvants.

7, 11 Pristine   10.5 - 14.5 oz. 12 0  
7, 11 Luna Sensation   5 - 7.6 fl oz. 12 1  
3 Indar 2F   6 fl. oz. 12 0  
3 Rhyme   7 fl. oz. 12 7  
3 Cevya   3 to 5 fl. oz. 12 0  
7 Miravis   5.1 fl oz 12 0  
7 Fontelis   14 - 20 fl. oz. 12 0  
11 Flint Extra   2.5 - 3.8 fl. oz. 12 1 Suppression of blossom blight.
M1

Champ WG

 

Champ Formula 2

 

3 lbs.

4.2 pts.

48 NA Apply at popcorn. Not after bloom.
M1 Kocide 3000   3.5 - 5 lbs 48 NA

Not after bloom.

 

M1 Kocide 3000-O   3.5 - 5 lbs. 48 NA OMRI. Not after bloom.
M1 Badge SC   3.5 - 5 pts. 48 NA Not after bloom.
M1 Badge X2   3.5 - 5 lbs. 48 NA OMRI. Not after bloom.
M1 Cuprafix Ultra 40 Disperss   3.75 lbs 48 NA Not after bloom.
M2 Microthiol Disperss   10 - 30 lbs. 24 0

OMRI. Incompatible with oil, do not apply oil 2 weeks before or after sulfur.  Phyotoxic to apricots, d'Anjou pears and Cox O.P. apples.

  Double Nickel LC   0.5 - 6 qts. 4 0

OMRI.

  Double Nickel 55   0.25 - 3 lbs. 4 0 OMRI.
  Cueva   0.5 - 2 gals. 4 1 OMRI.
44 Serifel     4 0 OMRI.
  BotryStop   2 - 4 lbs. 4 0 OMRI.
   
SHUCK SPLIT

Oriental fruit moth

Plum curculio

Leaf rollers

3 Asana XL 2.0 - 5.8 fl. oz. 4.8 - 14.5 fl. oz. 12 14  
4A Assail 30SG   5.3 - 8.0 oz. 12 7  
22 Avaunt eVo   6 oz. 12 14  
3 Danitol 2.4 EC   10.7 - 21.3 fl. oz. 24 3  
5 Delegate 25WG   6 - 7 oz. 4 1

Ineffective for plum curculio.

5 Entrust 80W 0.42 - 0.83 oz. 1.25 - 2.5 oz. 4 7

OMRI. Ineffective for plum curculio.

28 Exirel   13.5 - 20.5 fl. oz. 12 3  
1B Imidan 70WP 0.75 - 1.0 lb. 2.1 - 4.25 lb. 7 14

14 day REI and PHI for hand harvest and the general public (PYO)

1 Sevin XLR Plus, 4F   2 - 3 qts. 12 3  
3A *Mustang Maxx   1.28 - 4.0 fl. oz. 12 14

Do not apply as an Ultra Low Volume spray

4A Actara   4.5 to 5.5 oz 12 14 not for Oriental fruit moth or leaf rollers
UN Surround 95WP 50 lb. 25 - 50 lb. 4 0

OMRI. Suppression only

Stop applications of Surround in early July to prevent noticeable residue at harvest.

3A *Tombstone   2.0 - 2.8 fl oz. 12 7

Causes irreversable eye damage

  3, 28 *Besiege   6 to 12 fl oz 24 12  
Mites   see Additional Summer Sprays      
ADDITIONAL SUMMER SPRAYS

Brown rot

Fungal leaf spot

M4

Captec 4L

Captan FL

1 qt. 3 qts. 24 0

Captan and its different formulations may cause injury on plums if used repeatedly in early season sprays.

Causes irreversible eye damage.

 

M4 Captan 80WDG 1.25 lbs. 3.75 lbs. 24 0
M4 Captan 50 WP 2 lbs. 6 lbs. 24 0
1 Topsin M 4.5L 6.7 - 10 fl oz. 20 - 30 fl oz. 48 1  
1 Topsin M WSB 1/3 to 1/2 lb 1 to 1.5 lb 48 1
7 Fontelis   14 - 20 fl oz. 12 0  
7 Miravis 5.1 fl oz   12 0  
3, 9 Inspire Super   16 - 20 fl oz. 12 2  
7, 11 Merivon   4.0 - 6.7 12 0

May cause crop injury when mixed with adjuvants

7, 11 Pristine   10 - 14.5 oz. 12 0  
3 Indar 2F   6 fl. oz. 12 0  
3 Cevya   3 - 5 fl. oz. 12 0 Maximum of 15 oz. per acre per year
7 Miravis   3.4 to 5.1 fl oz 12 0  
M2 Microthiol Disperss   10 - 20 lbs. 24 0

Incompatible with oil, do not apply oil 2 weeks before or after sulfur.

UN

Double Nickel 55

  0.5 - 1.0 lb. 4 0

OMRI. Suppression only

44 Serifel   0.25 - 1.0 lb. 4 0

OMRI. Suppression only

NC BotryStop   4 lb 4 0 OMRI. Do not use a stomatal flooding or penetrant adjuvant

Plum curculio

Oriental fruit moth

Apple maggot

Leaf roller

Spotted wing drosophila 

Japanese beetle

3 Asana XL 2.0 - 5.8 fl oz. 4.8 - 14.5 fl oz. 12 14  
4A Assail 30 SG   5.3 - 8.0 oz. 12 7  
22 Avaunt   5 - 6 oz. 12 14  
3 Danitol 2.4 EC   10.7 - 21.3 fl oz. 24 3  
4A Actara   4.5 to 5.5 oz 12 14 35-day PHI for apple and pear. 
5 Delegate 25 WP   6 - 7 oz. 4 1

Ineffective for plum curculio and Japanese beetle

5 Entrust 80WP 0.42 - 0.83 oz. 1.25 - 2.5 oz. 4 7

OMRI. Ineffctive for plum curculio and Japanese beetle

28 Exirel   13.5 - 20.5 fl. oz. 12 3  
1B Imidan 70WP 0.75 - 1.0 lb. 2.1 - 4.25 lb. 7 14

14 day REI and PHI for hand harvest and the general public (PYO)

1 Sevin XLR Plus, 4F   2-3 qt. 12 3  
UN Surround WP 50 lbs. 25 - 50 lbs. 4 0

OMRI. Suppression only

To prevent noticeable residue at harvest, cease applications in ealry July.

3A *Mustang Maxx   1.28 - 4.0 fl oz. 12 14

Do not apply as an Ultra Low Volume spray

3A *Tombstone   2.0 - 2.8 fl oz. 12 7

Causes irreversible eye damage.

  3, 28 *Besiege   6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Not labeled for spotted wing drosophila

Japanese Beetles

Borers

UN Aza-Direct   1 - 3.5 pts. 4 0 OMRI
Mites 6 Agri-Mek   2.2 to 4.2 fl oz 12 21

 

 

  25 Banter WDG   0.75 - 1.0 lbs 12 3  
  23 Envidor 2 SC   16 - 18 fl. oz. 12 7

 

 

  21A Portal XLO   2 pints 12 7

 

 

  10B Zeal   2 - 3 oz. 12 7

Primarily an ovicide

* Restricted use material          
Bird Repellent   Avian Control (methyl anthranilate)   1.9 - 3.75 gal. 4 0 Harvesters must wear gloves and long-sleeved shirts.
PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
Fruit thinning   None are currently labeled for use on plum.
To increase fruit firmness    ProGibb 40% granular   1.4 - 2.9 oz. 4 0

Apply as a single spray 1 to 4 weeks before harvest

Reduced bloom in the following season can occur.

 

ProGibb 4%

liquid

  16 - 32 fl oz. 4 0
To reduce internal browning in Italian prune   ProGibb 40% granular   1.4 - 4.3 oz. 4 0

Apply as a single spray 4 to 5 weeks before harvest.

Reduced bloom in the following season can occur.

 

ProGibb 4%

liquid

  16 - 48 fl oz. 4 0

Preharvest fruit drop

Fruit firmness maintenance

  ReTain   1 pouch 12 7 Apply 1 to 2 weeks before harvest

Bloom Stages

Apricots

Written by: 
Section Editor: Mary Concklin, University of Connecticut

Insects

Diseases

Blossom blast/bacterial canker

Pseudomonas syringae

Ed. note. Much of this reprinted from The facts about bacterial blast: How to spot it, prevent & treat it by Kate Marshall, Nov 17 2015 https://www.stuff.co.nz/life-style/home-property/nz-gardener/74109095/null Bacterial/blossom blast/canker is particularly onerous in apricots, but also affects cherry. Peaches not so much. When growing apricots in New England, particular attention must be paid to this disease. JC


There are few diseases of fruit trees that can be as devastating as bacterial blast, the disease affecting stonefruit trees that is also known as Pseudomonas syringae, gummosis, bacterial canker or, simply, canker.

Plum, prune plum, apricot and cherry trees are most susceptible, though peach and nectarines trees, including dwarf types, can also be at risk.

Minor infections in branches can be controlled by hard pruning, but major trunk infections will often kill a tree.

IDENTIFICATION

Spring is the time of year when infections of bacterial blast can be most conspicuous, occurring on the branches, leaves and fruit.

Symptoms of the disease include branch dieback, rough, irregularly shaped cankers and amber-coloured gum – the most commonly noticed indicator. The oozing gum is filled with bacteria so is a source of further infection.

Sometimes stonefruit trees can leak sap that can be mistaken for bacterial blast. Take a whiff: if the gum smells sweet like golden syrup, then it is most likely the disease. If it has no aroma then it's probably just a bit of sap escaping.

Sometimes blossoms turn brown and cling on to the tree, leaves develop dark brown spots that drop out and fruitlets show sunken spots.

Sour sap is another term associated with this disease, where the branch or trunk exudes a sour odour from the fermentation of sugars by yeasts under the bark of the damaged area. 

LIFE CYCLE OF THE DISEASE

For infection and development of any disease to occur, three conditions need to be met.

First, the presence of inoculum, or bacteria. Second, the plant must be at the susceptible stage of growth – that is, flowering and leaf buds opening in spring. And third, the environment must be conducive. In the case of bacterial blast, this means cool and wet spring conditions. 

The bacteria can infect trees in autumn, often if there is a sharp, early cold period. Sometimes this can cause dieback on branches that is not visible (because the infection is beneath the bark). The bacteria then overwinter in cankers, in buds and within the tree. During wet patches in spring, the bacteria multiply, ooze from the branch cankers and are spread by rain. 

The bacteria enter the plant through natural openings such as emerging buds and through pruning and other wounds, which can be as small as leaf scars. 

Favourable conditions for bacteria spread and infections are frequent periods of rain, cool temperatures and strong wind. 

The disease stops further development when temperatures increase in late spring and throughout summer. 

PREVENTION

First, and most importantly, only plant healthy fruit trees. Inspect trees carefully upon receipt, you don't want to  introduce this disease to your orchard.

If there are any signs of gum oozing from the trunk – either fresh, or dry and hardened – disregard that tree and contact the nursery. Dieback of branches is more difficult to identify on young plants as bacterial blast, as this can sometimes also be caused by stress. Fruit trees that are growing strongly and healthily will be less susceptible to bacterial blast infection than weak or struggling trees.

Planting fruit trees in suitable sites with free-draining soil will encourage vigour and healthy growth. Provide the right kind of fertiliser and irrigation at the right times to encourage robust and productive growth.

Avoid overhead sprinklers for irrigation or frost control – the dispersal of water from a height can potentially drag bacteria down through the tree at the same time.  

And, apart from potassium/sulphate of potash, avoid fertilising fruit trees in late summer and into the autumn. The soft new growth that results will take longer to harden off and go into dormancy, creating more opportunities for bacterial infections over the autumn. 

Only prune your fruit trees during dry spells of weather – ideally, immediately after harvest. Tradition has it that winter pruning is best, but this is actually the worst time with a high risk of infections.

Whether pruning in summer or winter, always seal pruning wounds with a pruning paste, which encourages the cut to heal and provides an antibacterial and antifungal barrier.  

Prune trees to remove congested branches and to encourage air flow – a vase shape (or open centre form) is recommended for stonefruit trees. This also allows for better coverage when spraying.

Disinfect equipment between pruning each tree – whether the disease is evident or not – using bleach or methylated spirits. Keep a sprayer bottle of disinfectant along with a rag with your pruning gear so you don't forget.  

For most stonefruit trees, a spray programme is recommended to avoid problems such as leaf curl and brown rot. A copper-based fungicide applied in autumn and spring will also help to prevent the development of bacterial blast. 

TREATMENT

For infections that are contained to a branch or two, prune aggressively to about 10cm below the obvious signs of infection. You may see brown staining in the wood – keep pruning down the branch until there are no signs of the disease in the wood. Unfortunately this may destroy the tree's form, but it should save the tree.

Take care with pruning hygiene, along with destroying all prunings. This plant material would not make good compost or mulch!

A light summer application of copper fungicide wouldn't go amiss, with a stronger dose in autumn as the leaves start to fall in order to clean up stray bacteria and prevent overwintering. 

Bacterial blast infections in the trunk will often cause the death of the tree. Small infections may be able to be controlled by using a copper-based fungicide programme to prevent the multiplication and spread of the bacteria into other parts of the tree, or even to other healthy trees. 

More information

BACTERIAL DISEASES OF STONE FRUITS: SPOTS AND CANKERS (Presentation by Kari Peter at 2015 New England Vegetable & Fruit Conference)

Spray Table

1 - Late Dormant

DISEASE< FRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
               

LATE DORMANT

Bacterial canker M1 Kocide 2000 6 to 12 lb 48 Bloom Excellent  
M1 Kocide 3000 3.5 to 7 lb 48 Bloom Excellent  
M1 Cuprofix Ultra 40 5 to 8 lb 48 Bloom Excellent  
M1 Badge SC 3.5 to 14 pt 48 Bloom Excellent  
M1 Badge X2 3.5 to 14 lb 48 Bloom Excellent OMRI
M1 Champ WG 8 to 16 lb 48     OMRI. Other copper formulations available
44 Serifel Biofungicide 4 to 16 oz 4 0   OMRI
UN pHorcepHite 2 to 4 qt 4 0   Suppression only
Leaf Curl M5 Oranil 6L 3.12 to 4.12 pt 12     Best if applied before bud swell or late fall
Phytophthora root, crown and collar rot 4 Ridomil Gold SL 2 qt 48 0   Soil application. Apply in spring before growth starts or 2 weeks after planting
33 Prophyt 2 pt 4 0   Spray solution should have a pH of greater than 5.5. Repeat on 60 day interval as needed
  UN RootShield PLUS WP 16 to 32 oz 4 0   In furrow spray or transplant starter solution
PEST IRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
European red mite   Oil 8 to 12 gal 4 0 Excellent OMRI
Scale: European fruit lecanium, San Jose   Oil 8 to 12 gal 4 0 Excellent OMRI
4A Assail 30SC 5.3 to 8 oz 12 14 Excellent Addition of oil improves efficacy
7C Esteem 35WP 4 ot 5 oz 12 14 Excellent Addition of oil improves efficacy
16 Centaur 0.7WDG 34.5 oz 12 14 Excellent  
NC SuffOil-X 1 to 2 % by volume 4 0   OMRI

 

2 - Popcorn

DISEASE FRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS

POPCORN

Brown rot/Blossom blight 1

Topsin M

Topsin 4.5FL

1 to 1.5 lb

20 to 30 fl oz

48 1    
M1 Badge SC 3.5 to 5 pt 48 Bloom    
M1 Badge X2 3.5 to 5 lb 48 Bloom   OMRI
2 Meteor 4F 1 to 2 pt 24 Petal fall    
2 Rovral 4F 1 to 2 pt 24 Petal fall    
3 Indar 2F 6 fl oz 12 0    
3 Quash 2.5 to 3.5 oz 12 14    
3 Rally 40WSP 2.5 to 6 oz 24 0    
3 Rhyme 7 fl oz 12 7    
3 Tilt 4 fl oz 12 0    
3 Cevya 3 to 5 fl oz 12 0    
4

Captan 50WP

Captan 80WDG

Captec 4L

3 to 5 lb

1.9 to 3.1 lb

2 to 2.5 qt

24 0    
M5

Bravo WeatherStik

Bravo Ultrex

3 to 4 pt

 

2.8 to 3.8 lb

12 Shuck split    
M5

Echo 720

Echo 90DF

3 to 4 lb

2.25 to 3.5 lb

12 Shuck split    
M5 Oranil 6L 3.12 to 4.12 pt 12 Shuck split    
7 Fontelis SC 14 to 20 fl oz 12 0    
7 Miravis 3.4 to 5.1 fl oz 12 0 Supplemental label  
9 Scala SC 9 lb (alone), 9 to 18 fl oz (tank mixed) 12 2    
11 Aframe 12 to 15.5 fl oz 4 0    
11 Flint Xtra 3.8 fl oz 12 1 Good  
17 Elevate 50WD

1.5 lb (alone)

1 to 1.5 lb (tank mixed)

12 0    
3, 7 Luna Experience 6 to 10 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
3, 9 Inspire Super 16 to 20 fl oz 12 2    
3, 11 Topguard EQ 6 to 8 fl oz 12 7    
7, 11 Luna Sensation 5 to 7.6 fl oz 12 1 Excellent  
7, 11 Merivon 4 to 6.7 fl oz 12 0    
7, 11 Pristine 10.5 to 14.5 oz 12 0    
44 Serifel Biofundgicide 4 to 16 oz 4 0   OMRI
PEST IRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
Tarnished plant bug 3A Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14    
3A Baythroid XL 2 to 2.4 fl oz 12 7    
3A BotaniGard MAXX .25 to 2 qt 12 0    
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.6 fl oz 24 14    
4A Actara 4.5 to 5.5 oz 12 14    
4A Assail 30SG 5.3 to 8 oz 12 7    
9C Beleaf 50SG 2 to 2.8 oz 12 14    
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14    
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7    
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14    
3, 28 Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14    
UN BotaniGard ES 0.5 to 2 qt 4 0    

 

3 - Bloom

               
DISEASE FRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS

BLOOM

Brown rot/Blossom blight 1

Topsin M

Topsin 4.5FL

1 to 1.5 lb

 

20 to 30 fl oz

48 1    
M1 Badge SC 3.5 to 5 pt 48

Bloom

   
M1 Badge X2 3.5 to 5 lb 48 Bloom   OMRI
2 Meteor 4F 1 to 2 pt 24 Petal fall    
2 Rovral 4F 1 to 2 pt 24 Petal fall    
3 Indar 2F 6 fl oz 12 0    
3 Quash 2.5 to 3.5 oz 12 14    
3 Rally 40WSP 2.5 to 6 oz 24 0    
3 Rhyme 7 fl oz 12 7    
3 Tilt 4 fl oz 12 0    
3 Cevya 3 to 5 fl oz 12 0    
4

Captan 50WP

Captan 80WDG

Captec 4L

3 to 5 lb

1.9 to 3.1 lb

2 to 2.5 qt

24 0    
M5

Bravo WeatherStik

Bravo Ultrex

3 to 4 ot

2.8 to 3.8 lb

12 Shuck split    
M5

Echo 720

Echo 90DF

3 to 4 lb

2.25 to 3.5 lb

12 Shuck split    
M5 Oranil 6L 3.12 to 4.12 pt 12 Shuck split    
7 Fontelis SC 14 to 20 fl oz 12 0    
7 Miravis 3.4 to 5.1 fl oz 4 0    
9 Scala SC 9 lb (alone), 9 to 18 fl oz (tank mixed) 12 2    
11 Aframe 12 to 15.5 fl oz 4 0    
11 Flint Xtra 3.8 fl oz 12 1 Good  
17 Elevate 50WD

1.5 lb (alone)

1 to 1.5 lb (tank mixed)

12 0    
3, 7 Luna Experience 5 to 10 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
3, 9 Inspire Super 16 to 20 fl oz 12 2    
3, 11 Topguard EQ 6 to 8 fl oz 12 7    
7, 11 Luna Sensation 5 to 7.6 fl oz 12 1 Excellent  
7, 11 Merivon 4 to 6.7 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
7, 11 Pristine 10.5 to 14.5 oz 12 0    
44 Serifel Biofungicide 4 to 16 oz 4 0   OMRI
UN BotryStop 2 to 4 lb 4 0   OMRI

 

4 - Petal Fall

DISEASE FRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS

PETAL FALL

Brown rot 1

Topsin M

Topsin 4.5FL

1 to 1.5 lb

20 to 30 fl oz

48 1    
2 Meteor 4F 1 to 2 pt 24 Petal fall    
2 Rovral 4F 1 to 2 pt 24 Petal fall    
3 Indar 2F 6 fl oz 12 0    
3 Quash 2.5 to 3.5 oz 12 14    
3 Rally 40WSP 2.5 5o 6 oz 24 0    
3 Rhyme 4 to 6.5 fl oz 12 7    
3 Tilt 4 fl oz 12 0    
3 Cevya 3 to 5 fl oz 12 0    
4

Captan 50W

Captan 80WDG

Captec 4L

3 to 5 lb

1.9 to 3.1 lb

2 to 2.5 qt

24 0    
M5

Bravo WeatherStik

Bravo Ultrex

3 to 4 pt

2.8 to 38 lb

12 Shuck split    
M5

Echo 720

Echo 90DF

3 to 4 lb

2.35 to 3.5 lb

12 Shuck split    
M5 Oranil 6L 3.12 to 4.12 pt 12 Shuck split    
7 Fontelis SC 14 to 20 fl oz 12 0    
7 Miravis 3.4 to 5.1 fl oz 4 0 Supplemental label  
9 Scala SC 9 fl oz (alone), 9 to 18 fl oz (tank mixed) 12 2    
11 Aframe 12 to 15.5 fl oz 4 0    
11 Flint Xtra 3.8 fl oz 12 1 Good  
17 Elevate 50WD

1.5 lb (alone)

1 to 1.5 lb (tank mixed)

12 0    
3, 7 Luna Experience 6 to 10 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
3, 9 Inspire Super 16 to 20 fl oz 12 2    
3, 11 Topguard EQ 6 to 8 fl oz 12 7    
7, 11 Luna Sensation 5 to 7.6 fl oz 12 1 Excellent  
7, 11 Merivon 4 to 6.7 fl oz 12 0    
7, 11 Pristine 10.5 to 14.5 oz 12 0    
44 Serifel Biofungicide 4 to 16 oz 4 0   OMRI
PEST IRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
Plum curculio 1A

Sevin XLR

Sevin 4F

2 to 3 qt 12 3    
1B Imidan 70W 2.1 to 4.25 lb 7 day 14    
3A Baythroid XL 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7    
4A Actara 4.5 to 5.5 oz 12 14 Excellent  
21A Apta 21 to 27 fl oz 12 14    
22A Avaunt 5 to 6 oz 12 14 Excellent  
28 Exirel 13.5 to 20.5 fl oz 12 3 Excellent  
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 6 Gladiator EC 19 fl oz 12 21 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
3, 28 Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 15 Cormoran 20 to 28 oz 12 8   Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 28 Voliam Flexi 4 to 7 oz 12 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
28, 6 Minecto Pro 10 to 12 fl oz 12 21 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
Peachtree borer and Lesser peachtree borer  

Pheromone mating disrupters:

Isomate PTB Dual

150 to 250 ties 0 0 Excellent OMRI. Hang pheromone traps to monior populations
3, 28 Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14    
Tarnished plant bug 3A Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Baythroid XL 2 to 2.4 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
3A BotaniGard MAXX 0.25 to 2 qt 12 0 Good  
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.6 fl oz 24 14 Excellent  
4A Actara 4.5 to 5.5 oz 12 14 Excellent  
4A Assail 30SG 5.3 to 8 oz 12 7 Excellent  
9C Beleaf 50SG 2 to 2.8 oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 6 Gladiator EC 19 fl oz 12 21 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
  3, 28 Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14    
  UN BotaniGard ES 0.5 to 2 qt 4 0    

 

5 - Shuck Split

DISEASE FRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS

SHUCK SPLIT

Brown rot 1

Topsin M

Topsin 4.5FL

1 to 1.5 lb

20 to 30 fl oz

48 1    
3 Indar 2F 6 fl oz 12 0    
3 Quash 2.5 to 3.5 oz 12 14    
3 Rally 40WSP 2.5 to 6 oz 24 0    
3 Rhyme 4 to 6.5 fl oz 12 7    
4

Captan 50WP

Captan 80WDG

Captec 4L

3 to 5 lb

1.9 to 3.1 lb

2 to 2.5 qt

24 0    
M5

Bravo WeatherStik

Bravo Ultrex

3 to 4 pt

2.8 to 3.8 lb

12 Shuck split    
M5

Echo 720

Echo 90DF

3 to 4 lb

25 to 3.5 lb

24

Shuck split

   
M5 Oranil 6L 3.12 to 4.12 pt 12 Shuck split    
7 Fontelis SC 14 to 20 fl oz 12 0    
9 Scala SC

9 fl oz (alone)

9 to 18 oz (tank mixed)

12 2    
11 Aframe 12 to 15.5 fl oz 4 0    
17 Elevate 50WD

1.5 lb (alone)

1 to 1.5 lb (tank mixed)

12 0    
3, 7 Luna Experience 6 to 10 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
3, 9 Inspire Super 16 to 20 fl oz 12 2    
3, 11 Topguard EQ 6 to 8 fl oz 12 7    
7, 11 Luna Sensation 5 to 7.6 fl oz 12 1 Excellent  
7, 11 Merivon 4 to 6.7 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
7, 11 Pristine 10.5 to 14.5 oz 12 0    
44 Serifel Biofungicide 4 to 16 oz 4 0   OMRI
Peach Scab 3 Rally 40WSP 2.5 to 6 oz 24 0    
4

Captan 50W

Captan 80WDG

Captec 4L

3 to 5 lb

1.9 to 3.1 lb

2 to 2.5 qt

24 0    
M5

Bravo WeatherStik

Bravo Ultrex

3 to 4 pt

2.8 to 3.8 lb

12 Shuck split    
M5

Echo 720

Echo 90DF

3 to 4 lb

2.25 to 3.5 lb

12 Shuck split    
M5 Oranil 6L 3.12 to 4.12 pt 12 Shuck split    
7 Fontelis 14 to 20 fl oz 12 0    
11 Aframe 12 to 15.5 fl oz 4 0    
11 Gem 500SC 1.9 to 3.8 fl oz 12 1   Product discontinued. Use up inventory.
11 Flint Xtra 2.5 to 3.8 fl oz 12 1 Excellent  
3, 7 Luna Experience 8 to 10 fl oz 12 0    
3, 9 Inspire Super 16 to 20 fl oz 12 2    
3, 11 Topguard EQ 6 to 8 fl oz 12 7    
7, 11 Luna Sensation 5 to 7.6 fl oz 12 1    
7, 11 Pristine 10.5 to 14.5 oz 12 0    
Pest IRAC Product rate/acre rei-hour phi-day efficacy comments
Plum curculio 1B Imidan 70 W 2.13 to 4.25 lb 7 day       14 Excellent  
3A Baythroid XL 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 9 Excellent  
4A Actara 4.5 to 5.5 oz 12 14 Excellent  
22 Avaunt 30 EDG 5 to 6 oz 12 14 Excellent  
28 Exirel 13.5 to 20.5 fl oz 12 3 Excellent  
3A, 6 Gladiator EC 19 fl oz 12 21 Good  
3, 28 Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent  
4A, 3A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
4A, 28 Volium Flexi 6 to 7 oz 12 14 Excellent  
28, 6 Minecto Pro 10 to 12 fl oz 12 21 Excellent  

 

6 - Summer

DISEASE FRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
               

SUMMER

Brown rot 1

Topsin M

Topsin 4.5FL

1 to 1.5 lb

20 to 30 fl oz

48 1    
3 Indar 2F 6 fl oz 12 0    
3 Quash 2.5 to 3.5 oz 12 14    
3 Rally 40WSP 2.5 to 6 oz 12 14    
3 Rhyme 4 to 6.5 fl oz 12 7    
3 Tilt 4 fl oz 12 0    
3 Cevya 3 to 5 fl oz 12 0    
4

Captan 50WP

Captan 80WDG

Captec 4L

3 to 5 lb

1.9 to 3.1 lb

2 to 2.5 qt

24 0    
7 Fontelis SC 14 to 20 fl oz 12 0    
7 Miravis 3.4 to 5.1 fl oz 4 0   Supplemental label
9 Scala SC 9 fl oz (alone), 9 to 18 fl oz (tank mixed) 12 2    
11 Aframe 12 to 15.5 fl oz 4 0    
17 Elevate 50WD

1.5 lb (alone)

1 to 1.5 lb (tank mixed)

12 0    
3, 7 Luna Experience 6 to 10 fl oz 12 0    
3, 9 Inspire Super 16 to 20 fl oz 12 2    
3, 11 Topguard EQ 6 to 8 fl oz 12 7    
7, 11 Luna Sensation 5 to 7.6 fl oz 12 1    
7, 11 Merivon 4 to 6.7 fl oz 12 0    
7, 11 Pristine 10.5 to 14.5 oz 12 0    
44 Serifel Biofungicide 4 to 16 oz 4 0   OMRI
Powdery mildrew UN SulfoMEX 3 to 6 pt 24 0    
3, 7 Luna Experience 6 to 10 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
PEST IRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
European red mite, Twospotted spider mite UN Acramite 50WS 0.75  1 lb 12 3    
UN Banter SC 12 to 16 fl oz 12 3   1 application per year
UN Des-X 2% vol 12 0   OMRI
UN PFR-97 1 to 2 lb 4 0   OMRI
UN AzaGuard 10 to 16 fl oz 4 0   OMRI
6 Agri-Mek 2.2 to 4.2 fl oz 12 21    
10 Apollo 4SC 2 to 8 oz 12 21 Excellent  
10A Onager OPTEK 12 to 24 oz 12 7 Excellent  
10B Zeal 72WS 2 to 3 oz 12 7 Excellent  
20D Banter WDG 0.75 to 1 lb 12 3   1 application per year
21A Nexter SC 7.5 to 17 oz 12 7   All motile stages
21A Portal 2 pt 12 365 Excellent Non-bearing only
23 Envidor 2SC 16 to 18 fl oz 12 7    
25 Nealta 13.7 fl oz 12 7    
3A, 6 Gladiator EC 19 fl oz 12 21 Good

Best used when multiple pests are present

21A, 39 Magister SC 32 to 36 oz 12 3 Excellent All motile stages
28, 6 Minecto Pro 8 to 12 fl oz 12 21 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
Japanese beetle 1A

Sevin XLR

Sevin 4F

2 to 3 qt 12 3 Excellent  
1B Imidan 70W 2.1 to 4.25 lb 7 day 14 Excellent  
4A Admire Pro 1.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 0 Good  
4A Assail 30SG 5.3 to 8 oz 12 7 Excellent  
28 Exirel 13.5 to 20.5 fl oz 12 3 Excellent  
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3, 28 Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
28, 6 Minecto Pro 10 to 12 gl oz 12 21 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
UN Molt-X 8 to 10 fl oz 4 0   OMRI
Scale: Lecanium, San Jose UN AzaGuard 10 to 16 fl oz 4 0   OMRI
UN Des-X 2% vol 12 0   OMRI
UN Grandevo DF 3 lb 4 0   OMRI
UN Venerate XC 1 to 8 qt 4 0   OMRI
NC SuffOil-X 1 to 2% by volume 4 0   OMRI
4A Assail 30SG 5.3 to 8 oz 12 7 Good  
7C Esteem 35WP 4 to 5 oa 12 14 Excellent  
16 Centaur 0.7WDG 34.5 to 46 oz 12 14 Excellent  
23 Movento SC 6 to 9 fl oz 24 7 Excellent  
4A, 3A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
  23, 7C Senstar 12 to 18 fl oz 24 14   Do not apply until after petal fall
Oriental fruit moth  

Pheromone mating disrupters: Isomate CM/OFM TT

Isomate OFM TT

200 to 350 dispensers

 

100 to 300 dispensers

 

0 0 Excellent OMRI. Hang pheromone traps to monitor pest populations
UN Grandevo 1 to 3 lb 4 0 Good OMRI
UN Madex HP 0.5 to 3 oz 4 0 Good OMRI
UN Venerate 1 to 4 qt 4 0 Good OMRI
1A

Sevin SLR Plus

Sevin 4F

2 to 3 qt 12 3 Good  
3A Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Good  
3A Baythroid XL 2 to 2.4 fl oz 12 7 Good  
3A Danitol 2.4EC 10.7 to 21.3 fl oz 24 3 Good  
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.6 fl oz 24 14 Good  
4A Assail 30SG 5.3 to 8 oz 12 7 Excellent  
5 Delegate 25WG 6 to 7 oz 4 14 Excellent  
5 Entrust 80WP 1.25 to 2.5 oz 4 14 Good OMRI
11 Deliver 0.5 to 2 lb 4 0   OMRI
15 Rimon 0.83EC 20 to 40 fl oz 12 8    
18 Intrepid 2F 10 to 16 fl oz 4 7    
22A Avaunt 30WDG 6 oz 12 14    
28 Altacor 35WDG 3 to 4.5 oz 4 10 Excellent  
28 Exirel 10 to 20.5 fl oz 12 3 Excellent  
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 6 Gladiator EC 19 fl oz 12 21 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
3, 28 Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 3A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 15 Cormoran 20 to 28 oz 12 8   Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 28 Voliam Flexi 4 to 7 oz 12 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
28, 6 Minecto Pro 8 to 12 fl oz 12 21 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
Peachtree borer, Lesser peachtree borer UN Isomate PTB Dual 150 to 250 dispensers 0 0 Excellent  
3A Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Baythroid XL 1.4 to 2 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.6 fl oz 24 14 Excellent  
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3, 28 Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 oz 24 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 15 Cormoran 20 to 28 fl oz 12 8   Best used when multiple pests are present
UN Molt-X 8 to 10 fl oz 4 0   OMRI
UN AzaGuard 10 to 16 fl oz 4 0   OMRI
Spotted wing drosophila 1B Diazinon AG500 1 pt/100 4 day 21 Good  
1B Imidan 70W 2.1 to 4.25 lb 7 day 14 Excellent  
1B Malathion 5EC 2 pt 12 6 Good  
3 Lambda-Cy EC 2.5 to 5.1 fl oz 24 14 Good/Exc  
3A Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Baythroid XL 2.4 to 2.8 oz 12 7 Excellent  
3A Danitol 2.4EC 10.6 to 21.3 fl oz 24 3 Excellent  
3A Mustang Maxx 4 oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Pyganic 1 pt to 2 qt 12 0 Poor OMRI
4A Admire Pro 1.4 to 2.8 oz 12 0 Good  
4A Assail 30SG 5.3 to 8 oz 12 7 Fair/Good  
5 Delegate 6 to 7 oz 4 14 Good/Exc  
5 Entrust SC 4 to 8 fl oz 4 14 Good OMRI
28 Exirel 13.5 to 20.5 oz 12 3 Excellent  
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5.5 to 6 fl oz 24 7 Good  
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
28, 6 Minecto Pro 10 to 12 fl oz 12 21 Excellent  
UN Grandevo 2 to 3 lb 4 0 Poor OMRI
UN Surround 25 to 50 lb 4 0 Suppression only OMRI
UN BioCeres WP 1 to 3 lbs 4 0   OMRI
Stink bugs including Brown Marmorated stink bug 3A Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Good  
3A Baythroid XL 2 to 2.4 fl oz 12 7 Good  
3A Danitol 2.4EC 10.7 to 21.3 fl oz 24 3 Good  
3A Warrior II 1.28 to 2.5 fl oz 24 14 Good  
4A Actara 25WDG 4.5 to 5.5 oz 12 14 Good  
15 Rimon 0.83EC 20 to 40 fl oz 12 8    
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 6 Gladiator 19 fl oz 12 21 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 15 Cormoran 20 to 28 oz 12 8   Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 28 Voliam Flexi 6 to 7 fl oz 12 14 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
UN Aza-Direct 1 to 3.5 pt 4 0   OMRI
Tarnished plant bug 3A Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Baythroid XL 2 to 2.4 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
3A BotaniGard MAXX 0.25 to 2 qt 12 0   Use in spray mixture at pH 5.5-7.0. Spray to wet but avoid runoff
3A Danitol 2.4EC 10.7 to 21.3 fl oz 24 3 Excellent  
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent  
4A Actara 4.5 to 5.5 oz 12 14 Excellent 35-day PHI for apple and pear.
4A Assail 30SG 5.3 to 8 oz 12 7 Good  
9 Beleaf 50SG 2 to 2.8 oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3, 28 Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 12 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 28 Voliam Flexi 4 to 7 oz 12 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
  UN BotaniGard ES 0.5 to 2 qt 4 0    

 

7 - Post-Harvest

PEST IRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS

POST-HARVEST

European red mite, Two spotted spider mite 10A Onager OPTEK 12 to 24 oz 12 7   Eggs & immature motile mites
21A Nexter SC 7.5 to 17 oz 12 7 Excellent  
21A, 39 Magister SC 32 to 36 oz 12 3 Excellent All motile stages
UN AzaGuard 10 to 16 fl oz 4 0   OMRI
NC SuffOil-X 1 to 2% by volume 4 0   OMRI
Phythophthora rots 33 Prophyt 2 pt 4 0 Excellent  

 

8 - Storage Disorders

DISEASE FRAC Product Rate/100 gal COMMENTS

STORAGE DISORDERS

Storage rots 12 Scholar SC 16 fl oz  

 

9 - Autumn

DISEASE FRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours EFFICACY COMMENTS

AUTUMN

Bacterial canker M1 Champ WG 5 to 8 lb 48 Excellent OMRI
M1 Cuprofix Ultra 5 to 7 lb 48 Excellent  
M1 Kocide 2000 6 to 12 lb 48 Excellent  
M1 Kocide 3000 3.5 to 7 lb 48 Excellent  
M1 other organic products       OMRI
UN pHorcepHite 2 to 4 qt 4    

 

Cherries

Written by: 
Section Editor: Mary Concklin, University of Connecticut

Insects

Content to go here.

Diseases

Bacterial canker

Pseudomonas syringae

Overview

  • Primarily a disease of sweet cherry, tart cherries less susceptible
  • Site, management, variety selection, and copper application are primary control strategies

Symptoms

  • Cankers on trunk, limbs, and branches exude gum during spring and summer
  • Leaves discolor and wilt on affected branches
  • Leaf and fruit infection can occur when serious, as evidenced by necrotic spots, leaf yellowing, and/or water-soaked necrotic tissue on fruits
  • Infected flower buds can fail to open in spring or result in rapid die-back browning of flowers/fruit/foliage

Disease cycle

  • Bacteria over-winter on tree in canker margins, healthy buds, and in vascular system
  • Bacteria multiply in spring and spreads during rainfall
  • Wet, cool springs with frost or storms that damage blossom and leaf tissue favor outbreaks
  • Bacteria can survive symptomless on leaves from bloom through leaf fall, whereupon infects fresh leaf scars and overwinters 

Management

  • Apply high rate copper in spring just before bud-break and in fall after leaf drop
  • Avoid pruning in spring during wet weather; apply copper immediately after pruning
  • Prune in summer after harvest
  • Discard nursery stock at planting if any sign of bacterial canker present

More information

 

Brown rot

Monilinia fruiticola

Overview

  • American brown rot is an important fungal disease of cherries
  • Without control, and under wet conditions, partial to complete fruit loss can occur as a result of brown rot

Symptoms

  • Brown rot affects blossoms, spurs, shoots, and fruit but fruit infections are most destructive
  • As cherry fruit mature, they are more likely to become infected, developing light brown spots which eventually take over the whole fruit and give it a fuzzy brown appearance and eventually rotting the fruit

Disease cycle

  • Source of infection in cherry is primarily overwintering inoculum in fruit mummies, peduncles, and cankers
  • Wind-driven rain in the spring infects blossoms, depending on the duration of wetting and temperature
  • Fruit infection can occur through the cuticle, or more easily in natural openings and wounds; rain-cracked cherries are brown rot's best friend!
  • Level of inoculum drives infection severity, so once brown rot gets going and it is wet stand back! Or spray fungicide...

Management

  • Sanitation - remove non-harvested, mummified cherries if possible; keep orchard floor clean
  • Fungicides - beginning at bloom, 2 or 3 sprays (often overlooked) and then resuming as fruit ripens; timing and frequency depends on weather/wetting and condition of crop, but in most years several fungicide sprays are necessary during pre-harvest and harvest; be sure to rotate fungicides to prevent resistance development
  • Sweet cherries are generally more susceptible to brown rot than tart cherries; otherwise, there is very little difference in variety susceptibility

Special note on European brown rot (Monolinia laxa). European brown rot may be present in New England on tart cherry, however, it has not been confirmed. It is common in the midwest and has been reported in New York. The main difference between American and European brown rot is European is far more aggressive infecting blossoms and spurs, resulting in blight/dieback of blossoms and spurs. It's not pretty. It can be confused with bacterial canker. Two sprays, one at popcorn bud stage and then another 7 days later are recommended on all tart cherry. Resistance may be an issue.

Cherry leaf spot

Blumeriella jaapii

Overview

  • Can be a significant problem when inoculum builds on cherries grown in humid climates
  • Lack of control can cause premature leaf drop and declined winter hardiness
  • Sweet cherry generally less susceptible to cherry leaf spot than tart cherry, when it can become severe!

Symptoms

Disease cycle

  • Overwinters on leaves on orchard floor (think apple scab)
  • Spores discharged, ideal temperature 60 to 85 F., triggered by rain, beginning at bloom to 6 weeks after petal fall
  • Very similar to apple scab, varying hours of leaf wetness, depending on temperature, required for infection
  • Continued spread by conidia on infected leaves continues with wetting

Management

  • Sanitation by removal/chopping/decomposition of leaf litter should help, as well as good season-to-season control
  • Otherwise, fungicide applications beginning at petal fall (or first leaves) and continuing every 7 to 10 days until harvest, followed by 2 post-harvest applications
  • Tart cherries require more aggressive fungicide application schedule (including post-harvest) than sweet cherry, particularly during wet seasons

Spray Table

1 - Late Dormant

DISEASE FRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY< COMMENTS

LATE DORMANT

Bacterial canker M1 Kocide 2000 6 to 12 lbs 48 Bloom Excellent  
M1 Kocide 3000 3.5 to 7 lb 48 Bloom Excellent  
M1 Cuprofix Ultra 40 Disperss 5 to 8 lb 48 Bloom Excellent  
M1 Badge SC 5 to 14 pt 48 Bloom Excellent  
M1 Badge X2 3.5 to 14 lb 48 Bloom Excellent OMRI
  other copper materials See labels       OMRI
44 Serifel Biofungicide 4 to 16 oz 4 0   OMRI
  UN pHorcepHite 2 to 4 qt 4 0   Suppression only
Leaf Curl M5 Oranil 6L 3.12 to 4.12 pt 12     Apply prior to budswell or late fall
Phytophthora root, crown and collar rots 4 Ridomil Gold SL 2 qt 48 0   Soil application. Apply in spring before growth starts or 2 weeks after planting.
UN RootShield PLUS WP 16 to 32 oz 4 0   OMRI. In furrow spray or transplant starter solution
PEST IRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
European red mite   Oil 8 to 12 gal 4 0 Excellent OMRI
NC SuffOil-X 1 to 2% by volume 4 0   OMRI
Scale: European fruit lecanium, San Jose   Oil 8 to 12 gal 4 0 Excellent OMRI
4A Assail 30SC 5.3 to 8 oz 12 7 Good Addition of oil improves efficacy
7C Esteem 35WP 4 to 5 oz 12 14 Excellent Addition of oil improves efficacy
16 Centaur 0.7WDG 34.5 to 46 oz 12 14 Excellent  
20D Banter WDG 0.75 to 1 lb 12 3   1 application per year
UN Banter 4SC 12 to 16 fl oz 12 3   1 application per year
  NC SuffOil-X 1 to 2% by volume 4 0   OMRI

 

2 - White Bud

Disease FRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
               

WHITE BUD

Brown rot/Blossom blight

 

1

Topsin M

Topsin 4.5FL

1 to 1.5 lb

20 to 30 fl oz

48 1    
M1 Badge SC 3.5 to 5 pt 48 Bloom    
M1 Badge X2 3.5 to 5 lb 48 Bloom   OMRI
2 Meteor 4F 1 to 2 pt 24 Petal Fall    
2 Rovral 4F 1 to 2 pt 24 Petal Fall    
M2 Sulfur 80WDG 10 to 30 lb 24 0   Organic formulations
M2 Microthiol Disperss 10 to 20 lb 24 0   OMRI
3 Indar 2 F 6 fl oz 12 0    
3 Procure 480SC 10 to 16 fl oz 12 1    
3 Quash 2.5 to 3.5 oz 12 14    
3 Rally 40WSP 2.5 to 6 oz 24 0    
3 Rhyme 7 fl oz 12 7    
3 Tilt 4 fl oz 12 0    
3 Trionic 4SC 10 to 16 fl oz 24 1    
3 Orius 20AQ 8.6 to 17.2 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
3 Cevya 3 to 5 fl oz 12 0    
4 Captan 50W, Captan 80WDG, Captec 4L

4 lb

2.5 lb

2 qt

24 0    
M5

Bravo WeatherStik

Bravo Ultrex

3 to 4 pt

2.8 to 3.8 lb

12 Shuck split    
M5

Echo 720

Echo 90DF

3 to 4 pt

2 to 3.5 lb

12 Shuck split   Do not apply Echo 90DF within 7 days of an oil application
M5 Oranil 6L 3.12 to 4.12 pt 12 Shuck split    
7 Fontelis SC 14 to 20 fl oz 12 0    
7 Miravis 3.4 to 5.1 12 0    
11 Aframe 12 to 15.5 fl oz 4 0    
11 Cabrio  EG 9.5 oz 12 0    
17 Elevate 50WDG 1.5 lb 12 0    
3, 7 Luna Experience 6 to 10 fl oz 12 0    
3, 7 Topguard 6 to 8 fl oz 12 7    
7, 11 Luna Sensation 5 to 7.6 fl oz 12 1    
7, 11 Pristine 10.5 to 14.5 oz 12 0    
44 Serifel Biofungicide 4 to 16 oz 4 0   OMRI
UN BotryStop 2 to 4 lb 4 0   OMRI
Powdery Mildew 3 Procure 480SC 8 to 16 oz 12 1    
3 Rhyme 7 fl oz 12 7    
3 Trionic 4SC 12 to 16 fl oz 12 3    
U6 Torino 6.0 to 8.0 oz 4 6   Restricted to 2 applications per year. Supplemental label,
11 Flint Xtra 2.5 to 3.8 fl oz 12 1    
3, 9 Inspire Super 16 to 20 fl oz 12 2    
7, 3 Luna Experience 6 to 10 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
7, 11 Luna Sensation 5 to 7.6 fl oz 12 1 Excellent  
21A, 39 Magister SC 24 to 36 oz 12 3    
UN SulfoMEX 3 to 6 pt 24 0   Do not apply with or within 14 days of oil application; do not apply with copper
UN OxiDate 2.0 1:200 to 1:400 dilution rate 1 0   OMRI
PEST IRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
Black cherry aphid 1B Malathion 1.5 pt 12 3 Good  
3A Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Baythroid XL 2.4 to 4.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent  
4A Actara 3 to 4 oz 12 14    
4A Admire Pro 1.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 0    
4A Assail 30SC 2.5 to 5.3 oz 12 7 Excellent  
9A PQZ 2.4 to 3.2 fl oz 12 7    
9C Beleaf 50SG 2 to 2.8 oz 12 14    
9D Versys 1.5 fl oz 12 7    
23 Movento 6 to 9 fl oz 24 7 Excellent  
28 Exirel 13.5 to 20.5 fl oz 12 3    
UN Aza-Direct 11.5 to 42 fl oz 4 0 Good OMRI
UN Azatin XL 10 to 16 fl oz 4 0 Good  
UN Des-X 2% vol 12 0   OMRI
UN PFR 97 1 to 2 lb 4 0   OMRI
3, 28 Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 good-excellent  
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when mulitple pests are present
  NC SuffOil-X 1 to 2% by volume 4 0   OMRI

 

3 - Bloom

DISEASE FRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS

BLOOM

Black knot M1

Badge SC

1.5 to 5 pt 48 Bloom Fair Will not work alone. Prune out infections.
M1 Badge X2 3.5 to 5 lb 48 Bloom Fair OMRI. Will not work alone. Prune out infections.
M5

Bravo WeatherStik

Bravo Ultrex

3 to 4 pt

2.3 to 3.8 lb

12 Shuck split Fair Will not work alone. Prune out infections.
Brown rot/Blossom blight 1

Topsin M

Topsin 4.5FL

1 to 1.5 lb

20 to 30 fl oz

48 1    
M1 Badge SC 3.5 to 5 pt 48 Bloom    
M1 Badge X2 3.5 to 5 lb 48 Bloom   OMRI
2 Meteor 4F 1 to 2 pt 24 Petal fall    
2 Rovral 4F 1 to 2 pt 24 Petal fal    
M2 Sulfur 80WDG 10 to 30 lb 24 0   Organic formulations
M2 Microthio Disperss 10 to 20 lb 24 0    
3 Indar 2F 6 fl oz 12 0    
3 Procure 480SC 10 to 16 fl oz 12 1    
3 Quash 2.5 to 3.5 oz 12 14    
3 Rally 40WSP 2.5 to 6 oz 24 0    
3 Rhyme 7 fl oz 12 7    
3 Tilt 4 fl oz 12 0    
3 Trionic 4SC 10 to 16 fl oz 24 1    
3 Orius 20AQ 8.6 to 17.2 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
3 Cevya 3 to 5 fl oz 12 0    
4

Captan 50W,

Captan 80WDG,

Captec 4L

4 lb

2.5 lb

2 qt

24 0    
M5

Bravo WeatherStik

Bravo Ultrex

3 to 4 pt

2.8 to 3.8 lb

12 Shuck split    
M5

Echo 720

Echo 90DF

3 to 4 pt

2 to 3.5 lb

12 Shuck split   Do not apply Echo 90DF within 7 days of an oil application
M5 Oranil 6L 3.12 to 4.12 pt 12 Shuck split    
7 Fontelis SC 14 to 20 fl oz 12 0    
7 Miravis 3.4 to 5.1 fl oz 12 0    
11 Aframe 12 to 15.5 fl oz 4 0    
11 Cabrio EG 9.5 oz 12 0    
17 Elevate 50WDG 1.5 lb 12 0    
3, 7 Luna Experience 6 to 10 fl oz 12 0    
3, 7 Topguard 6 to 8 fl oz 12 7    
7, 11 Luna Sensation 5 to 7.6 fl oz 12 1    
7, 11 Pristine 10.5 to 14.5 oz 12 0    
  44 Serifel Biofungicide 4 to 16 oz 4 0   OMRI
  UN BotryStop 2 to 4 lb 4 0   OMRI

4 - Petal Fall

DISEASE FRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS

PETAL FALL

Black knot M5

Bravo WeatherStik

Bravo Ultrex

3 to 4 pt

2.8 to 3.8 lb

12 Shuck split   Will not work alone. Prune out infections
Brown rot/Blossom blight 2 Meteor 4F 1 to 2 pt 24 Petal fall    
2 Rovral 4F 1 to 2 pt 24 Petal fall    
M2 Sulfur 80WDG 10 to 30 lb 24 0   Organic formulations
M2 Microthiol Disperss 10 to 20 lb 24 0    
3 Indar 2F 6 fl oz 12 0    
3 Procure 480SC 10 to 16 fl oz 12 1    
3 Quash 2.5 to 3.5 oz 12 24    
3 Rally 40WSP 2.5 to 6 oz 24 0    
3 Rhyme 7 fl oz 12 7    
3 Tilt 4 fl oz 12 0    
3 Trionic 4SC 10 to 16 fl oz 24 1    
3 Orius 20AQ 8.6 to 17.2 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
3 Cevya 3 to 5 fl oz 12 0    
7 Miravis 3.4 to 5.1 fl oz 4 0    
4

Captan 50W,

Captan 80WDG,

Captec 4L

4 lb

2.5 lb

2 qt

24 0    
M5

Bravi WeatherStik

Bravo Ultrex

3 to 4 pt

2.8 to 3.8 lb

12 Shuck split    
M5

Echo 720

Echo 90DF

3 to 4 pt

2 to 3.5 lb

12 Shuck split   Do not apply Echo 90DF within 7 days of an oil application
M5 Oranil 6L 3.12 to 4.12 pt 12 Shuc split    
7 Fontelis SC  14 to 20 fl oz 12 0    
7 Miravis 3.4 to 5.1 fl oz 12 0    
11 Aframe 12 to 15.5 fl oz 4 0    
11 Cabrio EG 9.5 oz 12 0    
17 Elevate 50WDG 1.5 lb 12 0    
3, 7 Luna Experience 6 to 10 fl oz 12 0    
3, 7 Topguard 6 to 8 fl oz 12 7    
7, 11 Luna Sensation 5 to 7.6 fl oz 12 1    
7, 11 Pristine 10.5 to 14.5 oz 12 0    
44 Serifel Biofungicide 4 to 16 oz 4 0   OMRI
Leaf spot M2 Sulfur 80WDG 10 to 30 lb 24 0    
M2 Microthiol Disperss 10 to 20 lb 24 0    
3 Cevya 3 to 5 oz 12 0    
3 Indar 2F 6 fl oz 12 0    
3 Orius 20AQ 8.6 to 17.2 oz 12 0    
3 Quash 4 oz 12 14    
3 Rally 40WSP 2.5 to 6 oz 24 0    
3 Tilt 4 fl oz 12 0    
4

Captan 50W,

Captan 80WDG,

Captec 4L

4 lb

2.5 lb

2 qt

24 0    
M5

Bravo WeatherStik

Bravo Ultrex

3 to 4 pt

2.8 to 3.8 lb

12 Shuck split    
M5

Echo 720

Echo 90DF

3 to 4 pt

2 to 3.5 lb

12 Shuck split   Do not apply Echo 90DF within 7 days of an oil application
M5 Oranil 6L 3.12 to 4.12 pt 12 Shuck split    
11 Aframe 12 to 15.5 fl oz 4 0    
11 Cabrio EG 9.5 oz 12 0    
11 Gem 500SC 1.9 to 3.8 oz 12 1   Product discontinued. Use up inventory
11 Flint Xtra 2.5 to 3.8 fl oz 12 1    
7, 11 Merivon 4 to 6.7 fl oz 12 0    
7, 11 Pristine 10.5 to 14.5 oz 12 0    

UN

 

4

Syllit FL PLUS

Captan 50W or Captan 80WDG or Captec 4L

1.5 to 3 pt

PLUS

4 lb or 2.5 lb or 2 qt

48 7    
UN OxiDate 2.0 1:200 to 1:400 dilution rate 1 0   OMRI
Powdery Mildew 3 Orius 20AQ 8.6 to 17.2 oz 12 0    
3 Procure 8 to 16 oz 12 1    
3 Trionic 4SC 8 tp 16 fl oz 24 1    
U6 Torino 6.0 to 8.0 oz 4 6   Restricted to 2 applications per year.
3, 7 Luna Experience 6 to 10 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
3, 9 Inspire Super 16 to 20 fl oz 12 2    
11, 7 Luna Sensation 5 to 7.6 fl oz 12 1 Excellent  
  7 Miravis 3.4 to 5.1 fl oz 12 0    
  21A, 39 Magister SC 24 to 36 oz 12 3    
  UN SulfoMEX 3 to 6 pt 24 0    
PEST IRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
Borers: American plum, Lesser peach tree UN Pheromone mating disruption: Isomate PTB-Dual 150 to 250 ties 0 0 Excellent

Hang pheromone traps to monitor effectiveness

3A Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Baythroid XL 1.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
3A Pounce 25WP 6.4 to 12.8 oz 12 3 Good  
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent  
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 4 Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7   Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 6 Gladiator EC 19 fl oz 12 21 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3, 28 Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
Black cherry aphid 1B Malathion 1.5 pt 12 3 Good  
3A Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Baythroid XL 2.4 to 4.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent  
4A Actara 3 to 4 oz 12 14    
4A Assail 30SC 2.5 to 5.3 oz 12 7 Excellent  
9A PQZ 2.4 to 3.2 fl oz 12 7 ?  
9D Versys 1.5 fl oz 12 7   Safe on bees, all beneficial insects
23 Movento 6 ot 9 fl oz 24 7 Excellent  
3, 28 Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent  
UN Aza-Direct 11.5 to 42 fl oz 4 0 Good OMRI
UN Azatin XL 10 to 16 fl oz 4 0 Good  
UN Des-X 2% vol 12 0   OMRI
UN Grandevo 2 to 3 l 4 0   OMRI
UN PFR 97 1 to 2 lb 4 0   OMRI
UN SuffOil-X 1 to 2 % vol 4 0   OMRI
Plum curculio 1A

Sevin XLR Plus

Sevin 4F

2 to 3 qt 12 3 Good  
1B Imidan 70W 2.13 lb 72 7 Excellent Tart cherry ONLY
3A Ambush 25 WP 6.4 to 12.8 oz 12 3 Excellent  
3A Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Baythroid XL 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
3A Danitol 2.4EC 10.6 to 21.3 fl oz 24 3    
3A Mustang Maxx 1.3 to 4 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Pounce 25WP 6.3 to 12.8 oz 12 3 Excellent

 

 

3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.4 fl oz 24 14 Excellent  
4A Actara 25WDG 4.5 to 5.5 oz 12 14 Excellent  
4A Assail 5.3 to 8 oz 12 7    
4A Actara 4.5 to 5.5 oz 12 14    
22A Avaunt eVo 5 to 6 oz 12 14 Excellent  
28 Exirel 13.5 to 20.5 fl oz 12 3    
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
3A, 6 Gladiator EC 19 fl oz 12 21 Excellent  
3, 28 Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 12 Excellent  
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14

Excellent

 
4A, 15 Cormoran 20 to 28 oz 12 8    
4A, 28 Voliam Flexi 6 to 7 oz 12 14 Excellent  
28, 6 Minecto Pro 10 to 12 fl oz 12 21 Excellent  

 

5 - Shuck Split

DISEASE FRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS

SHUCK SPLIT

Brown rot, Leaf spot

1

 

 

M4

Topsin M or topsin 4.5FL PLUS

Captan 50WP, or Captan 80WDG, or Captec 4L

1 to 1.5 lb, 20 to 30 fl oz PLUS 4 to 8 lb, or 2.5 to 5 lb, or 3 to 4 qt 48 1    
M2 Sulfur 80WDG 10 to 30 lb 24 0    
M2 Microthiol Disperss 10 to 20 lb 24 0    
3 Cevya 3 to 5 oz 12 0    
3 Indar 2F 6 fl oz 12 0    
3 Orius 20AQ 8.6 to 17.2 oz 12 0    
3 Rally 40WSP 2.5 to 6 oz 24 0   Brown rot only
3 Quash 2.5 to 4 oz 12 14    
3 Trionic 4SC 10 to 16 fl oz 24 1    
4

Captan 50WP

Captan 80WDG

Captec 4L

4 to 8 lb

2.5 to 5 lb

3 to 4 qt

24 0    
M5

Bravo WeatherStik

Bravo Ultrex

3.1 to 4.1 pt

2.3 to 3.8 lb

12 Shuck split    
M5

Echo 720

Echo 90DF

3.1 to 4.1 pt

2.25 to 3.5 lb

12 Shuck split    
M5 Oranil 6L 3.12 to 4.12 pt 12 Shuck split    
7 Fontelis SC 14 to 20 fl oz 12 0    
7 Miravis 3.4 to 5.1 fl oz 12 0    
11 Cabrio EG 9.5 oz 12 0    
11 Gem 500SC 1.9 to 3.8 oz 12 1   Product discontinued. Use up inventory
11 Flint Xtra 2.5 to 3.8 fl oz 12 1    
3. 9 Inspire Super 16 to 20 fl oz 12 2    
3, 11 Quilt Xcel 14 fl oz 12 o    
7, 11 Luna Sensation 5 to 7.6 oz 12 1 Excellent  
7, 11 Merivon 4 to 6.7 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
7, 11 Pristine 10.5 to 14.5 oz 12 0    
44 Serifel Biofungicide 4 to 16 oz 4 0   OMRI
Black knot M5

Bravo WeatherStik

Bravo Ultrex

2.3 to 3.8 lb

3.1 to 4.1 pt

12 Shuck split Fair Will not work alone. Prune out infections.
M5

Echo 720

Echo 90DF

3.2 to 4.1 pt

2.25 to 3.5 ln

12 Shuck split Fair Will not work alone. Prune out infections.
PEST IRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
Black cherry aphid 1B Malathion 1.5 pt 12 3

Good

 
1 Sevin XLR 2 to 3 qt 12 3 Excellent  
3A Asana Xl 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Baythroid XL 2.4 to 4.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
3A Danitol 2.4EC 10.7 to 21.3 fl oz 24 3 Excellent  
3A Mustang Maxx 1.28 to 4 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent  
4A Actara 3 to 4 oz 12 14    
4A Admire Pro 1.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
4A Assail 30SC 2.5 to 5.3 oz 12 7 Excellent  
9A PQZ 2.4 to 3.2 fl oz 12 7 ?  
9C Beleaf 50SG 2 to 2.8 oz 12 14    
9D Versys 1.5 fl oz 12 7   Safe on bees, all beneficial insects
23 Movento 6 to 9 fl oz 24 7 Excellent  
28 Exirel 13.5 to 20.5 fl oz 12 3    
UN Aza-Direct 11.5 to 42 fl oz 4 0 Good OMRI
UN Azatin XL 10 to 16 fl oz 4 0 Good  
UN Des-X 2% vol 12 0   OMRI
UN M-Pede 2 gal/100 12 0 Good OMRI
UN PFR 97 1 to 2 lb 4 0   OMRI
NC SuffOil-X 1 to 2% by volume 4 0   OMRI
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3, 28 Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 28 Voliam Flexi 4 to 7 oz 12 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
28, 6 Minecto Pro 10 to 12 fl oz 12 21 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
23, 7C Senstar 12 to 18 fl oz 24 14   Do not apply until AFTER petal fall
Plum curculio 1B Imidan 70W 2.13 lb 14 7 Excellent Tart Cherry ONLY
3A Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Baythroid XL 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
3A Perm-Up 3.2EC 4 to 8 fl oz 12 3    
3A Pounce 25 WP 6.4 to 12.8 fl oz 12 3 Excellent  
3A Warrior II 1.28 to 2.56 fl oz 24 12 Excellent  
4A Actara 4.5 to 5.5 oz 12 14 Excellent  
22 Avaunt eVo 5 to 6 oz 12 14 Excellent  
28 Exirel 13.5 to 20.5 fl oz 12 3 Excellent  
3A, 6 Gladiator EC 19 fl oz 12 21 Excellent  
3, 28 Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent  
4A, 3A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
4a, 28 Volium Flexi 6 to 7 oz 12 14 Excellent  
28, 6 Minecto Pro 10 to 12 fl oz 12 21 Excellent  

 

6 - Summer

DISEASE FRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
               

SUMMER

Brown rot M2 Sulfur 80WDG 10 to 30 lb 24 0   Organic formulations
M2 Microthiol Disperss 10 to 20 lb 24 0   OMRI
3 Cevya 3 to 5 oz 12 0    
3 Gem 500SC 2.9 to 3.8 oz 12 1    
3 Indar 2F 6 fl oz 12 0    
3 Orius 20AQ 8.6 to 17.2 oz 12 0    
3 Procure 480SC 10 to 16 fl oz 12 1    
3 Quash 2.5 to 3.5 oz 12 14    
3 Rally 40WSP 2.5 to 6 oz 24 0    
3 Tilt 4 fl oz 12 0    
3 Trionic 4SC 10 to 16 fl oz 24 1   14 days after 1st application to make 2nd application; wait 21 days to make 3rd application; wait 14 days to make 4th application
4

Captan 50W, Captan 80WDG,

Captec 4L

4 lb

2.5 lb

2 qt

24 0    
7 Fontelis SC 14 to 20 fl oz 20 0 Excellent  
7 Miravis 3.4 to 5.1 fl oz 12 0    
11 Aframe 12 to 15.5 fl oz 4 0    
11 Cabrio EG 9.5 oz 12 0    
17 Elevate 50WDG 1.5 lb 12 0    
3, 7 Luna Experience 6 to 10 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
3, 7 Topguard 6 to 8 fl oz 12 7    
7, 11 Luna Sensation 5 to 7.6 fl oz 12 1 Excellent  
7, 11 Merivon 4 to 6.7 fl oz 12 0    
7, 11 Pristine 10.5 to 14.5 oz 12 0    
44 Serifel Biofungicide 4 to 16 oz 4 0   OMRI
Leaf spot M2 Sulfur 80WDG 10 to 30 lb 24 0    
M2 Microthiol Disperss 10 to 20 lb 24 0   OMRI
3 Cevya 3 to 5 oz 12 0    
3 Indar 2F 6 fl oz 12 0    
3 Orius 20AQ 8.6 to 17.2 oz 12 0    
3 Quash 4 oz 12 14    
3 Rally 40WSP 2.5 to 6 oz 24 0    
3 Tilt 4 fl oz 12 0    
4

Captan 50W

Captan 80WDG

Captec 4L

4 lb

2.5 lb

2 qt

24 0    
11 Aframe 12 to 15.5 fl oz 4 0    
11 Cabrio EG 9.5 oz 12 0    
11 Gem 500SC 1.9 to 3.8 oz 12 1   Product discontinued. Use up inventory
11 Flint Xtra 2.5 to 3.8 fl oz 12 1    
7, 11 Merivon 4 to 6.7 fl oz 12 0    
7, 11 Pristine 10.5 to 14.5 oz 12 0    

UN

 

4

Syllit

PLUS

Captan 50W, or

Captan 80WDG, or

Captec 4L

1.5 to 3 pt

PLUS

4 lb or 2.5 lb or 2 qt

 

48 7    
UN OxiDate 2.0 1:200 to 1:400 dilution 1 0   OMRI
Powdery mildew M2 Sulfur 80WDG 10 to 30 lb 24 0   other organic formulations
M2 Microthiol Disperss 10 to 20 lb 24 0   OMRI
3 Gem 500SC 1.9 to 3.8 oz 12 1    
3 Orius 20AQ 8.6 to 17.2 oz 12 0    
3 Procure 480SC 8 to 16 oz 12 1    
3 Quash 2.5 to 4 oz 12 14    
3 Rally 40WSP 2.5 to 6 oz 24 0    
3 Tilt 4 fl oz 12 0    
3 Trionic 4SC 8 to 16 fl oz 24 1   Continue at label stated intervals until terminal growth ceases.
U6 Torino  6 to 8 oz 4 6    
7 Fontelis SC 14 to 20 fl oz 12 0    
7 Miravis 3.4 to 5.1 fl oz 12 0    
U8 Vivando 15.4 fl oz 12 7    
11 Cabrio EG 9.5 oz 12 0    
11 Flint Xtra 2.5 to 3.8 fl oz 12 1    
13 Quintec 7 fl oz 12 7    
3, 7 Luna Experience 6 to 10 fl oz 12 0    
3, 9

Inspire Super

16 to 20 fl oz 12 2    
7, 11 Luna Sensation 5 to 7.6 fl oz 12 1 Excellent  
7, 11 Pristine 10.5 to 14.5 oz 12 0    
21A, 39 Magister SC 32 to 36 oz 12 3    
UN SulfoMEX 3 to 6 pt 24 0    
Un OxiDate 1:200 to 1:400 dilution 1 0   OMRI
PEST IRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
American plum borer 3A Asana Xl 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Good  
3A Baythroid XL 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Good  
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 6 Gladiator EC 19 fl oz 12 21 Good  
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
3, 28 Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14    
Black Cherry Aphid 4C Transform WG 0.75 to 1.5 oz 24 7    
9B PQZ 2.4 to 3.2 fl oz 12 7    
9D Versys 1.5 fl oz 12 7   Safe on bees, all beneficial insects
3A, 28 Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14    
23, 7C Senstar 12 to 18 fl oz 24 14    
NC SuffOil-X 1 to 2% by volume 4 0   OMRI
Black cherry fruit fly, Cherry fruit fly 1A Sevin XLR 2 to 3 qt 12 3 Excellent  
1B Diazinon 50W 3 to 4 lb 96 21 Excellent  
3A Asana Xl 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Baythroid XL 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent  
4A Actara 4.5 to 5.5 oz 12 14 Good 35-day PHI for apple and pear.
4A Admire Pro 2to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Good  
5 Delegate 50WP 4.5 to 7 oz 4 7 Excellent  
5 Entrust 1.25 to 2.25 oz 4 7 Good  
21A Apta 14 to 27 fl oz 12 14    
28 Altacor 3 to 4.5 oz 4 10    
28 Exirel 10 to17 fl oz 12 3 Excellent  
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3, 28 Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 28 Voliam Flexi 6 to 7 oz 12 14 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
28, 6 Minecto Pro 8 to 12 fl oz 12 21 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
European red mite, Twospotted spider mite 3A Danitol 2.4EC 10.7 to 21.3 fl oz 24 3 Good  
6 Agri-Mek 2.2 to 4.2 fl oz 12 21    
10A Onager OPTEK 12 to 24 oz 12 7   Eggs and immature motile mites
10B Zeal 2 to 3 oz 12 7 Excellent  
12B Vendex 50WP 1.5 to 3 lb 48 14 Good  
20D Banter WDG 0.75 to 1 lb 12 3    
21 Nexter SC 7.5 to 17 oz 12 7 Good All motile stages
25 Nealta 13.7 fl oz 12 7    
UN Banter SC 12 to 16 fl oz 12 3    
UN Des-X 2% vol 12 0   OMRI
NC SuffOil-X 1 to 2 % by volume 4 0   OMRI
 3A, 6 Gladiator EC 19 fl oz 12 21 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
21A, 39 Magister SC 32 to 36 oz 12 3    
28, 6 Minecto Pro 8 to 12 fl oz 12 21 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
Japanese beetles 1A Sevin XLR 2 to 3 qt 12 3 Excellent  
1B Imidan 2.1 lb 72 7 Good Tart cherry ONLY
4A Admire Pro 1.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Good  
4A Assail 30SG 5.3 to 8 oz 12 7 Excellent  
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3, 28 Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 3A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
28, 6 Minecto Pro 10 to 12 fl oz 12 21 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
UN Molt-X 8 to 10 oz 4 0   OMRI
San Jose Scale 4A Admire Pro 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Good  
4A Assail 30SG 8 oz 12 7 Good  
4C Transform WG 2.75 oz 24 7   suppresssion only
7C Esteem 13 to 16 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
16 Centaur WDG 34.5 oz 12 14 Excellent  
23 Movento 6 to 9 fl oz 24 7 Excellent  
UN Des-X 2% vol 12 0   OMRI
UN AzaGuard 10 to 16 fl oz 4 0   OMRI
NC SuffOil-X 1 to 2 % by volume 4 0   OMRI
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Good  
23, 7C Senstar 12 to 18 oz 24 14    
Lesser peachtree borer   Pheromone mating disruption: Isomate PTB Dual 150 to 250 ties 0 0 Excellent Hang pheromone traps to monitor effectiveness
3A Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Baythroid XL 1.4 to 2 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
3A Perm-Up 3.2EC 4 to 8 fl oz 12 3    
3A Pounce 25WP 6.4 to 12.8 fl oz 12 3 Good  
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent  
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 6 Gladiator EC 19 fl oz 12 21 Good/Exc Best used when multiple pests are present
3, 28 Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 3A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
UN AzaGuard 10 to 16 fl oz 4 0   OMRI
Obliquebanded leafroller 3A Baythroid XL 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Good  
3A Danitol 2.4EC 10.7 to 21.3 fl oz 24 3 Good  
5 Delegate 25 WG 4.5 to 7 oz 4 7 Excellent  
5 Entrust 8-WP 1.25 to 2.5 oz 4 7 Good OMRI
11 Deliver 0.25 to 2 lb 4 0 Excellent OMRI
11 Javelin WG 0.5 to 4 lb 4 0 Excellent OMRI
21A Apta 21 to 27 fl oz 12 14    
28 Altacor 35WDG 3 to 4.5 oz 4 10 Excellent  
28 Belt SC 3 to 4 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
28 Exirel 10 to 20.5 fl oz 12 3    
UN Grandevo 1 to 3 lb 4 0   OMRI
UN Venerate XC 1 to 8 qt 4 0   OMRI
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 6 Gladiator EC 19 fl oz 12 21 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
3, 28 Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 3A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
16, 28 Tourismo 10 to 14 fl oz 12 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
28, 6 Minecto Pro 8 to 12 fl oz 12 21 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
Spotted wing drosophila 1A Sevin XLR 2 to 3 qt 12 3 Fair  
1B Diazinon AG500 0.5 to 1 pt/100 21 4 Good  
1B Imidan 70 2.1 lb 96 7 Excellent Tart cherry ONLY
1B Malathion 5EC 2.8 pt 12 3 Good  
3 Lambda-Cy EC 2.56-5.1 fl oz 24 14 Good/Exc  
3 Warrior 1.28 to 2.56 fl oz 24 14 Good/Exc  
3A Asana XL 4.8 to 14 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Baythroid XL 2.4 to 2.8 oz 12 7 Good  
3A Mustang Maxx  4 oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Danitol 2.4 EC 10.6 to 21.3 fl oz 24 3 Good-excellent  
3A Pyganic 1pt to 2 qt 12 0 Poor OMRI
4A Admire Pro 1.4 to 2.8 oz 12 0 Good  
4A Assail 5.4 to 8 oz 12 7 Fair  
5 Delegate 25WG 6 to 7 oz 4 7 Good  
5 Entrust 80WP 1.25 to 2.5 oz 4 7 Good OMRI
5 Success 4 to 8 fl oz 4 7 Good OMRI
15 Rimon 0.83EC 20 to 40 fl oz 12 8    
28 Exirel 13.5 to 20.5 oz 12 3 Good/Exc  
28 Verdepryn 100SL 11 fl oz 4 7 Excellent  
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5.5 to 6 fl oz 24 7 Good  
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Good  
21A, 39 Magister SC 32 to 36 oz 12 3 Good  
28, 6 Minecto Pro 10 to 12 fl oz 12 21 Excellent  
UN BioCeres WP 1 to 3 lb 4 0   OMRI
UN Grandevo 2 to 3 lb 4 0 Fair OMRI
UN Molt-X 10 fl oz 4 0    
UN Surround 25 to 50 lb 4 0 Suppression only OMRI. Cherries for fresh market, stop applications when fruit are 1/4 inch if washing is unavailable.
 
Stink bugs, including Brown Marmorated stink bugs 3A Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Good  
3A Baythroid XL 2 to 2.4 fl oz 12 7 Good  
3A Danitol 2.4EC 10.7 to 21.3 fl oz 24 3 Good  
3A Warrior 1.3 to 2.5 fl oz 24 14 Good  
4A Actara 4.5 to 5.5 oz 12 14 Good 35-day PHI for apple and pear.
15 Rimon 0.83EC 20 to 40 fl oz 12 8    
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 6 fl oz 24 14 Excellent  
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
3A, 6 Gladiator 19 fl oz 12 21 Good  
3, 28 Beseige 6 to 12 fl oz 24 12 Good  
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Good  
4A, 3A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 12 Good  
4A, 3A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Good  
4A, 15 Cormoran 20 to 28 oz 12 8    
4A, 28 Voliam Flexi 6 to 7 oz 12 14 Good  

 

7 - Post-Harvest

DISEASE FRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS

POST-HARVEST

Leaf spot 1 Topsin M 1.1 to 1.5 lb 48 ___   14 to 21 days after harvest
1 Topsin 4.5FL 22.5 to 30 fl oz 48 ___   14 to 21 days after harvest
M2 Sulfur 80WDG 10 to 30 lb 24 ___   OMRI formulations
M2 Microthiol Disperss 10 to 20 lb 24 ___   OMRI
3 Cevya 3 to 5 oz 12      
3 Indar 2F 6 fl oz 12 ___    
3 Orius 20AQ 8.6 to 17.2 oz 12 ___    
3 Rally 40 WSP 2.5 to 6 fl oz 24 ___    
4

Captan 50WP

Captan 80 WDG

Captan 4L

4 lb

2.5 lb

 

1.5 to 2 qt

24 ___   Repeat in 10 to 14 days
M5

Bravo WeatherStik

Bravo Ultrex

3.1 to 4.1 lb

2.25 to 3.5 lb

 

12 ___   first application within 7 days after harvest
M5

Echo 720

Echo 90DF

3.1 to 4.1 pt

2.25 to 3.5 lb

12 ___   first application within 7 days after harvest
M5 Oranil 6L 3.12 to 4.12 pt 12 ___   Apply within 7 days after fruit is harvested, 2nd application 10-14 days later
7 Fontelis 14 t 20 fl oz 12 0 Good  
U12 Syllit FL 1.5 to 3 pt 48 ___   Begin immediately after harvest
7, 11 Pristine 10.5 to 14.5 oz 12 ___    
11, 7 Merivon 4 to 6.7 fl oz 12 0 Good  
UN OxiDate 2.0 1:200 to 1:400 dilution 1 0   OMRI
Powdery mildew M2 Sulfur 80WDG 10 to 30 lb 24 ___   OMRI formulations
M2 Microthiol Disperss 10 to 20 lb 24 ___   OMRI
3 Orius 20AQ 8.6 to 17.2 oz 12 ___    
3 Procure 480SC 10 to 16 oz 12 ___    
3 Rally 40WSP 2.5 to 6 lz 24 ___    
3 Trionic 4SC 8 to 16 fl oz 24 ___   Apply at label stated intervals until terminal growth ceases
7 Fontelis SC 14 to 20 fl oz 12 ___    
7 Miravis 3.4 to 5.1 fl oz 12 ---    
U8 Vivando 15.4 fl oz 12 ___    
11 Cabrio EG 9.5 oz 12 ___    
11 Gem 500SC 1.9 to 3.8 oz 12 ___    
13 Quintec 7 fl oz 12 ___    
3, 9 Inspire Super 16 to 20 fl oz 12 ___    
7, 11 Pristine 10.5 to 14.5 oz 12 ___    
21A, 30 Magister SC 24 to 36 oz 12 ___    
UN OxiDate 2.0 1:200 to 1:400 dilution 1 0   OMRI
PEST IRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
European red mite, Twospotted spider mite 3A Danitol 2.4EC 10.7 to 21.3 fl oz 24   Good  
10A Onager OPTEK 12 to 24 oz 12     Eggs & immature motile mites
20D Banter WDG 0.75 to 1 lb 12      
21A Nexter SC 7.5 to 17 oz

 

12     All motile stages
25 Nealta 13.7 fl oz 12      
21A, 39 Magister SC 32 to 36 oz 12   Excellent All motile stages
UN AzaGuard 10 to 16 fl oz 4 0   OMRI
  UN Banter SC 12 to 16 fl oz 12      
  NC SuffOil-X 1 to 2% by volume 4     OMRI

 

8 - Storage Disorders

DISEASE FRAC Product Rate/100 gal COMMENTS

CONTROL OF STORAGE ROTS

Storage rots 12 Scholar SC 16 fl oz Ensure the Scholar SC solution remains in suspension by using agitation.

 

9 - Autumn

Written by: 
Mary Concklin
DISEASE FRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours EFFICACY COMMENTS

AUTUMN

Bacterial canker M1 Cuprofix Ultra 40D 6 to 8 lb 48    
M1 Cueva Fungicide Concentrate 0.5 to 2 gal 4 Good  
M1 Kocide 3000 3.5 to 7 lb 48    
UN pHorcepHite 2 to 4 qt 4   Suppression only
Leaf Curl M5 Oranil 6L 3.12 to 4.12 pt 12   Best applied late fall or before bud swell

 

Cherry bud stages

Plant growth regulators

ReTain® Plant Growth Regulator (Valent Biosciences) can be applied to cherry to increase fruit set. This application may be particularly useful during periods of bad weather and/or on cherry varieties with light fruit set such as Regina. Apply one to two pouches of ReTain per acre during cherry bloom. Retain may be applied as a single application of up to two pouches, or as sequential applications of one pouch per application. Applications between popcorn stage (balloon stage) to first bloom are more effective than earlier or later applications. Do not apply after petal fall.

Promalin® or  Maxcel ® (Valent USA) and Perlan® or Exilis 9.5SC (Fine Americas), latex paint application FOR INCREASING BRANCHING AND FEATHERING OF NON-BEARING APPLE, PEAR AND CHERRY TREES. Such an application improves tree structure by improving branch angles and increasing bud break and shoot growth in nursery stock and young trees. At the location where branching is desired, apply a uniform application in latex paint mix at a rate of 5,000-7,500 ppm (0.8-1.2 fl. oz./pint of latex paint). The latex paint mix should be applied using a brush or sponge to achieve thorough coverage of the bark surface. Application should only be made to one year old wood in the spring once terminal buds begin to swell but before shoots emerge. Applications made following shoot emergence may result in injury to the young shoots. DO NOT apply latex paint mix after bud break. Doing so may cause injury to shoot tips and reduce the effectiveness of the application for shoot growth. One-year pre-harvest interval. See F-140 Branching Young Apple Trees with Plant Growth Regulators.

HarvistaTM (AgroFresh) for increasing fruit set of CHERRY. Apply twice at 10% and again at 50% full bloom. Self-application can be done with your existing Harvista sprayer kit. Contact your AgroFresh representative = Andrew Barone, Account Manager, Eastern New York & New England, 570 854 3069, abarone@agrofresh.com.

Nutrient Management

Written by: 
Mary Concklin, University of Connecticut

Fertilizer decisions for fruit crops should be made based on scientific evidence of need. This is accomplished by combining results of foliar tissue and soil testing, with environmental conditions and crop load to develop a fertilizer program.

Foliar tissue analysis indicates the levels of macro and micro nutrients within the plant tissue. Standards have been established for tree fruit.

Foliar tissue collection timing: 60 to 70 days after Petal Fall. Collect 70 to 100 of the most recent mature leaves from trees of the same variety. All labs use the sample testing method. Suggest sampling every 1 to 3 years for maintenance.

A soil analysis indicates the levels of macro nutrients (not nitrogen) and some micro nutrients available in the soil, as well as soil pH.

Soil sample collection timing: anytime the soil is not frozen. One sample will cover 10 acres unless there are changes in topography, previous fertility practices across the area have not been uniform, and if crops vary. Sample every 3 to 5 years. There are three different soil  testing methods (Morgan, Modified Morgan and Mehlich 3). All are correct. However, in order to compare a field from one testing to another, use the same soil testing lab each time.

When decisions are made based on previous experience, a grower could be missing interactions of elements that are hindering production and/or quality.  This can also lead to the over or over-application of nutrients. Although recommendations on fertilizer containers have a scientific basis, they are considered a maintenance amount and are not reflective of the nutrient needs of a specific farm site. Plant age does not take into account specific plant needs, or soil nutrient levels. When fertilizer decisions are based on visual appearance, reductions in crop yield or quality may have already occurred. Diagnosing based on appearance alone does not take into account nutrient interactions.

Excessive rates of certain nutrients can cause interactions leading to deficiencies of other nutrients. For example, high rates of nitrogen can lead to an induced potassium deficiency which has a negative impact on winter hardiness and fruit size. An over application of potassium can lead to an induced deficiency of calcium. The lack of scientific evidence when making fertilizer decisions can result in over- as well as under-applications of many nutrients. The resulting imbalance can affect yield, quality, and may contribute to ground or surface water contamination. An excess amount of phosphorus doesn’t impede plant growth but creates environmental problems that are well documented. Nutrient imbalances can also affect the longevity of a planting which can have an economic impact on a farming operation. Nutrient deficiencies can result in stunted growth, reduced fruit yield and quality, and overall reduced plant health. Excessive rates of nutrients can cause a delay in fruit maturity, an over-abundance of vegetative growth, reduced bud set, and an increase in insect and disease problems. Improper soil pH for a crop can lead to nutrient deficiencies and toxicities affecting fruit quality and plant health.

Stone fruit foliar tissue optimum levels
Nutrient optimum foliar levels
Nitrogen (N)

3.0 to 4.2 % (Peach, Nectarine)

2.4 to 3.4 % (All other stone fruit)

Phosphorus (P) 0.08 to 0.33 %
Potassium (K) 1.3 to 1.9 %
Calcium (Ca) 1.3 to 2.0 %
Magnesium (Mg) 0.4 to 0.7 %
Boron (B) 35 to 50 ppm
Iron (Fe) 80 to 500 ppm
Manganese (Mn) 35 to 135 ppm
Copper (Cu) 7 to 12 ppm
Zinc (Zn) 25 to 50 ppm
Stone Fruit Soil test optimum levels
Nutrient Soil test optimum level
pH

6.5 to 7.0 (Pre-plant)

6.0 to 6.5 (Established)

Phosphorus (P)

>10 lb (Pre-plant)

9 lb (Established)

Potassium (K) 240 lb
Calcium (Ca) 2400 lb
Magnesium (Mg) 400 lb