Weeds

Ground Cover Management

Written by: 
George Hamilton

Management of the orchard floor is an essential and often expensive piece of the overall orchard management scheme. A poorly designed and managed orchard floor will increase costs in several important ways, including increased mowing costs, reduced yield due to weed competition, and wear and tear on equipment. Several orchard floor management options to consider are:

1. Clean Cultivation/Fall Cover

This option can be effective with young trees, in particular as a management system that eliminates weed competition and encourages tree growth. These benefits do not come without cost. Soil erosion in particular is a real risk. Late summer seeding to a fall cover crop such as spring oats is essential to limit erosion. This fall cover must be planted early enough to allow ample autumn growth to protect soil from cold penetration in winter. Loss of organic matter with this system is another liability-soil organic matter is broken down quickly with repeated cultivation. In addition to these potential risks, calcium availability to trees may be reduced and soil compaction problems may develop.

2. Mulch

Mulching offers some attractive potential benefits, including improved soil moisture retention and weed suppression. Unfortunately, mulching also offers a couple of key liabilities that make it impractical as a general orchard practice. Perhaps most importantly, mulch provides an ideal habitat for voles (mice). Research has shown that some mulches result in an increase in crown rot diseases. Also, while the use of mulch will increase levels of organic matter and key nutrients including potassium and magnesium, its use will likely lead to reduced calcium levels. The use of wood-based mulch such as wood chips and bark may be valuable on excessively drained soils.

3. Permanent Sod

Permanent sod, often including an under-tree herbicide strip, is the orchard floor management system most commonly used. A permanent sod offers many important benefits. It reduces soil erosion; gives support (especially important when soils are wet) for heavy equipment needed for brush removal, pesticide application, and mowing; reduces dust and dust deposits on fruit; reduces tree rack or wobble during wind events; insulates against cold penetration in winter; increases movement of key nutrients including calcium into the tree root zone; and may provide winter refuge for a beneficial mite species.

A permanent sod also allows soil organic matter levels to increase over time, a condition which when coupled with proper soil pH management, eliminates the need to apply phosphorous throughout the life of the orchard.

The key to success with this system is establishment (preferably prior to planting) of a permanent sod floor. Combinations of slow-growing grass types such as dwarf hard fescues and perennial ryegrasses are preferable.

The process of establishing an orchard floor should include elimination of perennial weeds and grasses through use of an herbicide such as glyphosate (Roundup) before planting the orchard. In addition, correction of soil drainage deficiencies, soil pH and nutrient adjustment based on soil test recommendations, and preparation of a smooth, stone-free soil surface for seeding are all key elements for success. A 2-year soil preparation process that includes a full summer of cover cropping with a vigorous cover crop such as Sudan grass or Japanese millet is ideal. Seeding of a new orchard floor is best done in late summer or early autumn. In older plantings, the permanent sod is often a ‘wild’ mix of more vigorous grasses and herbaceous plants, a mix that requires extensive management including several mowings annually. In addition, the orchard floor is often rough and rutted from years of equipment traffic and dotted with rock outcroppings, adding to the management cost.

Some drawbacks are associated with permanent ground cover. Certain plant species such as alfalfa can promote pest populations (e.g., tarnished plant bug). Ground cover also provides competition for water and nutrients, especially to young trees. If not properly managed, it also provides habitat for voles. These drawbacks can be minimized with appropriate management of the orchard floor.

Mowing is the most important orchard floor management tool. Establishment of an orchard floor composed of slow growing grass species can reduce mowing requirements significantly. With an orchard floor composed of vigorous ‘wild’ species, several timely mowings will be required to prevent undue competition for trees and reduce vole populations by limiting their preferred habitat. A final mowing in late autumn (using a flail type mower) can reduce the potential apple scab infection risk the following spring. Frequent and close mowing can reduce favorable habitat for voles and significantly reduce the risk of vole damage to orchards!

Herbicides are generally used to manage groundcover around tree trunks and in that portion of the under-tree area that is difficult to mow. For mature trees on seedling or semi-dwarf rootstock, this herbicide strip may extend up to 6 feet or more out from tree trunks. With dwarf rootstock trees, the herbicide strip generally extends 2 feet or less out from the trunks. Maintaining herbicide strips as narrow as practical is important in reducing the risk of soil erosion and tree rack as well as cold penetration into the root zone of trees. Research has shown that if orchards are irrigated the herbicide strip can be more narrow. In addition, narrow strips may facilitate movement of mite predators from the orchard floor into trees in summer. Less total herbicide is used per acre when these strips are narrow, reducing risk for environmental problems including herbicide leaching and runoff.

It is important to use herbicides judiciously for maintenance of these strips. Ideally, the use of herbicides will leave a living groundcover and root system or a mat of killed ground cover to protect soil from erosion and cold penetration. The overuse of herbicides, even in narrow strip systems, will lead to a barren soil strip and a high risk of erosion, tree rack, cold temperature injury to tree root systems, and rain water runoff.

Herbicide timing should be chosen so as to assure that live groundcover, or a matting of killed groundcover will be present when soil erosion is likely, especially during the dormant season, and when thunderstorms are likely. Practices that promote extensive moss growth have not been identified, but it is evident that some herbicides inhibit moss establishment and others do not.

Soil organic matter is much more than the dead leaves, stems, and roots produced by the groundcover and orchard trees. As plant tissues decay, through the activity of soil microorganisms (bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, algae, protozoa, and nematodes) they produce humus, a complex mixture of organic compounds that gives topsoil its characteristically dark brown color. The soil microbes themselves die, contributing to the total pool of biomass that forms humus. In sod-covered soils, humus typically constitutes the bulk of soil organic matter. But humus is not permanent. Its constituents undergo a slow, but continuing process of decay. If soil is kept bare, the major food source for soil microorganisms is eliminated, and humus can then be expected to disappear faster than it is formed.

Humus is a major source of nitrogen, phosphorous, and sulfur. These three essential elements are abundant in biological tissue, the source of humus. Humus also has a controlling influence on the availability of essential micro-nutrients, not because its parent biological tissues were high in micro-nutrients, but because humus can form “chelates” with copper, zinc, manganese, etc. that are released from soil minerals. Chelated micronutrients are held against leaching from the soil, and under the right conditions, are available to plant roots.

Another value of humus derives from its electrostatic attraction for oppositely charged nutrient elements, protecting them against leaching. This property, called cation exchange capacity, is also exhibited by clay particles. Cation exchange capacity, together with chelation, allows soils to hold nutrients until picked up by plant roots. Soils in which these properties are at a low level, as in soils with little clay or organic content, are naturally low in agricultural productivity, because they cannot supply as much mineral nutrition as the crops are capable of using.

Additional benefits of soil organic matter are:

• It increases moisture-retention in sandy soils. Organic matter can hold up to 20 times its weight in water.

• It acts as “glue” to hold very small soil mineral particles together in units called aggregates. Aggregation permits a loose, open, granular condition that aids penetration by water, air, and roots, and resists erosion.

• It has the ability to absorb many organic pesticides, holding them near the soil surface, where they are more likely to be degraded by biological activity and sunlight, rather than leach to groundwater and potential crop damage if used improperly.

Adapted from 2015-16 New England Tree Fruit Management Guide, Chapter 8 - Weed Management and 2018 Cornell Pest Management Guidelines for Commercial Tree Fruit Production

Herbicide active ingredients

2,4-D (Amine 4, 2,4-D, Orchard Master CA, Saber, Unison, Weedar 64) 2,4-D is a selective herbicide that is effective on many annual and perennial broadleaf weeds when applied as a postemergence foliar spray. It is particularly effective in controlling dandelions on the orchard floor at minimal rates when applied in late fall. These materials should not be applied during the bloom period of fruit trees, i.e., from the time flower buds begin to expand until 4 weeks after bloom. Combinations of 2,4-D plus glyphosate have been effective in controlling many difficult perennial broadleaf weeds. Do not apply to bare ground or light, sandy soil. Be careful with herbicide DRIFT! Grapes, many flowers, and vegetable are very sensitive to 2,4-D drift.

Ammonium Nonanoate sold as Axxe Broad Spectrum Herbicide (BioSafe Systems) is a contact nonselective herbicide for spray application only to undesirable plant growth. Do not allow spray to contact any green plant parts of desirable plants. AXXE Broad Spectrum Herbicide provides control and burndown suppression of annual and perennial broadleaf and grass weeds. The amount of burndown and the duration of weed suppression may be reduced when weed growth conditions are unfavorable or when plants are mature. AXXE Broad Spectrum Herbicide is a soap product which penetrates the cell walls of plants to disrupt the cellular organization of physiological functions which are compartmentalized by membranes within the cell walls. Plant growth ceases when cellular contents are mixed which causes brown necrotic plant tissue. AXXE Broad Spectrum Herbicide does not migrate through the soil and is not translocated in plants. To ensure satisfactory control, plant leaves must be thoroughly and uniformly covered with the spray solution. AXXE Broad Spectrum Herbicide does not provide any residual weed control in soil to affect germinating weed seeds. OMRI listed with exceptions.

Carfentrazone-ethyl (Aim 2EC, Rage, Zeus Prime XC) is a contact, post-emergent, desiccant herbicide for control of young broadleaf weeds only; it has no effect on grasses or sedges. Aim is most effective if used on weeds that are small (up to 4 inches high) in combination with glyphosate. Tank mix provides faster desiccation of weeds than glyphosate alone, but is not effective for long-term control of perennial weeds. Aim should always be mixed with crop oil concentrate or nonionic surfactant. Do not allow spray to contact green bark, fruit or foliage. Aim can be used for sucker control when tissue is soft and succulent.

Clethodim (Arrow, Clethodim 2EC, Prism, Select 2EC, Select Max, Shadow) controls most grass weed species, including certain hard to control grass weeds, such as small grain volunteers and cover crops, and perennials such as hard fescue, tall fescue, Bermudagrass, orchardgrass, quackgrass, Johnsongrass, and wirestem muhly. Use the lower rate to control annual grasses and the perennial grasses listed above. Repeat the application if regrowth occurs. Always add nonionic surfactant to be 0.25% of the spray solution.

Clopyralid (Spur, Stinger) is a selective, postemergence herbicide for control of some broadleaf weeds if applied while weeds are generally small and actively growing. Some of the weeds controlled include clover species, dandelion, nightshade, burdock, common groundsel, jimsonweed, horseweed, and many thistle species including Canada. Clopyralid is effective on clover (moreso than 2,4-D).

Dichlobenil (Casoron 4G or CS) volatizes rapidly under warm, moist soil conditions and must be applied in late fall or very early spring before the soil temperature exceeds 45°F to minimize such loss. It is absorbed principally by the roots of established and germinating weeds and rapidly translocated to growing points. This material is effective against a wide range of annual and established perennial grasses and weeds including nutsedge and quackgrass. Applications of 100 lb of 4G/A are effective on many annual grasses and broadleaf weeds, whereas 150 lb/A are usually required for control of most established perennials.

Diuron (Direx, Diuron, Karmex, Parrot) is effective against germinating annual broadleaf weeds and some annual grasses. It is absorbed by roots and translocated to the leaves where it interferes with photosynthesis. For best results it must be present in the soil before weed seeds germinate. Diuron is best used in combination with materials that are more effective on grasses. It is not effective on established perennial grasses or broadleaf weeds. Rates must be determined in relation to soil texture and organic matter content. Use is limited to APPLES, PEARS, and PEACHES. Labels do not recommend treatment of trees on full dwarf rootstocks.

Fluazifop-P butyl (Fusilade DX) is a selective postemergence herbicide effective on both annual and perennial grasses. Its best use is for control of grasses in newly planted orchards. Two applications are usually necessary with perennial grasses such as quackgrass. Spot treatments are suggested unless a severe grass problem exists. Inclusion of a nonionic surfactant enhances uptake by grass leaves. Can be used in STONE FRUIT ORCHARDS of any age and in NONBEARING APPLE and PEAR ORCHARDS.

Flumioxazin (Chateau WDG, Broadstar) is a herbicide with pre-emergent and postemergent activity, It provides residual control and will also enhance the activity of the burndown program with glyphosate or paraquat. It is readily absorbed by leaves, and quickly causes bleaching and wilting of weeds. It is effective for post-emergence control of many broadleaf weeds while they are small, 2-6 inches high, depending on the weed species. It also provides effective pre-emergent control of many broadleaf weeds and grasses. See label for application rates. If applied to trees established less than 1 year, the tree trunks must be protected with non-porous tree wraps. Label restricts application to between final harvest and pink bud on apples and budbreak on stone fruit.

Fluroxypyr (Starane Ultra) controls many annual and certain perennial broadleaf weeds in pome fruit only. Apply to the foliage of actively growing weeds. Starane Ultra will not control certain common annual broadleaf weeds, including common lambsquarter and pigweed sp. Tank-mix with 2,4-D to improve the spectrum of annual broadleaf weeds controlled, or with a glyphosate product to control emerged annual grasses and broadleaf weeds, and with residual herbicides for season long annual weed control. For established apples and pears ONLY and registered in MAINE ONLY.

Glufosinate-ammonium (Rely 280, Cheetah) is a non-selective herbicide for application as a directed spray labeled for control of a broad spectrum of annual and perennial grass and broadleaf weeds. Rootsucker control in APPLES is not allowed on the Rely 280 label. It has no residual activity. Avoid all contact with foliage and green bark tissue since injury to the trees can result, especially in young trees.

Glyphosate (Roundup, Makaze, many generics and brand names) is a nonselective broad-spectrum herbicide for controlling established annual and perennial grasses and weeds plus woody brush, vines, and trees. The best timing of applications varies with weed type but is usually after weeds have developed full foliage and/or have begun to flower. Greatest effectiveness against nutsedge is obtained after tuber formation begins. Inclusion of 2,4-D and/or a nonionic surfactant is suggested to increase effectiveness, particularly on perennial broadleaf weeds. Glyphosate is absorbed through foliage and bark and translocated throughout the plant. Glyphosate may be applied as a directed spray or by wiper in APPLE, PEAR, and CHERRY orchards. Do not allow contact with foliage or bark on trunks of young fruit trees. Root-suckers or low branches that might be contacted by glyphosate should be removed at least 10 days before the glyphosate application. In APRICOT, PEACH, NECTARINE, PLUM, or PRUNE plantings, use wiper applications only. PEACHES and PLUMS are EXTREMELY SENSITIVE to glyphosate, and ANY contact with leaves or small branches or trunks of young trees may result in severe damage or tree death.

Halosulfuron-methyl (Sandea) has both pre and post-emergent activity on broadleaf weeds and nutsedge. It is absorbed through weed roots, shoots, and foliage and is translocated within the plant. Do not apply to trees established less than 1 year. Best results require application with a broad-spectrum burndown herbicide. Nutsedge control is best at 3-5 leaf stage for first germination flush, then followup again for the second flush. APPLE and PEAR only.

Indaziflam (Alion) is a pre-emergent herbicide with both broadleaf and grass weed control. It is labeled on pome and stone fruit, but not to be used unless trees have been established 3-years or more. Alion provides preemergence, residual control of weeds. Moisture is needed for activation. Alion controls weeds by inhibiting cellulose biosynthesis in plants. Do not apply within 25 feet of ponds, lakes, rivers, streams, wetlands, and habitat containing aquatic and semi-aquatic plants.

Isoxaben (Gallery, Trellis) provides pre-emergence herbicide for control of broadleaf weeds in NON-BEARING orchards. Do not apply Gallery to newly transplanted non- bearing fruit and nut trees or non-bearing vineyards until soil or potting media has been settled by packing and irrigation or rainfall and no cracks are present or plant injury may occur. GALLERY IS HIGHLY RECOMMENDED AS A POST-PLANT TREATMENT IN 1ST-LEAF ORCHARDS to control broadleaf weeds.

Lemon grass oil (Greenmatch EX) is a contact organic herbicide. Make application before weeds are less than six inches high.

Norflurazon (Solicam DF) at rates recommended provides control of most annual grasses and many annual broadleaf weeds plus suppression of quackgrass and nutsedge. It is absorbed by roots and translocated to growing points where it inhibits pigment formation. Solicam must be applied and moved into the soil by rainfall or irrigation before seed germination. Rates of application depend on organic matter and clay contents of the soil and crop. Norflurazon is most frequently used in tank-mix combinations that will increase effectiveness of broadleaf weed control. Established perennial weeds are not effectively controlled by norflurazon. Registered for use in APPLE, PEAR, APRICOT, CHERRY, NECTARINE, PEACH, PLUM, and PRUNE, depending on tree age.

Oryzalin (Oryzalin, Surflan) provides effective control of most annual grasses and some annual broadleaf weeds. It is not effective against established weeds or grasses. Oryzalin is absorbed by roots of germinating seedlings and interferes with cell division. To be effective, it must be applied and moved into the soil by 1/2 - 1 inch of rainfall-before seed germination. Oryzalin can be used in newly planted orchards as soon as the soil settles around the roots and no open cracks are present. Can be used in all tree fruit crops.

Oxyfluorfen (Goal 2XL, Galigan, GoalTender, or Collide) has preemergence and postemergence activity as a contact herbicide. Uptake can be through leaves, stems, or roots, but very little translocation occurs in the plant. Destruction of membranes occurs when treated plant parts are exposed to light. Oxyfluorfen is primarily effective against seedling broadleaf weeds. It does not control established perennial weeds or grasses and is best used in tank-mix combinations with other appropriate herbicides. Applications of oxyfluorfen must be made while trees are dormant, before buds begin to swell, to avoid possible damage from vapors. Registered for use on all tree fruit crops of any age.

Paraquat dichloride (Gramoxone Inteon or SL, Firestorm, Parazone) is a nonselective contact herbicide that is effective in killing emerged annual broadleaf weeds and grasses and top-kills and suppression of perennials. It is rapidly absorbed into foliage and green bark where it is effective in destroying cell membranes. Paraquat is strongly adsorbed onto soil colloids where it's degraded by microbial activity. Contact with foliage, branches, and green bark on trunks of young trees (particularly) can result in damage to the trees. Observe all worker safety cautions specified on labels when mixing, handling, or applying paraquat. KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN. Registered for use on all tree fruit crops.

Pelargonic acid (Scythe) and is a contact herbicide with moderate burn-down action (depending on rate) on annual and perennial broadleaf weeds and grasses. Somewhat effective at burning leaves on rootsuckers, and only herbicide specifically labeled for rootsucker ‘control.’ Use higher rates for greatest effect, however, quite expensive at higher rates.

Pendimethalin (Acumen, Pendimax, Pendulum, Prowl) is effective in controlling most annual grasses and some annual broadleaf weeds when used in preemergence applications. Primary mode of action is through root uptake and subsequent inhibition of cell division. Pendimethalin can be used in newly planted orchards. Combination with a contact herbicide is necessary to control emerged or established weeds. The lower the rate, the shorter the weed control duration. It is effective for pre-emergent control of many grasses as well as some broadleaf weeds such as pigweed and lambsquarters. Best on grasses.

Pronamide (Kerb) is effective in controlling winter annual and perennial grasses and chickweed. It is absorbed by roots and translocated throughout the plant. Pronamide must be applied in late fall when temperature does not exceed 55 F. but before soil freeze-up, and moved into the soil by rain to be effective. The range of activity on broadleaf weeds is limited, requiring additional measures for their control. Rates of application are determined by the type of grass being controlled and by soil texture.

Pyraflufen ethyl (Venue) is a PPO inhibitor that is a nonselective contact herbicide for post-emergence control of broadleaf weeds in tree fruit crops. It is often tank mixed with other herbicides such as glyphosate, paraquat or glufosinate to speed up the burndown of weeds to cause rapid plant desiccation. The addition of a chemical with a different mode of action appears to improve weed kill and helps avoid development of weed resistance to herbicides. Venue is most effective when the weeds are small, 2-4 inches height. Venue is labeled for use on all POME and STONE fruits. A supplemental label allows use on rootsuckers, but otherwise avoid contact with green trunk bark (young trees).

Rimsulfuron (Matrix, Pruvin, Solida) controls certain broadleaf weeds and grasses in stone and pome fruit established for at least 1 full growing season. Matrix is absorbed through roots and leaves inhibiting growth of susceptible leaves. Matrix is most effective if half an inch of rainfall or irrigation occurs within 2 weeks of application. Matrix is mainly a pre-emergent herbicide but can provide some post-emergent control if weeds are still in seedling stage; but Matrix applications should include a burndown herbicide such as glyphosate, paraquat, or glufosinate. Reduced weed control may result if applied to heavy weed residue, limiting even distribution of Matrix to the soil surface.

Saflufenacil (Treevix) is a post-emergent burndown for broadleaf weeds but must be tank mixed with a grass herbicide or broad-spectrum post-emergent herbicide such as glyphosate for improved control of marestail. Tank mixing with paraquat is not recommended; it may reduce the efficacy of TreeVix. TreeVix requires the use of MSO (methylated seed oil) as an adjuvant for best results.

Sethoxydim (Poast) is a selective grass herbicide for use in controlling established annual and perennial grasses. It does not control broadleaf weeds or sedges. A crop-oil concentrate must be used with sethoxydim. Suggested rates depend on height of grasses being treated.

Simazine (Princep, Sim-Trol, Simazine) is effective in controlling a wide range of annual broadleaf weeds and grasses. It does not control established perennial weeds or grasses. Simazine is taken up by roots and translocated to the leaves where it interferes with photosynthesis. It must be applied and moved into the soil before weeds germinate to be most effective; therefore, late fall or very early spring applications are suggested. (Note that some formulations of simazine have a 150 day PHI in pome fruit, which limits spring applicatiom.) Activity is reduced in soils of low pH. Resistant weeds such as pigweeds and lambsquarters have been found where simazine has been the principal herbicide used. Control of these weeds has been achieved by using tank-mix combinations with other pre-emergent herbicides. Rates of simazine application and crop tolerance depend on soil texture and organic-matter content as well as crop and tree age.

Sulfentrazone (Zeus Prime XC) is a pre-emergent herbicide effective on broadleaf weeds and suppressive of grasses. It is combined with carfentrazone-ethyl in Zeus Prime XC herbicide (FMC Corp.) to provide both contact and residual herbicide activity. Apples only at this time, and may not be registered in all New England states.

Terbacil (Sinbar WDG) is effective in controlling most annual grasses and broadleaf weeds and in providing partial control or suppression of such perennials as quackgrass, horsenettle, and nutsedge. Terbacil is absorbed by plant roots and is translocated to the leaves where it interferes with photosynthesis. Residual activity of terbacil in the soil is relatively long-lived. This material is frequently used in tank-mix combinations with diuron or simazine. Application rates and crop tolerance depend on soil texture and organic-matter content as well as crop and tree age. (READ THE LABEL.) Terbacil is also registered for newly-planted fruit trees at LOW rates after the soil has settled and young and non-bearing apple, peach, plum, apricot and cherry trees at reduced rates.

Trifluralin (Snapshot, Treflan) is a pre-emergent herbicide for use in non-bearing orchards only. It controls both broadleaf weeds and grasses.

New plantings (1st-leaf)

Written by: 
Renae Moran, U. of Maine

Weed control options for new plantings (1st-leaf, read label for precautions)

TYPE WEEDS PRODUCTS CHEMICAL ACTIVITY COMMENTS
pre-emergent

annual grass, some broadleaf

Surflan
Oryzalin
oryzalin systemic wait for soil to settle; requires rainfall or irrigation
    Prowl H2O pendimethalin systemic  
    Sinbar WDG terbacil contact/systemic use caution in first leaf, wait for soil to settle, use low rate; read label for specifics
  broadleaf Goal
GoalTender Galligan
Collide
oxyfluorfen contact (some systemic) dormant trees only; vapor toxic to foliage
    Gallery isoxaben systemic wait for soil to settle; tank-mix with Prowl best option for weed control in new plantings
post-emergent grass, broadleaf Gramoxone paraquat contact restricted use, highly toxic, no application to green bark (shield trunks) 
    Roundup and generics glyphosate contact shield trunks
  young broadleaf Goal
GoalTender Galligan
Collide
oxyfluorfen contact (some systemic) seedlings only; dormant trees only; vapors can be phytotoxic
    Aim carfentrazone-ethyl contact shield trunks
    Venue pyraflufen-ethyl contact shield trunks
  grasses Select 2EC
Select Max
clethodim systemic non-bearing only
    Fusilade DX fluazifop systemic stone fruit all ages; apple and pear non-bearing only
    Poast sethoxidim systemic plum non-bearing only

Tree fruit herbicides (table)

Trade Name Active Ingredient Type EPA Reg No REI (HRS) PHI (DAYS) Rate/Acre Target Weeds Crops Min. Tree Age
ACUMEN PENDIMETHALIN pre-emergent 241-337-55467 24 N/A   grass all 0 yr
AIM EC CARFENTRAZONE-ETHYL contact 279-3241 12 3 1 to 2.0 oz. broadleaf all 1 yr
ALION INDAZIFLAM pre-emergent 264-1106 12 14 3.5 to 6.5 oz  broadleaf, grass all 3 yr
AMINE 4, 2-4 D (CPS) 2-4 D contact 34704-120 48 14   broadleaf all 1 yr
ARROW OR CLETHODIM 2EC CLETHODIM contact 66222-60 24 N/A   grass all 0 yr
AXXE Ammonium Nonanoate contact 70299-23 4 0 6 to 15 % spray solution V/V broadleaf, grass all ---
BROADSTAR FLUMIOXAZIN contact, pre-emergent 59639-128 12 365   Preemergence weed conrol all 1 yr
BUCCANEER GLYPHOSATE contact 55467-10 12 1   broadleaf, grass all 0 yr
CASORON 4G DICHLOBENIL pre-emergent 400-168 12 N/A   broadleaf, grass all 4 wk
CASORON CS DICHLOBENIL pre-emergent 400-541 24 N/A   broadleaf, grass no peach 1 yr
CHATEAU WDG FLUMIOXAZIN contact, pre-emergent 59639-119 12 N/A 6-12 oz. Preemergence weed conrol all 1 yr
CHEETAH GLUFOSINATE AMMONIUM contact 71368-112 12 14   broadleaf, grass all 0 yr
COLLIDE OXYFLUORFEN pre-emergent 70506-295 24 DORMANT 5-6 pt or 2-8pt broadleaf all 0 yr
DIREX DIURON pre-emergent 66222-54 12   0.8-1.6 quarts annual and perrennial grassess and herbaceous weeds apple, pear, peach 1 yr (3 yr peach)
DIURON (4L - LOVELAND) DIURON pre-emergent 34704-854 12 N/A   annual and perrennial grassess and herbaceous weeds apple, pear, peach 1 yr (3 yr peach)
DIURON (4L - MAKHTESHIN-AGAN) DIURON pre-emergent 66222-54 12 N/A   annual and perrennial grassess and herbaceous weeds apple, pear, peach 1 yr (3 yr peach)
DIURON (4L - WINFIELD SOLUTIONS) DIURON pre-emergent 9779-329 12 N/A   annual and perrennial grassess and herbaceous weeds apple, pear, peach 1 yr (3 yr peach)
DIURON (80DF - MAKHTESHIN-AGAN) DIURON pre-emergent 66222-51 12 N/A   annual and perrennial grassess and herbaceous weeds apple, pear, peach 1 yr (3 yr peach)
FIRESTORM PARAQUAT DICHLORIDE contact 82557-1-400 12 N/A 1.7-2.7 pints broadleaf, grass all 0 yr
Fusilade Fluazifop-P-butyl 100-1070 12 365 16 to 24 fl oz annual and perennial grasses all 0 yr
GALIGAN OXYFLUORFEN pre-emergent 66222-28 24 N/A 4-6 pints broadleaf all 0 yr
GALLERY ISOXABEN pre-emergent 62719-145 12     broadleaf all 0 yr
GLYFOS XTRA GLYPHOSATE contact 4787-23 4     broadleaf, grass all 0 yr
GLYPHOMAX GLYPHOSATE contact 62719-323 12 1   broadleaf, grass all 0 yr
GOAL 2XL OXYFLUORFEN pre-emergent 62719-424 24 N/A varies broadleaf all 0 yr
GOALTENDER OXYFLUORFEN pre-emergent 62719-447 48   Pre 2.5-4 pt/acre, Post 1-4 pt/acre broadleaf all 0 yr
GRAMOXONE INTEON PARAQUAT contact 100-1217 12 28   broadleaf, grass all 0 yr
GRAMOXONE SL PARAQUAT DICHLORIDE contact 100-1217 24   2.5-4 pts broadleaf, grass all 0 yr
GREENMATCH EX LEMON GRASS OIL contact NA NA NA   broadleaf, grass all 0 yr
HONCHO PLUS GLYPHOSATE contact 524-454 12 17 1 PT-5QTS broadleaf, grass all 0 yr
KARMEX DIURON pre-emergent 1812-362 12 N/A   annual and perrennial grassess and herbaceous weeds apple, pear, peach 1 yr (3 yr peach)
KERB PRONAMIDE roots 62719-397 24 N/A   grass, chickweed all 0.5 to 1 yr
KERB PRONAMIDE roots 62719-578 24   3.5 - 7 pints/acre Winter annual and perennial grasses, certain broadleaf weeds all 0.5 to 1 yr
MAKAZE GLYPHOSATE contact 34704-890 4 0   broadleaf, grass all 0 yr
MATRIX SG RIMSULFURON pre-emergent 352-768-AA 4 7 4 oz broadleaf, grass all 1 yr
MIRAGE GLYPHOSATE contact 524-445-34704 12 1   broadleaf, grass all 0 yr
Omni Brand CLETHODIM 2 EC Clethodim contact 38167-39-5905 24 365 see label grass all 0 yr
ORCHARD MASTER 2,4-D contact 2217-703 48 14   broadleaf all 1 yr
ORYZALIN ORYZALIN pre-emergent 66222-138 24 N/A   broadleaf, grass all 0 yr
PARAZONE PARAQUAT DICHLORIDE contact 66222-130 24-Dec 28 1.7-2.7 pints broadleaf, grass all 0 yr
PARROT DIURON pre-emergent 66222-51 12   1-2 lbs/acre depending on soil annual and perrennial grassess and herbaceous weeds apple, pear, peach 1 yr (3 yr peach)
PENDIMAX 3.3 PENDIMETHALIN pre-emergent 68156-6-62719 24 N/A   grass all 0 yr
PENDULUM 2G GRANULE PENDIMETHALIN pre-emergent 241-375 24 N/A   grass all 0 yr
PENDULUM 3.3EC PENDIMETHALIN pre-emergent 241-341 24 N/A   grass all 0 yr
PENDULUM WGD PENDIMETHALIN pre-emergent 241-340 24 N/A   grass all 0 yr
POAST SETHOXYDIM contact 7969-58-51036 12 14 1-2.5 pints grass all 0 yr
PRINCEP SIMAZINE pre-emergent 100-526 12 14   broadleaf, grass all 1 yr
PRINCEP CALIBER SIMAZINE pre-emergent 100-603 12 14   broadleaf, grass all 1 yr
PRISM CLETHODIM contact 59639-78 24 n/a   grass all 0 yr
PROWL 3.3EC PENDIMETHALIN pre-emergent 241-337 24 N/A   grass all 0 yr
PROWL H20 PENDIMETHALIN pre-emergent 241-418 24 N/A   grass all 0 yr
PRUVIN RIMSULFURON pre-emergent 66222-184 4 7   broadleaf, grass all 1 yr
RAGE CARFENTRAZONE-ETHYL, GLYPHOSATE contact 279-3307 12 VARIES   broadleaf, grass all 1 yr
RATTLER PLUS GLYPHOSATE contact 524-454-5905 12 1   broadleaf, grass all 0 yr
RECOIL GLYPHOSATE contact 71368-35 12 14 1-4 qts. in 15-100 gal H20 broadleaf, grass all 0 yr
REGLONE DIQUAT DIBROMIDE contact 100-1061 24 N/A 1.5-2 pts. in >15 gal H20 broadleaf, grass all  
RELY 280 GLUFOSINATE AMMONIUM contact 264-652 12 14   broadleaf, grass all 0 yr
ROUNDUP (ORIGINAL - MONSANTO) GLYPHOSATE contact 524-445 12 1   broadleaf, grass all 0 yr
ROUNDUP (ORIGINAL II - MONSANTO) GLYPHOSATE contact 524-454 12 1   broadleaf, grass all 0 yr
ROUNDUP (ORIGINAL MAX - MONSANTO) GLYPHOSATE contact 524-539 12 1   broadleaf, grass all 0 yr
ROUNDUP (ULTRA DRY - MONSANTO) GLYPHOSATE contact 524-504 12 1   broadleaf, grass all 0 yr
ROUNDUP (ULTRA MAX - MONSANTO) GLYPHOSATE contact 524-512 12 1   broadleaf, grass all 0 yr
ROUNDUP ULTRA MAX II OR GLYPHOSATE contact 524-537 12 1   broadleaf, grass all 0 yr
SABER 2,4-D contact 34704-803 48 14   broadleaf all 1 yr
SANDEA HALOSULFURON-METHYL contact, pre-emergent 81880-18-10163 12 14 0.5 to 1 oz annual broadleaf, nutsedge apple, pear 1 yr
SCYTHE PELARGONIC ACID contact 62719-529 12 N/A varies broadleaf, grass all 0 yr
SELECT 2EC CLETHODIM contact 59639-3 24 N/A   grass all 0 yr
SELECT MAX CLETHODIM contact 59639-132 24     grass all 0 yr
SHADOW CLETHODIM contact 66330-353 24 N/A   grass all 0 yr
SIM-TROL  SIMAZINE pre-emergent 35915-11-60063 12 150 2-4 qts broadleaf, grass all 1 yr
SIMAZINE (4L - DREXEL) SIMAZINE pre-emergent 19713-60 12 14   broadleaf, grass all 1 yr
SIMAZINE (90DF - DREXEL) SIMAZINE pre-emergent 19713-252 12 14   broadleaf, grass all 1 yr
SINBAR WDG terbacil roots 352-317 12 60   annual grasses, broadleaf weeds all 0 yr
SNAPSHOT TRIFLURALIN pre-emergent 62719-175 12     annual grasses, broadleaf weeds all 0 yr
SOLICAM NORFLURAZON pre-emergent 100-849 12 60   broadleaf, grass all see label
SOLIDA RIMSULFURON pre-emergent 67760-105 4 7   broadleaf, grass all 1 yr
SPUR CLOPYRALID contact 42750-89 12 30 1/4 - 2/3 pint Broadleaf Weeds all 0 yr (1 yr apple)
Starane Ultra Fluroxypyr contact 62719-577 24 14 0.7 to 1.4 pt Broadleaf Weeds apple, pear 4 yr
Stinger CLOPYRALID contact 62719-73 12   0.33 to 0.67 pint Broadleaf Weeds apple, peach, cherry 0 yr (1 yr apple)
SURFLAN (AS - UNITED PHOSPHORUS) ORYZALIN pre-emergent 70506-43 24 N/A   broadleaf, grass all 0 yr
SURFLAN (DF - UNITED PHOSPHORUS) ORYZALIN pre-emergent 70506-46 24 N/A   broadleaf, grass all 0 yr
TOUCHDOWN (SYNGENTA) GLYPHOSATE contact 100-1117 12 1   broadleaf, grass all 0 yr
TOUCHDOWN (TOTAL - SYNGENTA) GLYPHOSATE contact 100-1169 12 1   broadleaf, grass all 0 yr
TOUCHDOWN HI TECH GLYPHOSATE contact 100-1182 12 1   broadleaf, grass all 0 yr
TREEVIX SAFLUFENACIL contact 7969-276 12 N/A 1 oz/acre broadleaf all 1 yr
TREFLAN  TRIFLURALIN pre-emergent 68156-4 12 0 1-4 pt, differs based on soil condition annual grasses, broadleaf weeds peach 0 yr
TRELLIS ISOXABEN pre-emergent 62719-580 12     Broadleaf weeds all 0 yr
TRIGGER CLETHODIM contact 42750-72 24 N/A   grass all 0 yr
Unison 2,4-D contact 5905-542 48 14 0.6 to 1.15 gal Broadleaf weeds all 1 yr
VENUE PYRAFLUFEN ETHYL contact 71711-325 12 N/A   broadleaf all 0 yr
WEEDAR  2,4-D contact 71368-1 48 14   broadleaf all 1 yr
ZEUS Prime XC (FMC Corp.) carfentrazone-ethyl + sulfentrazone contact + pre-emergent 279-3337 12 14 7.7 to 15.2 fl oz broadleaf and grass (suppression) apple only 3 yr
WEEDESTROY AM-40 DIMETHYLAMINE SALT contact 228-145 48 60 2 applications/crop cycle broadleaf peach, cherry 1 yr