Peaches & Nectarines

Written by: 
Section Editor: Mary Concklin, University of Connecticut

Insects

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB)

Halyomorpha halys
Written by: 
Jaime Pinero and Elizabeth Garofalo

Overview.

BMSB is an invasive stink bug that feeds on a wide variety of host plants, including a variety of fruits (e.g., apples, stone fruits including peaches and apricots, figs, mulberries, citrus fruits and persimmons), vegetables (e.g., beans, corn, tomatoes and soybeans) and many ornamental plants and weeds. BMSB is currently distributed in 43 US states and 4 Canadian provinces.

BMSB is considered to be a landscape-level threat. This means that adults frequently switch between cropped land (agronomic crops, fruits, vegetables, ornamentals) and wooded habitats. BMSB nymphs and adults feed by inserting their piercing-sucking mouthparts into fruit, nuts, seed pods, buds, leaves, and stems and appear to prefer plants bearing reproductive structures. Their mouthparts can penetrate very hard and thick tissue, such as the hazelnut hull.

Biology.

During the winter months, BMSB enters a type of hibernation called diapause. During this time adults do not feed and do not reproduce. Overwintering takes place in forested areas as well as inside houses and other buildings. In the spring, BMSB adults emerge from overwintering sites (houses, barns, storage buildings, and dead trees) and become active on nearby crops during warm sunny days. In the spring and throughout the summer, adults feed, mate, and lay eggs.

Monitoring

Commercially available traps and pheromone lures for BMSB monitoring provide valuable information on the presence/absence of BMSB and also help to decide if insecticide treatments are needed to manage this pest. Ag-Bio, Inc. (http://www.agbio-inc.com), Great Lakes IPM (http://www.greatlakesipm.com), Trece, Inc. (http://www.trece.com) and Sterling International are some of the companies that sell monitoring systems for BMSB. Monitoring for BMSB can start in late-May and needs to continue until early- or mid-October.

Monitoring devices.

  • Black pyramid traps. Stink bugs, including BMSB, are visually attracted to tree silhouettes. The trap recommended for monitoring is a black pyramidal trap, which represents trunk mimic, coupled with a capturing device.
  • Double-sided clear sticky cards. Researchers have found that double-sided clear sticky cards (6 x 12 inches), attached to a wooden pole, can be used for monitoring purposes. Cards are easier (and cheaper) to deploy than black pyramid traps.

Thresholds. Insecticide applications to apple orchards are recommended when a cumulative threshold of 10 BMSB/trap is reached. After the spray, the threshold is reset and subsequent trap accumulations reaching 10 adults per trap will trigger successive management sprays as the season progresses. This threshold is likely to work in peach orchards as well.

Management.

Insecticide sprays is the most effective control method for BMSB. It is important to select effective insecticides given that adult BMSB are hard to kill. Whenever possible, target the nymph stage, as nymphs are more sensitive to insecticides than adults. Multiple applications may be needed with re-infestation.

The overwintering generation of BMSB tends to be more susceptible to insecticides than the summer generation. Therefore, products with the best effectiveness against this pest should be used later in the season.

Insecticides should be rotated among products in different classes with different modes of action to delay the onset of resistance to pesticides.

Green Peach Aphid (GPA)

Myzus persicae
Written by: 
Jaime Pinero

Overview

GPA adults and nymphs do the damage in three ways: first, they feed directly on young tender plant tissues, often drying out shoots, causing wilts and distortions; second, they produce honeydew which falls onto foliage and becomes blackened by sooty mold fungi; and third, they spread many types of viruses. Plants injured by GPA feeding will have leaves that appear curled, distorted and discolored. 

The GPA mainly attacks peach; however, apricot, plum, cherry, and a wide variety of vegetable and floricultural crops can be attached by GPA.

Eggs – oval, shiny black; about half the size of a pencil point. The eggs are only found on the bark of fruit trees.

Nymphs – Green peach aphid nymphs resemble wingless adults in color (have black legs and antennae) but are smaller.

Adults – Wingless forms are light green to yellow. Winged forms are pale to dark green with a large dusky blotch on the abdomen. The body of the winged form is much slimmer with large oval shaped clear wings. The rear of the green peach aphid has 3 extrusions of the body wall called cornicles.

Biology

GPA has a complicated life cycle. Within a single growing season, GPA populations will have multiple asexual generations. GPA overwinters as an egg on the bark of fruit trees, specifically peach, cherry, apricot, and plum.

Egg hatch occurs on fruit trees about the time of peach bloom. GPA has both a sexual and asexual form. The majority of reproduction occurs asexually by a process called pathogenesis, where live young (females only) are produced by unmated females, called stem mothers.

Development occurs very quickly, growing from neonate to adult in as few as 5 days. At some point during the summer, winged adults develop which disperse to alternate hosts including many vegetable crops. Generations developing on vegetable crops will have both winged and wingless adults and reproduce asexually. In late August winged forms will migrate back to fruit trees.

Near the end of the growing season on fruit trees, sexual forms of the green peach aphid appear for the first time. After mating the female green peach aphid will oviposit eggs on the bark of fruit trees. GPA may have 10+ generations in a growing season.

Monitoring

Beginning at petal fall, inspect the undersides of leaves for new colonies. For faster inspection, shake limbs over a cloth tray (“beating tray”) to observe the dislodged insects.

It is important to identify parasitized aphids, which result in mummies. The presence of mummies (see picture of parasitized GPA) indicates that parasitic wasps are actively attacking aphids.

Economic threshold: Treat peaches when there are two or more colonies per tree before shuck split, or six or more colonies per tree after shuck split. 

Management

Aphid population levels are heavily influenced by temperature, rainfall, numbers of natural enemies present and frequency/type of pesticide application. Aphid outbreaks are most frequent in hot dry weather. Heavy rains will often reduce the aphid population below the economic threshold.

Aphid predators and parasites usually keep populations low. The most common are lady beetles (adults and larvae), syrphid fly larvae, green lacewing larvae, and tiny parasitic wasps that lay their eggs in the aphids. The wasp larvae develop in the aphids eating the inside parts and turning the aphids into empty shells called "mummies". There are many parasitoids attacking the green peach aphid with, perhaps, species of Aphidius and Aphelinus, the most important. 

When pesticides are applied care should be taken to select pesticides that are not damaging to natural enemies of aphids. Because aphids reproductive rate is greater than their natural enemies, incorrect pesticide use may contribute to aphid outbreaks by removing the natural enemies. 

Japanese Beetle (JB)

Popillia japonica
Written by: 
Jaime Pinero

Overview

Both as adults and as grubs (the larval stage), JB is a destructive plant pest. Adults feed on the foliage and fruits of several hundred species of fruit trees, ornamental trees, shrubs, vines, and field and vegetable crops. Adults leave behind skeletonized leaves and large, irregular holes in leaves. The grubs develop in the soil, feeding on the roots of various plants and grasses.

The adult JB is 1/4 to 1/2 inch in length and has a shiny, metallic-green body with bronze-colored outer wings. The beetle has six small tufts of white hair along the sides and back of its body under the edges of its wings. Their eggs are yellowish-white, elliptical or spherical in shape, and are laid about 3 inches into the soil in grassy areas, often in closely cut grass. The grubs can be recognized by the distinctive C-shape they take when curled up. They are white or cream in color, have three pairs of legs, and a hard brown head. The grub stage is about 10 months long. They then go into a brief pupa or resting stage in late spring where they change into a beetle.

Biology

The JB has only one generation per year, but these beetles emerge over a long period from early July through late August and they live for over 30 days. JB overwinters as third-instar larvae in the soil, approximately 12 to 18 inches deep. As soils warm in the spring, larvae migrate to the top 1 to 2 inches and resume feeding on grass rootlets. Larvae begin pupation by mid-June. Warm, sunny days draw beetles out in larger numbers. During the feeding and mating period, females intermittently leave plants, burrow about 3 inches into the ground nearby host plants and lay a few eggs. This cycle is repeated until the female lays 40 to 60 eggs. Larvae migrate downward before the soil freezes to overwinter.

Monitoring

Traps are available for JB but are only effective for monitoring the initial adult emergence. Adults may be monitored by quietly moving into the tree, jarring several branches, and observing how many fly off. Direct fruit counts are the most effective way of assessing the level of damage. Since feeding may be "clumped" or unevenly distributed, care should be taken in looking at a representative sample before making a spray decision. If feeding exceeds 1 percent, then treatment is justified. 

Management

Control of adults can be difficult. Insecticides can reduce damage, but applications may need to be repeated every three to four days since new migrations of beetles can occur daily. Insecticide options include broad-spectrum and reduced-risk. Do not spray when trees are in bloom.

Mass trapping systems have been developed for use against JB under certain situations e.g., organic orchards, in rural areas. Contact Dr. Jaime Piñero at jpinero@umass.edu for more information about mass trapping as an organic management method for Japanese beetles.

Lesser Peachtree Borer (LPTB)

Synanthedon pictipes
Written by: 
Jaime Pinero

Overview.

The adult LPTB is a clear-winged, metallic-blue moth that has two or more yellow bands across the abdomen, giving it a wasp-like appearance. In the Northeast, LPTB causes comparatively less damage than PTB. Peach, nectarine, and cherry are the preferred hosts of LPTB, but all stone fruits may be attacked. Injury by LPTB is almost always associated with previous tree injuries such as incidence of Cytospora canker and, to a lesser extent, pruning wounds, winter injury, and mechanical damage.

Biology.

LPTB overwinters as a larva in various stages of development ranging from young to nearly full-grown. In the spring, larvae resume feeding, complete their development, and pupate. Adult emergence usually takes place around shuck-split or shuck-fall and continues for several weeks. 

LPTB attack higher on the trunk and scaffold branches, especially where there are injuries and callus tissue. The flight period for LPTB is about June 1st through late August, depending on the region. Moths are active during the day, with mating and oviposition occurring soon after emergence. Female moths are attracted to damaged and previously infested trees and deposit eggs in cracks or under bark scales of wounded sites.

 

Monitoring.

LPTB adults can be monitored using pheromone traps.  Use at least 2 traps per block to determine adult flight.  Install LPTB traps by petal fall. Populations seldom need treatment when trap catches peak at less than 10 moths/trap/week. Use of monitoring traps is recommended in combination with mating disruption.

Inspect wounded areas on the upper trunk, scaffold limbs and branches for larvae and empty pupal cases protruding from the bark. An early sign of LPTB injury is the presence of wood chips, sawdust, and frass
produced by feeding borers in the gum in cankered areas. Control is recommended if 1-2 larvae or empty pupal cases are found per tree.  

Management.

Mating distruption and insecticides are two control options for growers.

For mating disruption, use Isomate PTB-Dual at a rate of 150 pheromone ties per acre.  Dispensers should be deployed at shuck split before LPTB moth flight begins. Use a higher rate (200-250/A) for outside edges of border rows, areas that haven’t been disrupted before and have high populations, and in blocks smaller than 5 acres. Larger blocks are better sites to use this control method compared to small (especially long, narrow) ones. 

When applying insecticides for LPTB, cover the trunk and scaffold limbs using a hand-gun with low pressure and high volume. Ideally, protect the trees for the entire period when the females could be laying eggs. If peachtree borer is also a problem, then the insecticide spray should be made within the first 2 weeks of September. If only LPTB is present, sprays may be applied to late maturing varieties in early August.

Mites (European Red Mite [ERM] and Two-spotted Spider Mite [TSSM])

Panonychus ulmi (ERM),Tetranychus urticae (TSSM)

 

European Red Mite

Two-spotted Spider Mite

Overwintering stage

Eggs

Orange-colored adult females

Overwintering sites

Overwintering eggs are laid on twigs and small limbs, especially in the crevices, and roughened bark of apple trees

Orchard ground cover

Timing of egg-hatch

Egg hatch begins at Tight Cluster, is about half complete by Pink, and is complete by Petal Fall.

With the arrival of warm weather in the spring, these mites leave their places of hibernation and start wandering about looking for food plants.

Feeding sites during spring

Young mites move to newly opened leaves where they feed, mature, and reproduce.

Weeds and grasses (mites move to fruit trees (underside of leaves) in the summer

Early-season monitoring

Two-spotted spider mites should be monitored and managed in much the same way as European red mites. Counts of the two species should be combined to determine whether thresholds are exceeded.

Monitoring of European red mite eggs can be done by visually inspecting the bases of twigs and spurs on 5 to 10 selected trees with a hand lens. Look for clusters of tiny (less than 1/50 inch), red spheres. See pictures below.

Mite injury during the weeks following Petal Fall can damage fruit crop. Monitor mite populations by examining underside of fruit cluster leaves through May and June. Action threshold is 1-2 motile (not eggs) mites per leaf or 30% of leaves with one or more mites

Early-season management

Oil is recommended at the 2-3 gal rate during the dormant period. Use 2 gal rate until Tight Cluster. Reduce to 1 gal rate from Tight Cluster to Pink. Oils can be safely applied up to the pink stage.  Since fruit tree architecture includes many cracks and crevices as well limbs and twigs that exponentially increase surface area, coverage to the point of drip is key. 

 

Do not use oils within 24 to 48 hours before freezing temperatures, or if temperature is below 35F following a freeze. Do not apply within 10 to 14 days of sprays containing captan or sulfur.

Chemical control

A selective miticide program that is based on thresholds may allow biological control by predator mites.

Oriental fruit moth (OFM)

Grapholita molesta
Written by: 
Jaime Pinero

Overview

Native to China, OFM is now found throughout much of the world. The adult OFM is approximately 1/4 inch (6.5mm) long and has a faint gray-brown salt-and-pepper pattern on its wings. Pupae are reddish brown. Fully developed larvae are about 1/2 inch (12.5mm) long, pink to white in color. Eggs are about 1/32 inch (0.7mm) in diameter, yellow-white, and laid singly on leaves or twigs.

Biology

OFM overwinters as a fully-grown larva (caterpillar), on limbs or trunk. First generation moths appear in May, and females lay their eggs on upper leaf surfaces, frequently on the terminal leaf of a young shoot. When the caterpillar hatches, it bores into the shoot, causing the terminal to wilt or “flag”. Later generations attack the fruit of both stone fruit and apples. In the northeastern United States, the OFM may have 3-5 generations (flights) per year, depending on weather conditions. As fruit develop the larvae will often enter near or through the stem end of stone fruit or calyx end of apple and bore directly into the interior of the fruit. OFM larvae do not feed on the seed; in contrast, codling moth larvae do feed on apple seeds.

Monitoring

Pheromone traps are available to monitor OFM activity and effectively time sprays. Traps are placed in the inside of the tree at eye level or higher just before bloom. Follow manufacturers’ guidelines for proper trap and lure maintenance and replacement. One trap per ten acres is recommended for commercial orchards, with a minimum of two traps.

Place sex pheromone traps in early April and check at least three times a week until biofix (i.e., first sustained capture of two or more moths per trap) is established. Then, calculate and record degree days to determine the percent egg hatch for each generation and timing of insecticide sprays (see ‘management’ below). Continue to monitor traps weekly throughout the season. Pheromone-baited OFM traps will also catch lesser apple worm, so it will be important to know how to distinguish between the two.

Trap threshold: In peaches, if there are >15 moths per trap per week for the first flight, there could be potential fruit infestation problems if control steps are not taken. The suggested trap threshold for OFM in peaches for 2nd - 4th  flight is 10 moths per trap per week. High trap counts do not trigger an immediate insecticide application; there is a lag period for egg hatch after the moths fly.

Management

Several management options are available for OMF including insecticide sprays and mating disruption. Regardless of the type of OFM management method chosen, careful monitoring is critical to the success of IPM tools.

Chemical control of the OFM can be improved by using a degree-day model to establish optimum timing of insecticide sprays targeting newly hatched larvae, since most insecticides are not effective at controlling adults. The most important spray against OFM on peaches is for the first generation. Keep in mind that there is a lag period for egg hatch after the moths fly. The first insecticide spray for OFM in peaches is recommended at 175 DD (base 45°F) after biofix. However, this often coincides with petal fall, so sprays targeting plum curculio should also control the 1st generation of OFM. Control measures for the second-generation egg hatch ought to occur at around 1,100 growing degree-days (base 45°F) after biofix.

With mating disruption, pheromone (sex attractant) dispensers are placed throughout the orchard. As the pheromone is released from the dispensers, male moths that normally use the pheromones to locate females become confused and fail to locate females. This interferes with the mating process. The densities of pheromone dispensers per acre depends on the formulation. Pheromone traps are used to evaluate the effectiveness of the mating disruption. If mating disruption is working, the pheromone traps should catch no moths. Mating disruption is only recommended for an orchard of 5 acres or larger in size.

If codling moth is also a problem in the same block, select a mating disruption material that releases pheromones of both species.

Peachtree Borer (PTB)

Synanthedon exitiosa
Written by: 
Jaime Pinero

Overview

PTB attacks all stone fruits, particularly peach and nectarine. Female moths are dark blue with a broad orange band around the body and forewings darker than the clear hind wings. The male is smaller and has three to four narrow yellowish bands across the body; both pairs of wings are clear. 

PTB larvae burrow into the bark, usually entering at a crack or wound near the soil surface. Larvae feed on the cambium and tunnel between the inner bark and the sapwood. Larvae normally attack the tree trunk between 7.5 cm (3 in) below ground to 25 cm (10 in) above ground; larger roots are occasionally attacked. Areas attacked often have masses of gum, mixed with frass, exuding from the bark. Young trees may be completely girdled and eventually die; older trees are debilitated and more susceptible to other insects or diseases.

Biology

PTB has a single generation per year. PTB overwinter as partially grown larvae, in a gallery under the bark - usually close to or below ground level. Most larvae complete their development during June and July. Most adults emerge and mate, and females oviposit, during July and August on tree trunks, in cracks or under bark scales, and in soil near the tree trunk.

Monitoring

Pheromone traps can be used to monitor PTB. Captures peaking at less than 10 moths per week generally indicates low pest pressure. Also, inspect the base of the tree for gum containing frass and sawdust. 

Management

Mating disruption. The Isomate PTB Dual mating disruption pheromone dispensers release pheromones for 100 to 120 days and should be placed in the orchard before moth emergence in early June. For effective control of this pest, use at least 200 dispensers per acre, distributed uniformly throughout the entire block. The Isomate PTB Dual dispensers will also control LPTB, but they need to be placed in the orchard earlier in the spring before adult LPTB emergence. 

Insecticides. Recommended treatments include root dips for new plantings and sprays targeting the lower 18 to 24 inches of the trunk. Roots should be dipped in an insecticide solution before planting. Protective trunk sprays with products containing chlorpyrifos should be applied in the summer from the lower scaffold branches to the soil line.

 

Plum curculio (PC)

Conotrachelus nenuphar
Written by: 
Jaime Pinero

Overview

The plum curculio (PC) is among the most damaging insect pests of stone fruit including peach, plum, nectarine, plum, and cherry. The primary injury is caused by the female PC during egg-laying. Later in the season, both males and females make round feeding punctures on the fruit.
 

Biology

  • Adult PCs typically overwinter in wooded lots adjacent to peach orchards or around fence rows from where they immigrate into peach orchards in the spring beginning around bloom.

  • Generally, commercial orchards do not have overwintering populations within their borders. Some studies, however, have shown that PCs can overwinter inside orchard blocks that are weedy in the fall.  Wild hosts (abandoned orchards, crab apples, etc.) near orchards provide habitat that allows adult PC to migrate into orchards before and after bloom.

  • The female makes a crescent-shaped cut in the skin of the fruit and then lays eggs under the flap of skin. This results in D-shaped scars on the fruit surface. When eggs hatch, larvae tunnel into fruitlets and begin to feed. Larvae complete four instars inside the fruit in about 16 days. PC-infested fruitlets generally drop to the ground prematurely.

  • Larvae may feed on the fruit for 2–3 weeks before they burrow into the ground to pupate. Adults emerge in mid- to late-summer to cause more feeding damage on mature fruit before they overwinter.

Monitoring

  • Fruitlets should be monitored beginning at about 5 mm diameter along orchard borders to determine if new injury is occurring. If fresh oviposition scars are observed, a first cover spray should be made to the entire block. Cool, wet weather will prolong PC activity.
  • Continue to monitor for fresh scars. If more are found, a second cover spray targeting perimeter-row trees may be needed.

Management

  • Management of PC relies heavily on petal fall, first and second cover insecticide applications. The first insecticide application should be made to the whole orchard in order to control PC adults that have migrated into the inner part of the orchard.

  • Additional insecticide applications may be necessary and can be limited to the outer two rows of trees.

  • Kaolin clay (Surround WP) is an OMRI-listed material that can also be complementary to conventional management strategies. Applied in suspension in water, kaolin clay produces a dry white film layer of interlocking microscopic particles on the surface of leaves, stems, and fruit after evaporation of the water. Kaolin acts as a physical barrier preventing insects from reaching vulnerable plant tissue. It acts as a repellent by creating an unsuitable surface for feeding or egg-laying.

Surround applications begin at Petal Fall and get reapplied weekly to maintain coverage and deter egg-laying.  

Do not apply insecticides until bloom is completely finished to reduce unwanted pollinator exposure to insecticides. 

 

Tarnished Plant Bug (TPB)

Lygus lineolaris
Written by: 
Jaime Pinero

Overview

Several species of insects with piercing-sucking mouthparts that feed on peaches early in the growing season can cause a gnarling and distortion of the fruits called catfacing. Fruit is deformed because areas around feeding sites grow more quickly than the damaged parts. Early-season feeding damage from TPB causes raised and sunken corky areas free of fuzz on the surface of the peach fruit. Late-season feeding results in stings with gummy ooze.

TPB is one of several bugs (order Hemiptera) that can produce fruit catfacing. TPB feed on a wide range of crops. TPB is most often a problem in fruit orchards with ground cover comprised of broadleaf weeds, or in orchards near alfalfa fields or other host plants.

TPB adults are about ¼ inch long, oval, and somewhat flattened. Color ranges from green to dark brown, flecked with white, yellow, reddish brown, and black markings. Nymphs (immature stages) are pale yellow to green. Mouthparts are the piercing-sucking type; the beak is three- or four-segmented, arises on the front of the head, and is held below the body, between the legs, when not in use. Nymphs are generally similar to adults but do not have wings.

 

Biology

TPB overwinter as adults in leaf litter, plant debris, and brush piles, and move to broadleaf weeds, grasses and crops to lay eggs in the spring. TPB adults are strongly attracted to orchards with winter annual weeds in bloom. The nymph is pale yellow or green. It resembles the adult but is smaller and has no wings. It develops through five instars. The third to fifth instars have distinct spots on the thorax and abdomen. The fourth and fifth instars begin to develop brown pigment and larger wings resembling the adult TPB.

 

Monitoring

White sticky traps are available for monitoring TPB adults. White cards are hung out about two feet from the ground from an outer branch at silver tip and checked preferably twice a week. Traps (one per three to five acres) should be placed at the edge of the block. The economic threshold s 2.4 TPB per trap by tight cluster and 4.1 per trap by late pink. Monitoring in peaches and nectarines is critical at petal fall to shuck fall.

 

Management

When trees are at the vegetative stage, low densities of TPB can be tolerated. As the trees begin to set buds, chemical controls may be needed. On stone fruits, insecticide applications at petal fall, shuck fall, and 10 days after shuck fall typically provide good control. Applications during pink are often unnecessary because most fruit injured at this time aborts. In comparatively larger blocks, border rows can reduce TPB numbers and level of damage.

 

White Prunicola Scale (WPS)

Pseudaulacaspis prunicola
Written by: 
Jaime Pinero

Overview

White Prunicola Scale (WPS) is a serious pest of Prunus, especially in temperate areas. In upstate NY orchards, Cornell University researchers  have reported the presence of WPS, which seems to be a closely related species of White Peach Scale (Pseudaulacaspis pentagona) found in the southeastern United States. The WPS is more common in temperate climatic zones.

Infestations are characterized by numerous white scales that cluster on the trunk and scaffolds, giving them a whitewashed appearance. Feeding reduces tree vigor, and foliage of affected trees may become sparse and yellow. Heavy infestations can cause death of twigs, branches and entire trees if left unattended.

Biology

WPS overwinters as an adult female and deposits eggs in the spring. In northern Pennsylvania, the scale is bivoltine (two generations per year).  

Monitoring

Monitor crawler emergence with black electrician's tape wrapped around scale infested branches with the sticky side out. A thin coating of petroleum jelly will enhance and extend the tape's effectiveness in capturing crawlers.

Management

Horticultural oil is recommended as a dormant spray in April, and insecticides can be used against crawlers in mid-June through early July (about 700–1150 DD base 50°F from March 1).

Diseases

Written by: 
Elizabeth Garofalo

The primary diseases of peaches in New Engand includes American brown rot, peach leaf curl, peach scab, and bacterial spot. Cankers are also common, however, they can be caused by several different factors including pathogens and mechanical injury.

Bacterial spot

Xanthomonas campestris
Written by: 
Elizabeth Garofalo

Overview

  • Bacterial spot (aka bacterial shot hole, bacterial leaf spot and black spot), Xanthomonas campestris pv pruni favors warm, humid conditions during the growing season and can manifest on leaves, twigs and fruit.
  • The bacteria overwinter in twig cankers, and buds, and have been shown to survive epiphytically on twigs and buds. 
  • Infections begin around late bloom to petal fall during rain events that cause splash dispersal of the bacteria to susceptible tissue.  Initiated infection lead to reinfection throughout the season when conditions are conducive.
  • Symptoms on leaves begin as grayish, water soaked areas on the lower side. Lesions begin as small, dark angular spots, which become necrotic and often these spots will drop our leading to the “shot hole” appearance.  Additionally, early season fruit infections can lead to lesions on the skin.
  • Cultural controls are important to reducing over all disease. Some resistant varieties include (but are not limited to): Loring, Redhaven and Madison.  Chemical control begins with a late dormant copper application.  Antibiotic applications begin at petal fall; however, avoidance by way of resistant cultivars is the best line of defense. 

More information

New England Vegetable & Fruit Conference December 2105 presentation by Kari Peter: BACTERIAL DISEASES OF STONE FRUITS: SPOTS AND CANKERS

 

Brown rot

Monilinia fructicola
Written by: 
Elizabeth Garofalo

Overview

 

  • Brown rot is caused by two fungi in the northeast: Monolinia fructicola and M. laxa (causal agent of European brown rot): with M. fructicola being the most common of the two pathogens in New England. 
  • The fungus overwinters in mummies and cankers created by the previous season’s infections. 
  • Infections are dependent on the presence of inoculum in the orchard, temperature and wetness.  Optimum development temperatures range from 55°F to 70°F (13°C-21°C) with required wetness times decreasing as temperatures increase.  Below 40°F (4°C), infection is delayed, but not necessarily prevented.
  • Damage from these pathogens manifests as blossom and shoot blight and fruit rot.  Fruit rots both on the tree and post harvest.  When conditions are right, this can result in significant crop loss
  • Cultural management includes removal of mummies and twig cankers during pruning.  Additionally, thinning fruitlets prior to pit hardening (60 days from bloom) can reduce inoculum for later season infection due to rapid decay of infected material.  Chemical control is achieved through targeted fungicidal applications during bloom and fruit ripening.

 

 

 

Peach leaf curl

Taphrina deformans

Overview

Symptoms

Disease cycle

Management

Peach scab

Cladosporium carpophilum
Written by: 
Elizabeth Garofalo

Overview

  • caused by fungus Cladosporium carpophilum
  • also infects apricot and nectarine
  • typically of minor importance in New England
  • affects appearance and market value of fruit and can be entry point for brown rot

Symptoms

  • olive to black spots velvety spots on fruit, twigs, and leaves
  • on fruit has a tendence to be more severe on near stem end
  • lesions can combine to form larger areas of disease and can result in fruit cracking
  • shoot and twig infections are slightly raised and round to oval, brown in color with purple margins later in the season

Disease cycle

  • overwinters in the tree as twig infections
  • infection begins at shuck split and peaks in 2 to 6 weeks with high humidity
  • fungus is air- and water-borne
  • fruit is susceptible to infection from shuck split until harvest

Management

  • prune to maintain air movement in canopy
  • where a problem, fungicide sprays (Bravo at shuck split, Captan applied thereafter, sulfur) at 10 to 14 day intervals should begin at shuck split and continue until 40 days before harvest

Plant Growth Regulators

Accede® SG Plant Growth Regulator contains ACC, a natural compound responsible for the biosynthesis of ethylene production in tree fruits. For peach and nectarine growers, it is the first-ever commercially available thinner based on a naturally occurring compound. The main benefits of Accede SG application to peaches and nectarines include reduced time and labor cost for hand thinning, and improved peach and nectarine size because of it's early thinning effect. Accede SG is applied from early bloom to petal fall in one or two applications at a rate of 10 to 20 ounces per acre in 100 gallons of water per acre. Peach and nectarine varieties may vary in their thinning response to Accede SG application. Including a non-ionic surfactant to Accede SG application will improve performance and response. Do not apply Accede SG when frost is expected. Accede SG label here...

ReTain® Plant Growth Regulator (Valent Biosciences) is labeled for harvest management and improvement of fruit quality of peaches and nectarines.

The label specifies: Depending on cultivar, orchard conditions, and grower objectives, one or more of the following benefits will be associated with ReTain...

  • Improved harvest management
  • Additional time for increase in fruit size
  • Maintenance of fruit firmness
  • Reduced preharvest fruit drop
  • Improved fruit quality
  • Enhanced storage potential 

Rate and Timing: Apply one pouch of ReTain per acre one to two weeks prior to the anticipated beginning of the normal harvest period of untreated fruit

Water Volume: ReTain efficacy requires that fruit and foliage receive thorough spray coverage. To ensure thorough coverage adjust water volumes based on tree size and spacing and use calibrated spray equipment (i.e., orchard air blast sprayer). Excessive spray application volumes that result in spray runoff will reduce product performance. In most cases, 100 gallons per acre has been shown to be effective.

Use of Adjuvants: For optimal response, use ReTain with a 100% organosilicone surfactant. Use a final surfactant concentration of 0.05 to 0.1% (v/v) in the spray tank. To reduce foaming, add the adjuvant last and minimize agitation.

Harvest: The normal harvest period for a particular orchard block refers to that time when fruits not treated with ReTain would be harvested. To help determine the beginning of the normal harvest period, refer to historical trends for harvest dates and the “days from full bloom to harvest” interval for each cultivar in your area, and closely monitor the fruit maturity development for the current season.

Additional Notes: Pre Harvest Interval (PHI): ReTain has a 7 day (PHI) for labeled Stone Fruit.

Spray Table

1 - Dormant

               
DISEASE FRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS

Dormant - After leaf drop in the fall or before bud break in the spring

Bacterial Spot M1 C-O-C-S WDG 12 to 16 lb 24 PF Excellent Copper applied for Peach leaf curl will also manage Bacterial spot
M1 Kocide 2000 6 to 12 lb 48 21 Excellent Copper applied for Peach leaf curl will also manage Bacterial spot
M1 Kocide 3000 3.5 to 7 lb 48 0 Excellent Copper applied for Peach leaf curl will also manage Bacterial spot
M1 Cuprofix Ultra 40 Disperss 5 to 7.5 lb 48 Shuck split Excellent Copper applied for Peach leaf curl will also manage Bacterial spot
M1 Champ WG 8 to 16 lb 48 21 Excellent OMRI Copper applied for Peach leaf curl will also manage Bacterial spot
M1 Badge X2 3.5 to 14 lb 48 21 Excellent OMRI. Copper applied for Peach leaf curl will also manage Bacterial spot
M1 Badge SC 5 to 14 pt 48 21 Excellent Copper applied for Peach leaf curl will also manage Bacterial spot
M1 Cueva Fungicide Concentrate 0.5 to 2 gal 4 0   OMRI
44 Serifel Biofungicide 4 to 16 oz 4 0   OMRI
UN pHorcepHite 2 to 4 qt 4 0   Suppression only
Peach leaf curl M1 C-O-C-S 12 to 16 lb 24 PF Excellent May require late fall and early spring applications
M1 Kocide 2000 6 to 12 lb 48 21 Excellent May require late fall and early spring applications
M1 Kocide 3000 3.5 to 7 lb 48 0 Excellent May require late fall and early spring applications
M1 Badge X2 3.5 to 14 lb 48 21 Excellent Organic. May require late fall and early spring applications
M1 Badge SC 3.5 to 14 pt 48 21 Excellent May require late fall and early spring applications
M3 Ferbam Granuflo 4 to 5 lb 24 21   May require late fall and early spring applications
M3 Thiram Granuflo 3.5 lb 24 7   May require late fall and early spring applications
M3

Ziram 76DF

Ziram Granuflo

3.75 to 8 lb 48 14    
M5 Bravo Ultrex 2.3 to 3.8 lb 12 hr Shuck split Excellent May require late fall and early spring applications
M5 Bravo Weather Stik 3.1 to 4.1 pt 12 hr Shuck split Excellent May require late fall and early spring applications
M5 Echo 720 3.1 to 4.1 pt 12 hr Shuck split   May require late fall and early spring applications
M5 Echo 90DF 2.25 to 3.5 lb 12 hr Shuck split   May require late fall and early spring applications
M5 Oranil 6L 3.12 to 4.12 pt 12 Shuck split   Best applied late fall or prior to budswell in spring
3, 7 Luna Experience 6 to 12 fl oz 12 0    
Phytophthora root, crown and collar rots 4 Ridomil Gold SL 2 qt 48 0   Soil application. Apply in spring before growth starts or 2 weeks after planting
33 Prophyt 2 pt 4 0   Use 100 gal/A and repeat on a 60 day interval as necessary. Do not make more than 4 sprays per season.
 
  UN RootShield PLUS WP 16 to 32 oz 4 0   OMRI In-furrow spray or transplant starter solution
PEST IRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
Cottony scale, European fruit lecanium scale, San Jose Scale NC Oil 8 to 12 gal 4 0 Excellent OMRI
4A Assail 5.3 to 8 oz 12 14 Fair Apply with Horticulture oil
7C Esteem 35WP 4 to 5 oz 12 14 Excellent  
16 Centaur 34.5 oz 12 14 Excellent  
UN AzaGuard 10 to 16 fl oz 4 0   OMRI
NC SuffOil-X 1-2% by volume 4 0   OMRI
European red mite NC Oil 8 to 12 gal 4 0 Excellent OMRI
  NC SuffOil-X 1-2% by volume 4 0   OMRI
Peach Twig Borer 28 Altacor 3 to 4.5 oz 4 10   Apply with oil
28 Exirel 10 to 20.5 fl oz 12 3   Can be applied with oil
UN AzaGuard 10 to 16 fl oz 4 0   OMRI

 

2 - Pink

DISEASE FRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS

Pink

Brown rot/Blossom blight

1

 

M4

Topsin M PLUS

Captan WP or Captan 80WDG or Captec 4L

1 to 1.5lb

PLUS

4 to 8 lb or

2.5 to 5 lb or 3 to 4 qt

48 1 Excellent  
M1 Badge X2 3.5 to 5 lb 48 21   OMRI
M1 Badge SC 3.5 to 5.25 pt 48 21    
2 Rovral 4F  1 to 2 pt 24 Petal fall Excellent  
2 Meteor 1 to 2 pt 24 Petal fall   Good for European brown rot
M2 Sulfur 80WDG 10 to 30 lb 24 0 Fair  
3 Indar 2F 6 fl oz 12 0 Excellent Good for European brown rot
3 Cevya Fungicide 4 to 5 oz 12 0    
3 Orius 20AQ 8.6 to 17.2 oz 12 0 Excellent  
3 Quash 50WDG 2.5 to 3.5 oz 12 14 Good Do not exceed 3 applications per season
3 Rally 40WSP 4 to 6 oz 24 0 Excellent  
3 Rhyme 7 fl oz 12 7    
3 Tilt 3.6EC 4 fl oz 12 0    
M3 Thiram Granuflo 3.5 lb 24 7    
M3

Ziram 76DF

Ziram Granuflo

4.5 to 8 lb

 

 

48

 

 

14

 

 

Poor/Fair  
M4

Captan 50WP

Captan 80WDG

Captec 4L

4 to 8 lb

 

2.5 to 5 lb

3 to 4 qt

24

 

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

 

Good  
M5 Bravo WeatherStik 3.1 to 4.1 pt 12 Shuck split Good  
M5

Echo 720

 

Echo 90DF

3.1 to 4.1 pt

2.25 to 3.5 lb

12

Shuck split
 

Good  
M5 Equus DF 2.8 to 3.8 lb 12 0 Good  
M5 Oranil 6L 3.12 to 4.12 pt 12 Shuck split    
7 Miravis 3.4 fl oz 4 0    
7 Fontelis 1.67 14 to 20 oz 12 0 Excellent  
9 Scala SC 9 to 18 fl oz 12 2* Good *or do not make
more than 2 applications of
a Group 9 fungicide within 30 days of harvest
11 Aframe 12 to 15.5 fl oz 4 0    
11 Gem 500SC 1.9 to 3.8 oz 12 1   Product discontinued. use up inventory
11 Flint Xtra 2.5 to 3.8 fl oz 12 1    
17 Elevate 50WDG

1.5 lb (alone)

1 to 1.5 lb (tank mixed)

12 0 Excellent  
3, 7 Luna Experience 6 to 10 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
3, 9 Inspire Super 16 to 20 fl oz 12 2    
3, 11 Quadris Top 12 to 14 fl oz 12 0   Do not allow to drift onto apples
3, 11 Quilt Xcel 14 fl oz 12 0   Do not allow to drift onto apples
3, 11 Topguard EQ 6 to 8 fl oz 12 7    
7, 11 Luna Sensation 5 to 7.6 fl oz 12 1 Excellent  
7, 11 Merivon 4 to 6.7 fl oz 12 0 Excellent Good for European brown rot. Don't mix with an EC product, crop oil concentrate or MSO adjuvant
7, 11 Pristine 38WG 10.5 to 14.5 oz 12 0 Good  
44 Serifel Biofungicide 4 to 16 oz 4 0   OMRI
NC BotryStop 3 lb 4 0   OMRI. Do not use a stomatal flooding or penetrant adjuvant
Peach Scab M5 Oranil 6L 3.12 to 4.12 pt 12 Shuck split    
11 Flint Xtra 2.5 to 3.8 fl oz 12 1 Excellent  
3, 7 Luna Experience 6 to 10 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
7, 11 Luna Sensation 5 to 7.6 fl oz 12 1 Excellent  
  3, 9 Inspire Super 16 to 20 fl oz 12 2    
PEST IRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
Tarnished plant bug 3 Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Baythroid XL 2 to 2.4 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
3A BotaniGard Maxx 0.25 to 2 qt 4 0    
3A Danitol 2.4EC 10.7 to 21.3 fl oz 24 3 Excellent  
3A Mustang Maxx 1.28 to 4 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Pounce 6.4 to 16 oz 12 14 Good  
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent  
3A Brigade formulations see label 12 14   Do not make applications less than 30 days apart. 
4A Actara 4.5 to 5.5 oz 12 14 Good  
4A Assail 30SG 5.3 to 8 oz 12 7 Fair/Good  
9 Beleaf 50SG 2 to 2.8 oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14    
3, 28 Besiege 9 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Good  
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14   Best used when multiple pests are present.
4A, 28 Voliam Flexi 4 to 7 oz 12 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
6, 3 Gladiator 19 fl oz 12 21   Best used when multiple pests are present
UN Botanigard ES 0.5 to 2 qt 4 0    

 

3 - Bloom

DISEASE FRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS

BLOOM

Brown rot/ Blossom blight

1

 

M4

Topsin M PLUS Captan 50WP, or

Captan 80WDG or

Captec 4L

1 to 1.5 lb PLUS

4 to 8 lb or

2.5 to 5 lb or

3 to 4 qt

48 1 Excellent  
M1 Badge X2 3.5 to 5 lb 48 21   OMRI
M1 Badge SC 3.5 to 5.25 pt 48 21    
2 Rovral 4F 1 to 2 pt 24 Petal fall

Excellent

 
2 Meteor  1 to 2 pt 24 Petal fall   Good for European brown rot
M2 Sulfur 80WDG 10 to 30 lb 24 0 Fair  
3 Cevya Fungicide 3 to 5 oz 12 0    
3 Indar 2F 6 fl oz 12 0 Excellent Good for European brown rot
3 Orius 20AQ 8.6 to 17.2 oz 12 0 Excellent  
3 Quash 50WDG 2.5 to 3.5 oz 12 14 Good Do not exceed 3 applications per season
3 Rally 40WSP 4 to 6 oz 24 o Excellent  
3 Rhyme 7 fl oz 12 7    
3 Tilt 3.6EC 4 fl oz 12 0    
M3 Thiram Granuflo 3.5 lb 24 7    
M3

Ziram 76DF,

Ziram Granuflo

4.5 to 8 lb 48 14 Poor/Fair  
M4

Captan 50WP,

Captan 80WDG,

Captec 4L

 

4 8 lb

2.5 to 5 lb

 

3 to 4 qt

24 0 Good  
M5 Bravo WeatherStik 3.1 to 4.1 pt 12 Shuck split Good  
M5

Echo 720

Echo 90DF

3.1 to 4.1 pt

2.25 to 3.5 lb

12 Shuck split Good  
M5 Equus DF 2.8 to 3.8 lb 12 0 Good  
M5 Oranil 6L 3.12 to 4.12 pt 12 Shuck split    
P5 Regalia 1 to 4 qt 4 Petal fall   OMRI
7 Fontelis 1.67 14 to 20 oz 12 0 Excellent  
7 Miravis 3.4 to 5.1 fl oz 12 0    
9 Scala SC 9 to 18 fl oz 12 30 Good  
11 Aframe 12 to 15.5 fl oz 4 0    
11 Gem 500 SC 1.9 to 3.8 oz 12 1   Product discontinued. Use up inventory
11 Flint Xtra 2.5 to 3.8 fl oz 12 1    
17 Elevate 50WDG

1.5 lb alone

1 to 1.5 lb tank mixed

12 0 Excellent  
3, 7 Luna Experience 6 to 10 fl oz 12 0    
3, 9 Inspire Super 16 to 20 fl oz 12 2    
3, 11 Quadris Top 12 to 14 fl oz 12 0   Do not allow to drift onto apples
3, 11 Quilt Xcel 14 fl oz 12 0   Do not allow to drift onto apples
3, 11 Topguard EQ 6 to 8 fl oz 12 7   Do not allow to drift onto apples
7, 11 Luna Sensation 5 to 7.6 fl oz 12 1 Excellent  
7, 11 Merivon 4 to 6.7 fl oz 12 0 Excellent Good for Europan brown rot. Don't mix with EC product, crop oil concentrate or MSO adjuvant
7, 11 Pristine 39WG 10.5 to 14.5 oz 12 0 Good  
NA BotryStop 2 to 4 lb 4 0   OMRI
44 Serifel Biofungicide 4 to 16 oz 4 0   OMRI
NC BotryStop 3 lb 4 0   OMRI. Do not use a stomatal flooding or penetrant adjuvant.
Peach Scab M5 Oranil 6L 3.12 to 4.12 pt 12 Shuck split    
11 Flint Xtra 2.5 to 3.8 fl oz 12 1 Excellent  
3, 7 Luna Experience 8 to 10 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
7, 11 Luna Sensation 5 to 7.6 fl oz 12 1 Excellent  
7, 11 Merivon 4 to 6.7 fl oz 12 0 Good/Exc  
  7 Miravis 5.1 fl oz 12 0    
  3, 9 Inspire Super 16 to 20 fl oz 12 2    

 

4 - Petal fall

DISEASE FRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
               

PETAL FALL

Brown rot/Blossom blight

1

 

M4

Topsin M PLUS

Captan 50WP or Captan 80WDG or Captec 4L

1 to 1.5 lb PLUS

4 to 8 lb or

2.5 to 5 lb or

3 to 4 qt

48 1 Excellent  
M1 Badge X2 3.5 to 5 lb 48 21   OMRI
M1 Badge SC 3.5 to 5.25 pt 48 21    
2 Rovral 4F 1 to 2 pt 24 Petal Fall Excellent  
2 Meteor 1 to 2 pt 24 Petal fall   Good for European brown rot
M2 Sulfur 80WDG 10 to 30 lb 24 0 Fair  
3 Cevya Fungicide 3 to 5 oz 12 0    
3 Indar 2F 6 fl oz 12 0 Excellent Good for European brown rot
3 Orius 20AQ 8.6 to 17.2 oz 12 0 Excellent  
3 Quash 50WDG 2.5 to 3.5 oz 12 14 Good  
3 Rally 40WSP 4 to 6 oz 24 0 Excellent  
3 Rhyme 7 fl oz 12 7    
3 Tilt 3.6EC 4 fl oz 12 0    
M3 Thiram Granuflo 3.5 lb 24 7    
M3 Ziram 76DF, Ziram Granuflo 4.5 to 8 lb 48 14 Poor/Fair  
M4 Captan 50WP or Captan 80WDG or Captec 4L

4 to 8 lb

2.5 to 5 lb

3 to 4 qt

24 0 Good  
M5 Bravo WeatherStik 3.1 to 4.1 pt 12 Shuck split Good  
M5

Echo 720

Echo 90DF

3.1 to 4.1 pt

2.25 to 3.5 lb

12 Shuck split Good  
M5 Equus DF 2.8 to 3.8 lb 12 0 Good  
M5 Oranil 6L 3.12 to 4.12 pt 12 Shuck split    
P5 Regalia 1 to 4 qt 4 Petal fall    
7 Miravis 3.4 to 5.1 fl oz 12 0    
7 Fontelis 1.67 14 to 20 oz 20 0 Excellent  
9 Scala SC 9 to 18 fl oz 12 30 Good  
11 Aframe 12 to 15.5 fl oz 4 0    
11 Flint Xtra 2.5 to 3.8 fl oz 12 1    
17 Elevate 50WDG

1.5 lb (alone)

1 to 1.5 (tank mixed)

12 0 Excellent  
3, 7 Luna Experience 6 to 10 fl oz 12 0    
3, 9 Inspire Super 16 to 20 fl oz 12 2    
3, 11 Quadris Top 12 to 14 fl oz 12 0   Do not allow to drift onto apples
3, 11 Quilt Xcel 14 fl oz 12 0   Do not allow to drift onto apples
3, 11 Topguard EQ 6 to 18 fl oz 12 7   Do not allow to drift onto apples
7, 11 Luna Sensation 5 to 7.6 fl oz 12 1 Excellent  
7, 11 Merivon 4 to 6.7 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
7, 11 Pristine 38WG 10.5 to 14.5 oz 12 0 Good  
44 Serifel Biofungicide 4 to 16 oz 4 0   OMRI
NC BotryStop 3 lb 4 0   OMRI. Do not use a stomatal flooding or penetrant adjuvant
Peach Scab M2 Sulfur 80WDG 10 to 30 lb 24 0 Good  
3 Cevya Fungicide 4 to 5 oz 12 0    
3 Indar 2F 6 fl oz 12 0    
3 Quash 50WP 2.5 to 3.5 oz 12 14 Good  
M3 Thiram Granuflo 3.5 lb 24 7    
M4

Captan 50WP

Captan 80WDG

Captec 4L

4 to 8 lb

2.5 to 5 lb

3 to 4 qt

24 0 Good  
M5

Bravo Ultrex

Bravo WeatherStik

2.3 to 3.8 lb

3.1 to 4.1 pt

12 Shuck split Good  
M5

Echo 720

Echo 90DF

3.1 to 4.1 pt

2.25 to 3.5 lb

12 Shuck split Good  
M5 Oranil 6L 3.12 to 4.12 pt 12 Shuck split    
7 Fontelis 14 to 20 oz 12 0 Fair/Good  
7 Miravis 3.4 to 5.1 fl oz 12 0    
11 Aframe 12 to 15.5 fl oz 4 0    
11 Flint Xtra 2.5 to 3.8 fl oz 12 1 Excellent  
3, 7 Luna Experience 8 to 10 fl oz 12 0    
3, 9 Inspire Super 16 to 20 fl oz 12 2    
3, 11 Topguard EQ 6 to 8 fl oz 12 7    
7, 11 Luna Sensation 5 to 7.6 fl oz 12 1    
7, 11 Merivon 4 to 6.7 fl oz 12 0 Good/Exc Do not mix with EC products, crop oil concentrate or MSO adjuvant


 

PEST IRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
Borers: American plum, Peachtree, Lesser peachtree UN

Pheromone mating disrupters:

Isomate PTB Dual

150 to 250 ties 0 0 Excellent Hang pheromone traps to monitor effectiveness.
3A Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Good  
3A Baythroid XL

1.4 to 2 fl oz (LPTB)

2 to 2.4 fl oz (APB)

12 7 Good Not for PTB
3A Mustang Maxx 1.28 to 4 fl oz 12 14    
3A Pounce 25WP 6.4 to 16 oz 12 14 Good Not for APB, PTB
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl oz 24 14 Good  
3A Perm-Up 3.2 EC 4 to 10 fl oz 12 14    
4A Scorpion 35 5.25 to 7 fl oz 12 7   Suppression only
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7   Not for PTB. Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 6 Gladiator EC 19 fl oz 12 21 Good  
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
6, 3 Gladiator 19 fl oz 12 21    
3, 28 Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14    
UN AzaGuard 10 to 16 fl oz 4 0   OMRI
Green peach aphid 1A

Lannate LV

Lannage 90SP

3 pt

1 lb

96

4

   
4A Actara 3 to 4 oz 12 14    
4A Assail 30SG 2.5 to 5.3 oz 12 7    
4A Belay 3 to 6 fl oz 12 21    
4C Transform WG 0.75 to 1.5 oz 24 See label   Do not apply until complete petal fall
4D Sivanto Prime 7 to 14 fl oz 12 14    
9 Beleaf 50SG 2 to 2.8 oz 12 14    
9D Versys 1.5 fl oz 12 7   Safe on bees, all beneficial insects. 
23 Movento SC 6 to 9 fl oz 24 7   Add hort oil or non-ionic advanced spray
UN BotaniGard ES 0.5 to 2 qt 4 0    
UN PFR 97 1 to 2 lb 4 0   OMRI
UN Des-X 2% vol 12 0   OMRI. Not for yellow skinned nectarines
UN BioCeres WP 1 to 3 lbs 4 0   OMRI
UN SuffOil-X 1 to 2% by volume 4 0   OMRI
3, 4 Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
4, 28 Voliam Flexi 4 to 7 oz 12 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
Oriental fruit moth UN

Pheromone mating disrupters:

Isomate OFM TT

Isomate CM/OFM TT

100 to 300 ties

 

 

200 to 350 dispensers

0 0 Excellent

OMRI. Hang pheromone traps to monitor effectiveness.

For CM and OFM

UN Checkmate OFM mating disrupters 100 to 200 dispensers 0 0 Excellent OMRI. Hang pheromone traps to monitor effectiveness.
1A Sevin XLR 2 to 3 qt 12 3 Fair/Good  
1B Imidan 70W 2.1 to 4.25 lb 96 14 Excellent  
3A Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Good  
3A Baythroid XL

2 to 2.4 fl oz

12 7 Good  
3A Danitol 2.4EC 10.7 to 21.3 fl oz 24 3 Good/Exc  
3A Mustang Maxx 1.28 to 4 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Perm-Up 3.2 EC 4 to 10 fl oz 12 14 Good/Exc  
3A Pounce 6.4 to 16 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl oz 24 14 Good/Exc  
3A Brigade formulations see label 12 14   Do not make applications less than 30 days apart. 
4A Assail 30SG 5.3 to 8 oz 12 7 Excellent  
4A Belay 6 fl oz 12 21    
5 Delegate 6 to 7 oz 4 1 Excellent  
5 Entrust 1.25 to 2.5 oz 4 1 Good/Exc OMRI
11 Deliver 0.25 to 2 lb 4 0   OMRI
15 Rimon 0.83EC 20 to 40 fl oz 12 8 Excellent  
18 Intrepid 2F 10 to 16 fl oz 4 7 Good  
22A Avaunt eVo

6 oz

12 14 Good  
28 Altacor 35WDG 3 to 4.5 oz 4 10 Excellent  
28 Belt SC 3 to 4 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
28 Exirel

10 to 20.5 fl oz

12 3 Excellent  
UN Madex HP 0.5 to 3 fl oz 4 0 Good OMRI For OFM and CM only
UN Grandevo 1 to 3 lb 4 0 Good OMRI
UN Venerate 1 to 4 qt 4 0 Good OMRI
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14 Goof/Exc Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
28, 3A Besiege 9 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Good  
4A, 15 Cormoran 20 to 28 oz 12 8    
4A, 28 Voliam Flexi 6 to 7 oz 12 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
6, 3A Gladiator 19 fl oz 12 21 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
16, 28 Tourismo 10 to 14 fl oz 12 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
28, 6 Minecto 8 to 12 fl oz 12 21 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
Plum curculio 1B Imidan 70W 2.1 to 4.25 lb 96 14 Excellent  
3A Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Good  
3A Baythroid XL 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Good  
3A Perm-Up 3.2 EC 4 to 10 fl oz 12 14 Fair/good  
3A Pounce 25WP 6.4 to 16 oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl oz 24 14 Good  
4A Actara 4.5 to 5.5 oz 12 14 Good  
5 Delegate 25WG 6 to 7 oz 4 1 Poor/Good  
22A Avaunt 30WDG 5 to 6 oz 12 14 Good/Exc  
28 Exirel 13.5 to 20.5 fl oz 12 3 Excellent  
UN Surround 25 to 50 lb 4 0 Repellent OMRI
3, 28 Besiege 9 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
3, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 3A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 15 Cormoran 20 to 28 oz 12 8   Best used when multiple pests are present
6, 3 Gladiator EC 19 fl oz 12 21 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
28, 6 Minecto 10 to 12 fl oz 12 21 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
Tarnished plant bug 3 Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Baythroid XL 2 to 2.4 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
3A BotaniGard MAXX 0.25 to 2 qt 12 0    
3A Danitol 2.4EC 10.7 to 21.3 fl oz 24 3 Excellent  
3A Mustang Maxx 1.28 to 4 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Perm-Up 3.2 EC 4 to 10 fl oz 12 14 Fair/Good  
3A Pounce 25WP 6.4 to 26 oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent  
3A Brigade formulations see label 12 14   Do not make applications less than 30 days apart. 
4A Actara 4.5 to 5.5 oz 12 14 Good  
4A Assail 30SG 5.3 to 8 oz 12 7 Fair  
4A Belay 6 fl oz 12 21 Excellent  
9 Beleaf 2 to 2.8 oz 12 14    
28, 3A Besiege 9 to 12 fl oz 24 14 good  
3, 4 Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 oz 12 7   Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 28 Voliam Flexi 6 to 7 oz 12 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
6, 3 Gladiator 19 fl oz 12 21   Best used when multiple pests are present
UN BotaniGard ES 0.5 to 2 qt 4 0    

 

5 - Shuck Split

DISEASE FRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS

SHUCK SPLIT

Brown rot

1

 

 

 

M4

Topsin M or

Topsin 4.5FL PLUS Captan 50WP or Captan 80WDG or Captec 4L

1 to 1.5 lb,

20 to 30 fl oz PLUS

4 to 8 lb, or 2.5 to 5 lb, or 3 to 4 qt

48

 

 

1
 

 

Excellent  
M2 Sulfur 80WDG 10 to 30 lb 24 0 Poor  
3 Cevya Fungicide 4 to 5 oz 12 0    
3 Indar 4F 6 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
3 Quash 50WDG 2.5 to 3.5 oz 12 14 Good  
3 Rally 40WSP 2.5 to 6 oz 24 0    
3 Rhyme 7 fl oz 12 7    
3 Tilt 4 fl oz 12 0    
M3 Ziram 76DF, Ziram Granuflo 4.5 to 8 lb 48 14 Poor/Fair  
M4

Captan 50WP, Captan 80WDG,

Captec 4L

4 to 8 lb

2.5 to 5 lb

3 to 4 qt

24

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

Fair/Good  
M5 Bravo WeatherStik 3.1 to 4.1 pt 12 hr Shuck split

 

 

 
M5

Echo 720

Echo 90DF

3.2 to 4.1 pt

2.25 to 3.5 lb

12 hr

 

Shuck split    
M5 Oranil 6L 3.12 to 4.12 pt 12 Shuck split    
7 Fontelis 14 to 20 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
7 Miravis 3.4 to 5.1 fl oz 12 0    
11 Aframe 12 to 15.5 fl oz 4 0    
11 Flint Xtra 3.8 fl oz 12 1 Good  
17 Elevate 50WDG

1.5 lb (alone)

1 to 1.5 lb (tank mixed)

12 0 Excellent  
3A, 7 Luna Experience 6 to 10 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
3, 9 Inspire Super 16 to 20 fl oz 12 2 Excellent  
3, 11 Topguard EQ 6 to 8 fl oz 12 7    
7, 11 Luna Sensation 5 to 7.6 fl oz 12 1 Excellent  
7, 11 Merivon 4 to 6.7 fl oz 12 0 Excellent Do not mix with EC products, crop oil concentrate, or MSO  adjuvant
7, 11 Pristine 10.5 to 14.5 oz 12 0 Good  
44 Serifel Biofungicide 4 to 16 oz 4 0   OMRI
NC BotryStop 3 lb 4 0   OMRI. Do not use a stomatal flooding or penetrant adjuvant
Bacterial spot M1 Badge X2 0.5 to 2 lb 48 21   OMRI
M1 Badge SC 0.5 to 2 pt 48 21    
M1 Cueva Fungicide Concentrate 0.5 to 2 gal 4 0   OMRI
41 Mycoshield 17WP 12 oz/100 12 21   OMRI
41 Fireline 17WP 0.4 to 3.75 lb 12 21    
44 Serifel Biofungicide 4 to 16 oz 4 0   OMRI
UN OxiPhos 2.5 to 5 qt 4 0    
UN pHorcepHite 2 to 4 qt 4 0   Suppression only
Peach scab M2 Sulfur 80WDG 10 to 30 lb 24 0 Good  
3 Cevya Fungicide 4 to 5 oz 12 0    
3 Indar 2F 6 fl oz 12 0    
3 Quash 50WP 2.5 to 3.5 oz 12 14 Good  
M3 Thiram Granuflo 3.5 lb 24 7    
M4

Captan 50WP

Captan 80WDG

Captec 4L

4 to 8 lb

2.5 to 5 lb

3 to 4 qt

24

0

Good  
M5

Bravo Ultrex

Bravo WeatherStik

2.3 to 3.8 lb

3.1 to 4.1 pt

12 Shuck split Good  
M5

Echo 720

Echo 90DF

3.1 to 4.1 pt

2.25 to 3.5 lb

12 Shuck split Good  
M5 Oranil 6L 3.12 to 4.12 pt 12 Shuck split    
7 Fontelis 14 to 20 oz 12 0 Fair/Good  
7 Miravis 3.4 to 5.1 fl oz 12 0    
11 Aframe 12 to 15.5 fl oz 4 0    
11 Flint Xtra 2.5 to 3.8 fl oz 12 1 Excellent  
3, 7 Luna Experience 8 to 10 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
3, 9 Inspire Super 16 to 20 fl oz 12 2    
3, 11 Topguard EQ 6 to 8 fl oz 12 7    
7, 11 Luna Sensation 5 to 7.6 fl oz 12 1 Excellent  
7, 11 Merivon 4 to 6.7 fl oz 12 0 Fair/Good Do not mix with EC products, crop oil concentrate, or MSO adjuvant
Rusty Spot 3 Rhyme 7 fl oz 12 7   Continue through 3rd cover or terminal bud set. Controlling powdery mildew in nearby apples will help reduce Rusty Spot incidence.
PEST IRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
Obliquebanded leafroller 3A Baythroid XL 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
3A Danitol 10.7 to 21.3 fl oz 24 3 Good  
3A Perm-Up 3.2 EC 4 to 10 fl oz 12 14 Good/Exc  
3A Brigade formulations see label 12 14   Do not make applications less than 30 days apart. 
5 Delegate 25WG 4.5 to 7 oz 4 1 Excellent  
5 Entrust 80WP 1.25 to 2.5 oz 4 1 Good OMRI
11 Biobit HP 0.5 to 2 lb 4 0   OMRI
11 Deliver 0.25 to 2 lb 4 0 Excellent OMRI
11 Dipel DF 0.5 to 2 lb 4 0   OMRI
21 Apta 21 to 27 fl oz 12 14    
28 Altacor 35WDG 3 to 4.5 oz 4 10 Excellent  
28 Belt SC 3 to 4 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
28 Exirel 10 to 20.5 fl oz 12 3    
28 Verdepryn 100SL 5.5 to 11 fl oz 4 7    
UN Grandevo 1 to 3 lb 4 0   OMRI
UN Surround 25 to 50 lb 4 0   OMRI
UN Venerate XC 1 to 8 qt 4 0   OMRI
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
3, 28 Besiege 9 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Good  
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
16, 28 Tourismo 10 to 14 fl oz 12 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
NA Spear-LEP 1 to 2 pt 4 0 ? 6 pt/A maximum per season
Oriental fruit moth UN

Pheromone mating disrupters: Isomate OFM TT

Isomate CM/OFM TT

100 to 300 ties

 

 

200  to 350 dispensers

0 0 Excellent OMRI Hang pheromone traps to monitor effectiveness
UN Pheromone mating disrupter: Checkmate OFM 100 to 200 dispensers 0 0 Excellent OMRI Hang pheromone traps to monitor effectiveness
1A Sevin XLR 2 to 3 qt 12 3 Fair/Good  
1B Imidan 70W 2.1 to 4.25 lb 96 14 Excellent  
3A Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Good/Exc  
3A Baythroid XL 2 to 2.4 fl oz 12 7 Good/Exc  
3A Danitol 2.4EC 10.7 to 21.3 fl oz 24 3 Good/Exc  
3A Mustang Maxx 1.8 to 4 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Pounce 6.4 to 16 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent  
3A Perm-Up 3.2 EC 4 to 10 fl oz 12 14 Good/Exc  
4A Assail 30SG 5.3 to 8 oz 12 7 Excellent  
4A Belay 6 fl oz 12 21    
5 Delegate 6 to 7 oz 4 1 Excellent  
5 Entrust 1.25 to 2.5 oz 4 1 Good/Exc OMRI
11 Deliver 0.25 to 2 lb 4 0   OMRI
15 Rimon 0.83EC 20 to 40 fl oz 12 8 Excellent  
18 Intrepid 2F 10 to 16 fl oz 4 7 Good  
22A Avaunt eVo 6 oz 12 14 Fair  
28 Altacor 35WDG 3 to 4.5 oz 4 10 Excellent  
28 Belt SC 3 to 4 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
28 Exirel 10 to 20.5 fl oz 12 3 Excellent  
28 Verdepryn 100SL 5.5 to 11 fl oz 4 7    
UN Madex HP 0.5 to 3 fl oz 4 0 Good OMRI
UN Grandevo 1 to 3 lb 4 0 Good OMRI
UN Venerate XC 1 to 4 qt 4 0 Good OMRI
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14 Good/exc Best used when multiple pests are present
3, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 6 Gladiator 19 fl oz 12 21 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
3, 28 Besiege 9 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 28 Voliam Flexi 6 to 7 oz 12 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 15 Cormoran 20 to 28 oz 12 8   Best used when multiple pests are present
6, 3 Gladiator 19 fl oz 12 21   Best used when mulitple pests are present
16, 28 Tourismo 10 to 14 fl oz 12 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
28, 6 Minecto 8 to 12 fl oz 12 21 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
Plum curculio

 

 


 
1B Imidan 70W 2.1 to 4.25 lb 96 14 Excellent  
3A Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Good  
3A Baythroid XL 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Good  
3A Danitol 2.4 EC 10.7 to 21.3 fl oz 24 2 Good  
3A Pounce 6.4 to 16 oz 12 14 Good  
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl oz 24 14 Good  
3A Perm-Up 3.2 EC 4 to 10 fl oz 12 14 Good/Exc  
3A Brigade formulations see label 12 14   Do not make applications less than 30 days apart. 
4A Actara 4.5 to 5.5 oz 12 14

Good/Exc

 
4A Assail 30SG 2.5 to 5.3 oz 12 7 Excellent  
4A Belay 3 to 6 fl oz 12 21 Good  
4A Scorpion 5.25 to 7 fl oz 12 3    
21A Aptec 21 to 27 fl oz 12 14 Good  
22A Avaunt 30 eVo 5 to 6 oz 12 14 Good/Exc  
28 Exirel 13.5 to 20.5 fl oz 12 3 Good/Exc  
28 Verdepryn 100SL 5.5 to 11 fl oz 4 7    
UN Surround 25 to 50 lb 4 0 Repellent only OMRI
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7   Best used when multiple pests are present
3, 28 Besiege 9 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 28 Voliam Flexi 6 to 7 oz 12 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 15 Cormoran 20 to 28 oz 12 8   Best used when multiple pests are present
6,3 Gladiator EC 19 fl oz 12 21 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
28, 6 Minecto 10 to 12 fl oz 12 21 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
San Jose Scale, Lecanium scale 4A Admire Pro 1.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 0 Fair  
4C Transform WG 2.75 oz 24 7    
4A Belay 6 oz 12 21 Good Not for yellow skinned peaches
7C Esteem 13 to 16 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
16 Centaur WDG 34.5 oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7   Best used when multiple pests are present
23, 7C Senstar 12 to 18 fl oz 24 14   Do not apply until after petal fall
UN Des-X 2% 12 0   OMRI
UN Venerate XC 1 to 8 qt 4 0   OMRI
UN AzaGuard 10 to 16 fl oz 4 0   OMRI
NC SuffOil-X 1 to 2 % by volume 4 1   OMRI
Tarnished plant bug 3 Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Baythroid XL 2 to 2.4 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
3A Danitol 2.4EC 10.7 to 21.3 fl oz 24 3 Excellent  
3A Mustang Maxx 1.28 to 4 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Perm-Up 3.2 EC 4 to 10 fl oz 12 14 Fair/Good  
3A Pounce 6.4 to 26 oz 12 14 Good/Exc  
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent  
3A Brigade formulations see label 12 14   Crawler stage. Do not make applications less than 30 days apart. 
4A Actara 4.5 to 5.5 oz 12 14 Good  
4A Assail 30SG 5.3 to 8 oz 12 7 Fair/Good  
4A Belay 6 fl oz 12 21 Excellent  
9 Beleaf 2 to 2.8 oz 12 14 Excellent  
3, 28 Besiege 9 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Good  
3, 4 Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 oz 12 7   Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 28 Voliam Flexi 6 to 7 oz 12 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
6, 3 Gladiator 19 fl oz 12 21   Best used when multiple pests are present

Borers: Peach tree,

Lesser peach tree

UN Isomate PTB Dual 150 0 0 Excellent Hang pheromone traps to monitor effectiveness
3A Asana Xl 4.5 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Good  
3A Baythroid XL 1.4 to 2 fl oz 12 7 Good  
3A Mustang Maxx 1.28 to 4 fl oz 12 14    
3A Perm-Up 3.2 EC 4 to 10 fl oz 12 14    
3A Pounce 25WP 6.4 to 16 oz 12 14 Good  
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl oz 24 1 Good/Exc  
4A Scorpion 35 SL 5.25 to 7 fl oz 12 3   PTB Only
28 Verdepryn 100SL 5.5 to 11 fl oz 4 7   Borer, peach twig
32 Spear-LEP 1 to 2 pts 4 0   peach twig borer; tank mix with Bt.
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 4 Excellent  
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
3, 28 Besiege 9 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Good  
3A, 28 Volium Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14    
6, 3 Gladiator 19 fl oz 12 21 Excellent  
UN AzaGuard 10 to 16 fl oz 4 0   OMRI

 

6 - Summer

DISEASE FRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
               

SUMMER

Bacterial spot 41 Mycoshield 17WP 12 oz/100 gals 12 21    
41 Fireline 17WP 0.4 to 3.75 lb 12 21    
M1 Copper products See labels for rates      

Care should be taken when applying copper products after bloom.

Organic formulations

44 Serifel Biofungicide 4 to 16 oz 4 0   OMRI
UN pHorcepHite 2 to 4 qt 4 0   Suppression only
Brown rot M2 Sulfur 80 WDG 10 to 30 lb 24 0 Poor  
3 Cevya Fungicide 4 to 5 oz 12 0    
3 Indar 2F 6 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
3 Orius 20AQ 8.6 to 17.2 oz 12 0    
3 Quash 50 WDG 2.5 to 4 oz 12 14 Good  
3 Rally 40 WSP 2.5 to 6 oz 24 0    
3 Rhyme 7 fl oz 12 7    
3 Tilt 4 fl oz 12 0    
M3 Thiram Granuflo 3.5 lb 24

7

 

   
M3

Ziram 76DF

Ziram Granuflo

4.5 to 8 lb 48 14 Poor/Fair  
M4

Capan 50WP

Captan 80WDG

Captec 4L

4 to 8 lb

 

2.5 to 5 lb

 

3 to 4 qt

12

0

Fair/Good  
P5 Regalia 1 to 4 qt 4 0   OMRI
7 Fontelis 1.67 14 to 20 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
7 Miravis 3.4 to 5.1 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
11 Aframe 12 to 15.5 fl oz 4 0    
17 Elevate 50WDG

1.5 lb (alone)

1 to 1.5 lb (tank mixed)

12 0 Excellent  
3, 7 Luna Experience 6 to 10 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
3, 9 Inspire Super 16 to 20 fl oz 12 2 Excellent  
3, 11 Topguard EQ 6 to 8 fl oz 12 7    
7, 11 Luna Sensation 5 to 7.6 fl oz 12 1 Excellent  
7, 11 Merivon 4 to 6.7 fl oz 12 0 Excellent Do not mix with EC products, crop oil concentrate or MSO
7, 11 Pristine 10.5 to 14.5 oz 12 0 Good  
44 Serifel Biofungicide 4 to 16 oz 4 0   OMRI
NC BotryStop 3 lb 4 0   OMRI. Do not use a stomatal flooding or penetrant adjuvant
Peach scab M2 Sulfur 80WDG 10 to 30 lb 24 0 Good  
3 Cevya Fungicide 4 to 5 oz 12 0    
3 Quash 50WDG 2.5 to 3.5 oz 12 14 Good  
M3 Thiram Granuflo 3.5 lb 24 7    
M4

Captan 50WP

Captan 80WDG

Captec 4L

4 to 8 lb

 

2.5 to 5 lb

 

3 to 4 qt

24

 

24

 

24

0

 

0

 

0

Good  
7 Fontelis 1.67 14 to 20 fl oz 12 0 Fair/Good  
7 Miravis 3.4 to 5.1 fl oz 12 0    

11

Abound

9 to 15.5 fl oz (peaches)

12 to 15.5 fl oz (nectarines)

4 0    
11 Aframe 12 to 15.5 fl oz 4 0    
11 Gem 500SC 1.9 to 3.8 oz 12 1 Excellent No longer produced. Use up inventory
11 Flint Xtra 2.5 to 3.8 fl oz 12 1 Excellent  
3, 9 Inspire Super 16 to 20 fl oz 12 2    
7, 11 Merivon 4 to 6.7 fl oz 12 0 Excellent Do not mix with EC products, crop oil concentrate or MSO
7, 11 Pristine 10.5 to 14.5 oz 12 0 Good  
Powdery mildew M2 Sulfur 80WDG 10 to 30 lb 24 0 Good  
P5 Regalia 1 to 4 qt 4 0   OMRI
3 Cevya Fungicide 4 to 5 oz 12 0   Suppression
3 Rhyme 7 fl oz 12 7    
7 Fontelis 1.67 14 to 20 fl oz 12 0 Good  
7 Miravis 3.4 to 5.1 fl oz 12 0    
11 Abound 12 to 15.5 fl oz 4 0    
11 Aframe 12 to 15.5 fl oz 4 0    
11 Flint Xtra 2.5 to 3.8 fl oz 12 1    
13 Quintec 2.08EC 7 fl oz 12 7 Good  
44 Serifel Biofungicide 4 to 16 oz 4 0   OMRI
48 Vivando 15.4 fl oz 12 7   Do not mix with EC products, crop oil concentrate or MSO
3, 9 Inspire Super 16 to 20 fl oz 12 2 Excellent  
UN SulfoMEX 3 to 6 pt 24 0   Do not apply with or within 14 days of oil application; do not apply with copper
Rusty Spot 3 Rhyme 7 fl oz 12 7   Continue through 3rd cover or terminal bud set


 

PEST IRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours PHI-days EFFICACY COMMENTS
European red mite, Two spotted spider mite 3A Danitol 10.7 to 21.3 fl oz 24 3 Good  
3A Brigade formulations see label 12 14   Do not make applications less than 30 days apart. 
10 Apollo SC 2 to 8 oz 12 21 Excellent  
10A Onager OPTEK 12 to 24 fl oz 12 7 Excellent 1 application per year. Targets eggs & immature motile mites
10B Zeal 72WS 2 to 3 oz 12 7 Excellent  
12B Vendex 50WP 1 to 2 lb 48 14 Good  
20D Banter WDG 0.75 to 1 lb 12 3   1 application per year
21A Nexter SC 7.5 to 17 oz 12 7 Good/Exc All motile stages
21A Portal 2 pt 12 365 Excellent Non-bearing only. Use with adjuvant
23 Envidor 2SC 16 to 18 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
25 Nealta 13.7 fl oz 12 7    
UN Acramite 50WS 0.75 to 1 lb 12 3 Good  
UN

Banter 4SC

12 to 16 fl oz 12 3   1 application per year
UN Des-X 2% vol 12 0   OMRI Not for yellow skinned nectarines
UN AzaGuard 10 to 16 fl oz 4 0   OMRI
NC SuffOil-X 1 to 2% by volume 4 0   OMRI
6, 3 Gladiator 19 fl oz 12 21 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
6 Agri-Mek 2.2 to 4.2 fl oz 12 21    
21A, 39 Magister SC 32 to 36 oz 12 3    
28, 6 Minecto Pro 8 to 12 fl oz 12 21 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
Green peach aphid 1A

Lannate LV

Lannate 90SP

3 pt

 

1 lb

96

4

  Peach only
3A Botanigard MAXX 0.25 to2 qt 12 0    
4A Actara 3 to 4 oz 12 14 Excellent 35-day PHI for apple and pear.  
4A Admire Pro 1.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 0 Excellent  
4A Assail 30SG 2.5 to 5.3 oz 12 7 Excellent  
4C Transform WG 0.75 to 1.4 oz 24 7    
4D Sivanto Prime 7 to 14 fl oz 12 14    
9B PQZ 2.4 to 3.2 fl oz 12 7    
9C Beleaf 50SG 2 to 2.8 oz 12 14 Excellent  
9D Versys 1.5 fl oz 12 7   Safe on bees, all beneficial insects
23 Movento 6 to 9 fl oz 24 7 Excellent  
UN Botanigard ES .05 to 2 qt 4 0    
UN PFR-97 1 to 2 lb 4 0   OMRI
UN Des-X 2 % vol 12 0   OMRI Not for yellow skinned nectarines
UN Grandevo 2 to 3 lb     Good OMRI
UN Molt-X 8 to 10 fl oz 4 0   OMRI. Use in spray mixture at pH 5.5-7.0
NC Mycotrol ESO 0.25 to 1 qt 4 0   Spray to wet but avoid runoff
UN SuffOil-X 1 to 2% vol 4 0   OMRI
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 28 Voliam flexi 4 to 7 oz 12 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
23, 7C Senstar 12 to 18 fl oz 24 14   Do not apply until after petal fall
Japanese beetle 1A

Sevin XLR Plus,

Sevin 4F

2 to 3 qt

 

12

 

3

Excellent  
1B Imidan 70W 2.1 to 4.25 lb 4 day 14 Good/Exc  
4A Admire Pro 1.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 0 Good  
4A Assail 30SG 5.3 to 8 oz 12 7 Good/Exc  
28 Exirel 13.5 to 20.5 fl oz 12 3 Good  
28 Verdepryn 100SL 5.5 to 11 fl oz 4 7    
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3, 28 Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
28, 6 Minecto Pro 10 to 12 fl oz 12 21 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
UN Molt-X 8 to 10 fl oz 4 0   OMRI Use in spray mixture at pH 5.5-7.0
Lecanium scale, San Jose scale 4A Admire Pro 1.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 0 Fair/Good  
4C Transform WG 2.75 oz 24 7    
7C Esteem 13 to 16 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
16 Centaur WDG 34.5 oz 12 14 Excellent  
23 Movento 6 to 9 fl oz 24 7 Good/Exc  
3, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
3a Brigade formulations see label 12 14   Do not make applications less than 30 days apart. 
23, 7C Senstar 12 to 18 fl oz 24 14    
NC SuffOil-X 1 to 2% vol 4 0   OMRI
NC Venerate XC 2 qt 4 0 Excellent OMRI
UN AzaGuard 10 to 16 fl oz 4 0   OMRI
Oriental fruit moth  

Pheromone disruption: Checkmate OFM dispenser,

Isomate CM-OFM TT

Isomate OFM TT

100 to 200 dispensers

 

 

200 to 300 dispensers

 

100 to 3000 dispensers

0

0

Excellent

 

 

NOP compliant

 

OMRI

1A Imidan 70W 2.1 to 4.25 lb 4 14 Excellent  
1A

Lannate LV

Lannate 90SP

3 pt

1 lb

96

4

Fair Peach only
1A

Sevin XLR Plus,

Sevin 4F

2 to 3 qt

12

3

Fair/Good  
3 Danitol 2.4EC 10.7 to 21.3 fl oz 24 3 Good/Exc  
3A Asana XL 4.8 to 14/5 fl oz 12 14 Good/Exc  
3A Baythroid XL 2 to 2.4 fl oz 12 7 Good/Exc  
3A Mustang Maxx 1.28 to 4 fl oz 12 14 Good  
3A Perm-Up 3.2 EC 4 to 10 fl oz 12 14 Good/Exc  
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl oz 24 14 Good/Exc  
4A Assail 30SG 5.3 to 8 oz 12 7 Excellent  
5 Delegate 25WG 6 to 7 oz 4 1 Excellent  
5 Entrust 80WP 1.25 to 2.5 oz 4 1 Good OMRI
11 Deliver 0.25 to 2 lb 4 0   OMRI
11 Dipel 0.5 to 2 lb 4 0   OMRI
18 Intrepid 2F 10 to 16 fl oz 4 7 Good  
22A Avaunt eVo 6 oz 12 14 Fair  
28 Altacor 35WDG 3 to 4.5 oz 4 10 Excellent  
28 Belt SC 3 to 4 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
28 Exirel 10 to 20.5 fl oz 12 3 Excellent  
28 Verdepryn 100SL 5.5 to 11 fl oz 4 7    
UN Madex HP 0.5 to 3 oz 4 0 Good OMRI
UN Neemix 7 to 16 fl oz 12 0 Good OMRI
UN Venerate XC 1 to 8 qt 4 0 Good OMRI
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 28 Besiege 9 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 15 Cormoran 20 to 28 oz 12 8   Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 28 Voliam Flexi 4 to 7 oz 12 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
6, 3 Gladiator 19 fl oz 12 21 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
16, 28 Tourismo 14 fl oz 12 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
28, 6 Minecto Pro 8 to 12 fl oz 12 21 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
Borers: American plum, Peachtree, Lesser peachtree UN Isomate PTB Dual 150     Excellent Hang pheromone traps to monitor effectiveness.
3A Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Good  
3A Baythroid XL 1.4 to 2 fl oz 12 7 Good  
3A Mustang Maxx 1.28 to 4 fl oz 12 14    
3A Perm-Up 3.2 EC 4 to 10 fl oz 12 14    
3A Pounce 25WP 6.4 to 16 oz 12 14 Good  
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl oz 24 14 Good  
4A Scorpion 35SL 5.25 to 7 fl oz 12 3   PTB only
28 Verdepryn 100 SL 5.5 to 11 fl oz 4 7   Borer, peach twig
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7   Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14   Best used when multiple pests are present
3, 28 Besiege 9 to 12 fl oz 24 14 good Best used when multiple pests are present
6, 3 Gladiator 19 fl oz 12 21   Best used when multiple pests are present
UN AzaGuard 10 to 16 fl oz 4 0   OMRI
Spotted Wing Drosophila 1A

Lannate LV

Lannate 90SP

3 pt

1 lb

4 days

4

Good/Exc Peach only
1A Sevin XLR 2 to 3 qt 12 3 Fair/Good  
1B Diazinon AG500 1 pt/100 4 days 21 Good  
1B Imidan 70 2.1 to 4.25 lb 4 days 14 Excellent  
1B Malathion 5EC

2.5 to 4.8 pt (peach)

4 to 4.8 pt (nectarine)

24 7 Good  
3A Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Baythroid XL 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Good/Exc 14 day interval between applications
3A Danitol 2.4EC 10.6 to 21.3 fl oz 24 3 Excellent  
3 Lambda-Cy EC 2.5 to 5.1 fl oz 24 14 Good/Exc  
3A Mustang Maxx 4 oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Pyganic 1.4 1 pt to 2 qt 12 0 Poor OMRI
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl oz 24 14 Good/Exc  
4A Actara 4.5 to 5.5 oz 12 14 Poor  
4A Admire Pro 1.4 to 2.8 oz 12 0 Good  
4A Assail 5.3 to 8 oz 12 7 Fair  
4A Venom 2 to 4 oz 12 3 Good  
5 Delegate 25WG 6 to 7 oz 4 1 Good/Exc  
5

Entrust 80WP

Entrust Naturalyte

Entrust SC

1.25 to 2.5 oz

 

4 to 8 fl oz

4 1 Good OMRI
5 Success 4 to 8 fl oz 4 1 Good NH, Maine only
15 Rimon 0.83 EC 20 to 40 fl oz 12 8    
28 Exirel 13.5 to 20.5 fl oz 12 3 Good/Exc  
28 Verdepryn 100SL 11 fl oz 4 7 Excellent  
UN Grandevo 2 to 3 lb 4 0 Fair OMRI
UN Molt X 10 fl oz 4 0   OMRI
UN Surround 25 to 50 lb/100 4 0 Suppression only OMRI
UN BioCeres WP 1 to 3 lbs 4 0   OMRI
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5.5 to 6 fl oz 24 7 Good  
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Good  
28, 6 Minecto Pro 10 to 12 fl oz 12 21 Excellent  
Stink bugs including Brown marmorated 1A

Lannate LV

Lannage 90SP

1.5 to 3pt

0.5 to 1 lb

96

4

Excellent  
3A Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Fair  
3A Baythroid XL 1.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Fair  
3A Danitol 2.4EC 10.6 to 21.3 fl oz 24 3 Good  
3A Mustang Maxx 1.28 to 4 fl oz 12 14    
3A Perm-Up 3.2 EC 4 to 10 fl oz 12 14 Fair/good  
3A Warrior II 1.28 to 2.56 fl oz 24 14 Fair  
4A Actara 4.5 to 5.5 oz 12 14 Good 35-day PHI for apple and pear.
4A Belay 6 oz 12 21   Peach only
4A Scorpion 35SL 5.25 to 7 fl oz 12 3 Excellent Supplemental label
15 Rimon 0.83EC 20 to 40 fl oz 12 8    
28 Verdepryn 100SL 5.5 to 11 fl oz 4 7   Suppression
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 6 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 6 Gladiator 19 fl oz 12 21 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
3, 28 Besiege 9 to 12 fl oz 24 14 good Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 15 Cormoran 20 to 28 oz 12 8  

Best used when multiple pests are present

4A, 28 Voliam Flexi 6 to 7 oz 12 14 Good Best used when multiple pests are present
UN Venerate XC 1 to 4 qt 4 0   OMRI
Tarnished plant bug 1A

Lannate LV

Lannate 90SP

3 pt

1 lb

96

4

Excellent  
3A Asana XL 4.8 to 14.5 fl oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A Baythroid XL 2 to 2.4 fl oz 12 7 Excellent  
3A BotaniGard MAXX 0.25 to 2 qt 12 0    
3A Danitol 2.4EC 10.7 to 21.3 fl oz 24 3 Excellent  
3A Pounce 25WP 6.4 to 16 oz 12 14 Good/Exc  
3A Mustang Maxx 1.28 to 4 fl oz 12 14 Good/Exc  
3A Perm-Up 3.2 EC 4 to 10 fl oz 12 14 Fair/good  
3A Warrior II 1.3 to 2.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent  
3A Brigade formulations see label 12 14   Do not make applications less than 30 days apart. 
4A Actara 4.5 to 5.5 oz 12 14 Good/Exc 35-day PHI for apple and pear.
4A Assail 30SG 5.3 to 8 oz 12 7 Good  
4A Belay 2.1EC 6 fl oz 12 21 Excellent  
9C Beleaf 50SG 2 to 2.8 oz 12 14 Excellent  
3A, 4A Endigo ZC 5 to 5.5 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 4A Leverage 360 2.4 to 2.8 fl oz 12 7 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3, 28 Besiege 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
3A, 28 Voliam Xpress 6 to 12 fl oz 24 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
4A, 28 Voliam Flexi 6 to 7 fl oz 12 14 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
6, 3 Gladiator 19 fl oz 12 21 Excellent Best used when multiple pests are present
UN BotaniGard ES 0.5 to 2 qt 4 0    

 

7 - Fall After Leaf Drop

DISEASE FRAC Product Rate/Acre REI-hours EFFICACY COMMENTS

FALL AFTER LEAF DROP

Peach leaf curl M1 C-O-C-S 12 to 16 lb 24   May require early spring application
M1 Kocide 2000 6 to 12 lb 48   May require early spring application
M1 Kocide 3000 3.5 to 7 lb 48   May require early spring application
M1 Badge X2 3.5 to 14 lb 48   OMRI. May require early spring application
M1 Badge SC 3.5 to 14 pt 48   May require early spring application
M3 Ferban Granuflo 4 to 5 lb 24   May require early spring application
M3 Thiram Granuflo 3.5 lb 24   May require early spring application
M5 Bravo Ultrex 2.3 to 3.8 lb 12 hr/7 day   May require early spring application
M5 Bravo WeatherStik 3.1 to 4.1 pt 12 hr/7 day   May require early spring application
M5 Echo 720 3.1 to 4.1 pt 12 hr/7 day   May require early spring application
M5 Echo 90DF 2.25 to 3.5 lb 12 hr/7 day   May require early spring application
M5 Oranil 6L 3.12 to 4.12 pt 12   May require application prior ot budswell
3, 7 Luna Experience 6 to 10 fl oz 12   May require early spring application
  M3 Ziram 76DF 4 to 8 lb 48 good-excellent Make dormant applications after leaf drop and/or prior to bud swell

 

8 - Storage Disorders

DISEASE FRAC Product Rate/100 gal COMMENTS

Storage Disorders

Storage rots 12 Scholar SC 16 fl oz  
         

 

Bud Stages